Increasing Loadings (increasing + loading)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Recycling of silicone rubber waste: Effect of ground silicone rubber vulcanizate powder on the properties of silicone rubber

POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
Arun Ghosh
The silicone rubber vulcanizate powder (SVP) obtained from silicone rubber by mechanical grinding exists in a highly aggregated state. The particle size distribution of SVP is broad, ranging from 2 Ám to 110 Ám with an average particle size of 33 Ám. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy studies show that there is no chemical change on the rubber surface following mechanical grinding of the heat-aged (200░C/10 days) silicone rubber vulcanizate. Addition of SVP in silicone rubber increases the Mooney viscosity, Mooney scorch time, shear viscosity and activation energy for viscous flow. Measurement of curing characteristics reveals that incorporation of SVP into the virgin silicone rubber causes an increase in minimum torque, but marginal decrease in maximum torque and rate constant of curing. However, the activation energy of curing shows an increasing trend with increasing loading of SVP. Expectedly, incorporation of SVP does not alter the glass-rubber transition and cold crystallization temperatures of silicone rubber, as observed in the dynamic mechanical spectra. It is further observed that on incorporation of even a high loading of SVP (i.e., 60 phr), the tensile and tear strength of the silicone rubber are decreased by only about 20%, and modulus dropped by 15%, while the hardness, tension set and hysteresis loss undergo marginal changes and compression stress-relaxation is not significantly changed. Atomic Force Microscopy studies reveal that incorporation of SVP into silicone rubber does not cause significant changes in the surface morphology. [source]


Mineral surfaces and soil organic matter

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
K. Kaiser
Summary The organic carbon content of soil is positively related to the specific surface area (SSA), but large amounts of organic matter in soil result in reduced SSA as determined by applying the Brunauer,Emmett,Teller (BET) equation to the adsorption of N2. To elucidate some of the controlling mechanisms of this relation, we determined the SSA and the enthalpy of N2 adsorption of separates with a density > 1.6 g cm,3 from 196 mineral horizons of forest soils before and after removal of organic matter with NaOCl. Likewise, we investigated these characteristics before and after sorption of increasing amounts of organic matter to four mineral soil samples, oxides (amorphous Al(OH)3, gibbsite, ferrihydrite, goethite, haematite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite, illite). Sorption of organic matter reduced the SSA, depending on the amount sorbed and the type of mineral. The reduction in SSA decreased at larger organic matter loadings. The SSA of the mineral soils was positively related to the content of Fe oxyhydroxides and negatively related to the content of organic C. The strong reduction in SSA at small loadings was due primarily to the decrease in the micropores to which N2 was accessible. This suggests preferential sorption of organic matter at reactive sites in or at the mouths of micropores during the initial sorption and attachment to less reactive sites at increasing loadings. The exponential decrease of the heat of gas adsorption with the surface loading points also to a filling or clogging of micropores at early stages of organic matter accumulation. Desorption induced a small recovery of the total SSA but not of the micropore surface area. Destruction of organic matter increased the SSA of all soil samples. The SSA of the uncovered mineral matrix related strongly to the amounts of Fe oxyhydroxides and the clay. Normalized to C removed, the increase in SSA was small in topsoils and illuvial horizons of Podzols rich in C and large for the subsoils containing little C. This suggests that micropores preferentially associate with organic matter, especially at small loadings. The coverage of the surface of the soil mineral matrix as calculated from the SSA before and after destruction of organic matter was correlated only with depth, and the relation appeared to be linear. We conclude that mineralogy is the primary control of the relation between surface area and sorption of organic matter within same soil compartments (i.e. horizons). But at the scale of complete profiles, the surface accumulation and stabilization of organic matter is additionally determined by its input. [source]


Aqueous-Processable Noncovalent Chemically Converted Graphene,Quantum Dot Composites for Flexible and Transparent Optoelectronic Films

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 5 2010
Xiumei Geng
The preparation and optoelectronic response of flexible composites via noncovalent coupling of quantum dots to chemically converted graphene is presented. The photoinduced charge transfer is confirmed by photoconductivity measurements and the photosensitivity is improved with increasing loadings of quantum dots. This opens up a new effective route to form composites for future large-area flexible and transparent optoelectronic devices. [source]


Bio-Based Rubbers by Concurrent Cationic and Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of a Modified Linseed Oil

MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 11 2009
Wonje Jeong
Abstract Bio-based rubbers prepared by tandem cationic polymerization and ROMP using a norbornenyl-modified linseed oil, Dilulinď, and a norbornene diester, NBDC, have been prepared and characterized. Increasing the concentration of the NBDC in the mixture results in a decrease in the glass transition temperature. The new bio-based rubbers exhibit tensile test behavior ranging from relatively brittle (18% elongation) to moderately flexible (52% elongation) and with decreasing values of tensile stress with increasing NBDC content. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that the bio-based rubbers have maximum decomposition temperatures of over 450,░C with their thermal stability decreasing with increasing loadings of NBDC. [source]