Increasing Length (increasing + length)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Increasing Length of Stay Among Adult Visits to U.S. Emergency Departments, 2001,2005

Andrew Herring MD
Abstract Background:, Emergency departments (EDs) are traditionally designed to provide rapid evaluation and stabilization and are neither staffed nor equipped to provide prolonged care. Longer ED length of stay (LOS) may compromise quality of care and contribute to delays in the emergency evaluation of other patients. Objectives:, The objective was to determine whether ED LOS increased between 2001 and 2005 and whether trends varied by patient and hospital factors. Methods:, This was a retrospective analysis of a nationally representative sample of 138,569 adult ED visits from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), 2001 to 2005. ED LOS was measured from registration to discharge. Results:, Median ED LOS increased 3.5% per year from 132 minutes in 2001 to 154 minutes in 2005 (p-value for trend < 0.001). There was a larger increase among critically ill patients for whom ED LOS increased 7.0% annually from 185 minutes in 2001 to 254 minutes in 2005 (p-value for trend < 0.01). ED LOS was persistently longer for black/African American, non-Hispanic patients (10.6% longer) and Hispanic patients (13.9% longer) than for non-Hispanic white patients, and these differences did not diminish over time. Among factors potentially associated with increasing ED LOS, a large increase was found (60.1%, p-value for trend < 0.001) in the use of advanced diagnostic imaging (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MR], and ultrasound [US]) and in the proportion of ED visits at which five or more diagnostic or screening tests were ordered (17.6% increase, p-value for trend = 0.001). The proportion of uninsured patients was stable throughout the study period, and EDs with predominately privately insured patients experienced significant increases in ED LOS (4.0% per year from 2001 to 2005, p-value for trend < 0.01). Conclusions:, Emergency department LOS in the United States is increasing, especially for critically ill patients for whom time-sensitive interventions are most important. The disparity of longer ED LOS for African Americans and Hispanics is not improving. [source]

Properties of Arrowroot Starch Treated with Aqueous HCl at Ambient Temperature

J.K. John
Arrowroot starch was acid-treated using 2.2 M HCl at 29 to 30° C for durations of 0 to 72 h, and properties of the control and modified samples were compared. Increasing length of acid treatment produced a progressive decline in amylose blue value, intrinsic viscosity, and swelling power, as well as an increase in free sugars and solubility. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies highlighted changes effected by acid-treatment in the gelatinization behavior of the starch samples. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) studies on 32- and 72-h acid-treated samples indicated a greater proportion of dextrins with a higher percentage of reducing sugars, compared to the control. While X-ray diffraction data suggested minor changes in the crystal phase impacted by acid-treatment, in vitro digestibility of both control and acid-treated samples did not show any appreciable change in overall patterns. [source]

Infection of Blackcurrant Leaves by Drepanopeziza ribis in Relation to Weather Conditions and Leaf Position

Xiang Ming Xu
Abstract Drepanopeziza ribis causes the leaf spot disease of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) and may lead to severe premature leaf-fall. Artificial inoculation studies were carried out to investigate infection of leaves by D. ribis conidia in relation to environmental conditions and leaf position (age) on cvs. Baldwin and Ben Hope in April and July 2007. All leaves on a number of selected extension shoots on potted three-year old plants were inoculated with conidia and then incubated under different conditions: 10, 17.5 and 25°C each with five wet periods (4, 8, 12, 24 and 30 h). Number of infected leaves was determined. The two cultivars differed significantly in their susceptibility to conidial infection: cv. Baldwin was much more susceptible than cv. Ben Hope. Older leaves on extension shoots were more susceptible to conidial infection than younger leaves. Increasing length of wetness duration led to increasing incidence of leaves infected, particularly when inoculated in July. However, the effects of temperature were inconclusive and generally very small in comparison with other factors. Field epidemics were monitored over three years (2005,07). Field data confirmed the main findings from controlled inoculation studies: severe disease was associated with very wet conditions and older leaves. Furthermore, they also suggested that significant disease increase only occurred from late July onwards. [source]

Accumulation of heterocyclic nitrogen in humified organic matter: a 15N-NMR study of lowland rice soils

N. Mahieu
Summary Recent intensification of cropping and the attendant longer submergence of the soil for lowland rice in tropical Asia appear to have altered the nature of the soil organic matter, and perhaps also nutrient cycling. To identify the dominant forms of organic nitrogen in the soils we extracted the labile mobile humic acid (MHA) and the more recalcitrant calcium humate (CaHA) fractions from soils under several long-term field experiments in the Philippines and analysed them by 15N-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Amide N dominated the spectra of all humic acid (HA) samples (60,80% of total peak area). Its proportion of total spectral area increased with increasing intensity of cropping and length of time during which the soil was flooded and was greater in the MHA fraction than in the CaHA fraction. Simultaneously the spectral proportion of free amino N and other chemical shift regions decreased slightly with increasing length of submergence. Heterocyclic N was detected at modest proportions (7,22%) and was more prevalent in more humified samples, especially in the CaHA of aerated soils. Correlations of spectral proportions of heterocyclic N with other properties of the HA, reported elsewhere, were highly significant. Correlations were positive with visible light absorption (r=,0.86) and concentration of free radicals (r=,0.85), both of which are indices of humification, and negative with concentration of H (r=,,0.86), a negative index of humification. Correlations of spectral proportions of amide N with these properties were also highly significant but in each case of opposite sign to that of heterocyclic N. Proportions of heterocyclic N declined with increasing duration of submergence. The results suggest that (i) 15N-NMR can reproducibly measure some portion of heterocyclic N, (ii) formation of heterocyclic N is associated solely with gradual humification occurring over many years, and (iii) the abundant phenols in the submerged rice soils did not promote formation of heterocyclic N, and hence some other process is responsible for a substantial decrease in the availability of native N associated with intensive rice cropping. [source]

Ferox Trout (Salmo trutta) as `Russian dolls': complementary gut content and stable isotope analyses of the Loch Ness foodweb

1.,Conventional collection methods for pelagic fish species (netting, trawling) are impractical or prohibited in Loch Ness, U.K. To investigate trophic relationships at the top of the Loch Ness food web, an alternative strategy, angling, provided samples of the top predator, the purely piscivorous ferox trout (Salmo trutta). 2.,The gut contents of these fish provided further samples of prey-fish, and subsequent examination of prey-fish guts revealed their dietary intake, analogous to the famous nested `Russian dolls'. Each trophic level separated by gut content analysis provided further complementary samples for stable isotope analysis and thus information on the longer term, assimilated diet. 3.,Ferox trout exhibited considerable cannibalism to supplement a diet of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). However, conspecifics stemmed from a lower isotopic baseline in relation to charr, so ferox trout exhibited a lower trophic level than predicted (4.3) by using the ,15N values. Charr displayed dietary specialisation with increasing length, and isotopic values supported by the gut data placed the charr at a trophic level of 3.5. The isotope data also indicated that charr carbon was primarily autochthonous in origin. [source]

Length-dependence of electron transfer coupling matrix in polyene wires: Ab initio molecular orbital theory study,

Govind Mallick
Abstract The electron transfer (ET) properties of ,-electron conjugated quasi-one-dimensional molecular wires, consisting of polyene, [>CC<]n (n = 1,11), including ,-carotene, is investigated using ab initio molecular orbital theory within Koopmans theorem (KT) approach. The ET coupling matrix element, VDA, for 1,3- trans -butadiene molecule calculated with the KT approach shows excellent agreement with the corresponding results obtained with two-state model. The calculated values of VDA for the polyene oligomers exhibit exponential decrease in magnitude with increasing length of the wire. However, the decay curve exhibits three different regimes. The magnitude of the decay constant, ,, decreases with the increase in length of the wire. A highly delocalized ,-electron cloud in the polyene chain appears to facilitate retention of the electronic coupling at large separations between the donor and acceptor centers. Published 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2009 [source]

Size dependent structural and electronic properties of MgO nanotube clusters

Liang Chen
Abstract MgO nanotube clusters which cross sections are composed of two-, three-, four-, and five-membered rings are constructed and studied by the density functional theory at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The variations of bond length present anisotropic effect. Three-membered ring nanotube cluster is the most stable tube among these MgO isomers. Mixed covalent and ionic bonding always exists in MgO nanotube clusters. With increasing length of MgO nanotube clusters, the averaged atomic charge increases, and converge to 1.227; the s - p separation of O bands decreases; whereas energy gap nearby frontier orbitals present dramatic difference corresponding to various structure family. It is possible that MgO nanotube clusters show electronic properties of semiconductor. An interpretation for MgO nanotube clusters fabricated by simply thermal methods is proposed. The structural and electronic properties of MgO nanotube clusters are discussed systematically in details. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2009 [source]

Hepatic coccidiosis of the blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou (Risso), and horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (L.), from Galician waters

E Abollo
The aetiology, epidemiology and pathology of coccidiosis in commercially-exploited populations of Micromesistius poutassou and Trachurus trachurus from Galician waters were investigated. Sporogonic stages of Goussia clupearum and G. cruciata were found in the liver. Although the descriptive statistics of Goussia infrapopulations and demographic infection values were always higher in M. poutassou than in T. trachurus, parasite distribution was highly skewed for both coccidian species. In both fish species, the number of oöcysts showed a similar cumulative effect as parasite counts increased with increasing length and weight of fish, but did not change with host sex or sexual maturity. Pathological changes in infected liver parenchyma of both species were moderate (in T. trachurus) to severe (in M. poutassou), with greatly reduced livers in the most heavily infected fish. Large areas of liver tissue were replaced with oöcysts. Host response to infection included the formation of a fibrous capsule prior to infiltration by melanin and lymphocytes. Although post-recruit individuals of both fish species apparently tolerate a severe infection, there was statistical evidence of a serious contribution by the parasite to poor body condition in M. poutassou shown by changes in the hepatosomatic and K-Fulton indices and in the length- to-weight relationship. [source]

Synthesis of macrocyclic bis(phenylbenzoxazole) derivatives via tandem claisen rearrangement and their fluorescence behavior

Emiko Koyama
Novel macrocyclic bis(phenylbenzoxazole) derivatives were easily synthesized from macrocyclic isobutenyl bis(amide-ether)s by tandem Claisen rearrangement and subsequent intramolecular cyclization of the amide-phenol intermediates. The position of substitution of the oligoethylene glycol moiety on the phenylamido groups of the macrocycles did not have a large effect on the yields of the bis(benzoxazole)s for the meta and para derivatives. The fluorescence quantum yields of most of the macrocyclic bis(benzoxa-zole)s were lower than those of the corresponding nonmacrocyclic bis(benzoxazole) model compounds. The quantum yields of the para -substituted macrocyclic bis(benzoxazole)s were clearly lower than those of the model compounds and decreased with increasing length of the oligoethylene chain. [source]

The effect of macromolecular crowding on protein aggregation and amyloid fibril formation,

Larissa A. Munishkina
Abstract Macromolecular crowding is expected to have several significant effects on protein aggregation; the major effects will be those due to excluded volume and increased viscosity. In this report we summarize data demonstrating that macromolecular crowding may lead to a dramatic acceleration in the rate of protein aggregation and formation of amyloid fibrils, using the protein ,-synuclein. The aggregation of ,-synuclein has been implicated as a critical factor in development of Parkinson's disease. Various types of polymers, from neutral polyethylene glycols and polysaccharides (Ficolls, dextrans) to inert proteins, are shown to accelerate ,-synuclein fibrillation. The stimulation of fibrillation increases with increasing length of polymer, as well as increasing polymer concentration. At lower polymer concentrations (typically up to ,100,mg/ml) the major effect is ascribed to excluded volume, whereas at higher polymer concentrations evidence of opposing viscosity effects become apparent. Pesticides and metals, which are linked to increased risk of Parkinson's disease by epidemiological studies, are shown to accelerate ,-synuclein fibrillation under conditions of molecular crowding. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Comparative morphology and cytology of the male sperm-transmission organs in viviparous species of clinid fishes (Clinidae: Teleostei, Perciformes)

Lev Fishelson
Abstract This work comprises the first comparative study of the morphology and cytology of the sperm transmission organs in males of 14 species of viviparous clinid fishes (Clinidae, Blennioidei, Teleostei). The form and dimensions of these organs differ among the various species studied. The organs are composed of intra-abdominal ampullae, into which the sperm ducts and urinary bladder anchor, and an external protruding intromittent papilla used for insemination. The form of the ampullae differs among the various species, from pear-shaped to horseshoe-shaped. It increases in dimensions with increasing length of the male. In all the species this organ is covered by a connective-tissue tunic that encompasses both circular and longitudinal striated muscle bundles. The lumina of the ampullae harbor the epididymis, a strongly convoluted and plicated duct, which becomes filled with spermatozeugmata during reproduction. From here, the epididymis continues into the protruding intromittent papillae, where its folds gradually straighten at the apical part of the intromittent organ. The form and dimensions of this copulatory organ also differ in the various species. Papillae bearing taste buds are found on the apical parts of the intromittent organ, and it is probable that these, together with the difference in forms of the organ, help to prevent interspecific copulation. J. Morphol., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Acquisition and Transmission of two Begomoviruses by the B and a non-B Biotype of Bemisia tabaci from Zhejiang, China

M. Jiu
Abstract Acquisition and transmission was studied of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) and Tobacco curly shoot virus (TbCSV) by the B and a non-B biotype (China-ZHJ-1) of Bemisia tabaci from Zhejiang, China. The frequency of TYLCCNV and TbCSV detection by PCR in whitefly adults increased with increasing length of feeding on virus-infected plants. The virus DNA was detected by PCR in 40% of the B biotype adults tested after a period of 30 min access to infected plants and in all adults after a 12-h period of access. All ZHJ-1 adults acquired TYLCCNV and TbCSV after a 48-h period of access to the virus-infected plants. Viruliferous B and ZHJ-1 adults retained TYLCCNV DNA for their entire life when placed on healthy cotton plants. Viruliferous ZHJ-1 adults retained TbCSV DNA for their entire life when placed on healthy cotton plants but the B biotype adults did not. Transmission of TYLCCNV was achieved with one B or ZHJ-1 adult per plant, and the probability of transmission reached 100% when the number of adults was increased to 10 per plant. The efficiency for TYLCCNV transmission to healthy plants by adults of both B and ZHJ-1 was much higher than that for TbCSV. [source]

Synthesis and thermal behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) poly(N-substituted urethane)

Jung-Ohk Kweon
Abstract Poly(N-substituted urethane)s with an alkyl or ligo(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether side chain were synthesized by the reaction operating in the following two-step process: first, by metalation of the starting polymer with potassium tertiary butoxide (t -BuOK) and then by treatment of the obtained urethane polyanion with tosylate in dimethyl sulfoxide. The thermal properties of poly(ethylene oxide) poly(N-substituted urethane) (N-sub PEOPU) were investigated in view of the N-substitution degree and properties of the substituent. The chemical structures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopies. DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to investigate the thermal properties of N-sub PEOPUs. As the degree of N-methylation increased, the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the N-sub PEOPUs linearly decreased from 6 to ,29 °C, and the weight-loss temperature of 5% (T) from TGA in air increased from 278 to 360 °C. In the fully N-substituted PEOPUs, the behavior of the thermal decomposition of the PEOPU that was processed in two stages was changed to one-step decomposition in the temperature range of 360,440 °C. The Tg was shifted to a lower temperature with an increasing length of the substituent in N-sub PEOPU. Improvement of the thermal stability by N-substitution was more significant in N-alkyl PEOPU than in N-ethoxylate PEOPU. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 39: 4129,4138, 2001 [source]

Predictors of length of stay for pediatric liver transplant recipients

John C. Bucuvalas
The resources that are directed towards the care of liver transplant recipients are substantial. Approximately 100 million dollars are spent on the hospitalization of the 400,500 children in the United States who undergo liver transplantation each year. Using length of stay as a surrogate marker for hospital resource use, we sought to identify factors that impact length of stay and assess the trends of hospitalization after liver transplantation for a representative population of pediatric liver transplant recipients. The study population was comprised of 956 patients who underwent primary liver transplantation between 1995 and 2003 and survived at least 90 days. Data were retrieved from the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation data registry. The primary outcome was the length of initial hospitalization after liver transplantation. Independent variables were age, gender, race, pediatric end-stage liver disease score (PELD), year of transplantation, organ type, primary disease, length of operation, and insurance status. The mean and standard deviation of length of stay after liver transplantation was 24.0 ± 24.5 days. Multivariate analyses showed that increased hospital stay was associated with infants less than 1 year of age, fulminant liver failure, receiving a technical variant organ from a cadaveric donor, government insurance, and transplant era (before 1999 vs. 1999 or later). Decreasing height z-scores and increasing length of operation were also associated with increased hospital stay. In conclusion, these parameters accounted for only 11% of the total variance, suggesting that post-transplant complications and course account for much of the variability of resource use in the immediate post-transplant period. (Liver Transpl 2004;10:1011,1017.) [source]

The relationship between personal breastfeeding experience and the breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, confidence and effectiveness of Australian GP registrars

Wendy Brodribb
Abstract In conjunction with other health professionals, doctors believe they play an important role in promoting breastfeeding to women. Although many have positive breastfeeding attitudes, significant knowledge deficits often limit their capacity to effectively encourage, support and assist breastfeeding women and their infants. Personal breastfeeding experience (of self or partner) may be the main source of breastfeeding knowledge and skill development and is related to improved knowledge, more positive attitudes and greater confidence. This paper describes the relationship between the cumulative length of personal breastfeeding experience and the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of a cohort of Australian general practice (GP) registrars, as well as their confidence and perceived effectiveness assisting breastfeeding women. The Australian Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire containing demographic items, a 20-item attitude scale and a 40-item knowledge scale was distributed between February and May 2007 to Australian GP registrars in their final year of training. Participants with more than 52-week cumulative personal (self or partner) breastfeeding experience had the highest mean knowledge score, had more positive attitudes, and were more confident and effective than all other participants. Parents with limited personal experience (,26 weeks) had the poorest breastfeeding attitudes and their knowledge base was similar to participants with no personal experience. Confidence and perceived effectiveness when assisting breastfeeding women rose with increasing cumulative breastfeeding experience. Personal breastfeeding experience per se does not guarantee better breastfeeding knowledge or attitudes although increasing length of experience is related to higher knowledge, attitude, confidence and perceived effectiveness scores. [source]

Genetic response to rapid climate change: it's seasonal timing that matters

Abstract The primary nonbiological result of recent rapid climate change is warming winter temperatures, particularly at northern latitudes, leading to longer growing seasons and new seasonal exigencies and opportunities. Biological responses reflect selection due to the earlier arrival of spring, the later arrival of fall, or the increasing length of the growing season. Animals from rotifers to rodents use the high reliability of day length to time the seasonal transitions in their life histories that are crucial to fitness in temperate and polar environments: when to begin developing in the spring, when to reproduce, when to enter dormancy or when to migrate, thereby exploiting favourable temperatures and avoiding unfavourable temperatures. In documented cases of evolutionary (genetic) response to recent, rapid climate change, the role of day length (photoperiodism) ranges from causal to inhibitory; in no case has there been demonstrated a genetic shift in thermal optima or thermal tolerance. More effort should be made to explore the role of photoperiodism in genetic responses to climate change and to rule out the role of photoperiod in the timing of seasonal life histories before thermal adaptation is assumed to be the major evolutionary response to climate change. [source]

Hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes II: synthesis and characterization of poly(acrylic acid-co-alkyl acrylate)

Dong-qing Zhuang
Abstract A series of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid)(RH -PAA) were synthesized by solution copolymerization of acrylic acid with a small amount of alkyl acrylate (alkyl chain with a length of 8, 12, 14, 16, 18) and their solution properties were also systematically studied. It was found that the random distribution of alkyl acrylate along the polymeric backbone imparts these new materials pronounced associating ability in aqueous solution and the associating abilities vary with the chain length of the hydrophobic groups. In dilute solution, intramolecular association is observed from the intrinsic viscosity and the dependence of the intrinsic viscosity on chain length and ionic strength is also discussed. In semiconcentration solution, the modified polymers exhibit viscosities of several orders of magnitude higher than the unmodified poly(sodium acrylate) due to the strong intermolecular hydrophobic association. And the viscosifying effects become more significant with the increasing length of the alkyl chain. The copolymer solutions are highly pseudoplastic. Evidences for the hydrophobically associating interaction between hydrocarbon groups are provided by the dependence of the Brookfield viscosity on concentration, temperature, shear rate, ionic strength and pH. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Control of Hydrogen Bond Strengths through Push,Pull Effects Triggered by a Remote Reaction Center: A Theoretical Study

Tsong-Song Hwang Dr.
Abstract In an effort to manipulate the bond strengths of hydrogen bonds, we have studied a three-component chemical system consisting of a reaction center, a conjugated bridge, and a hydrogen-bonding site. Protonation of the reaction center triggers intramolecular charge transfer from the hydrogen-bonding site, altering its affinity to bind to an acceptor. Previously, we had found that this communication (signal transduction) between the reaction center and the hydrogen-bonding site does not necessarily die out with increasing length of the conjugated bridge. In certain cases, this signal transduction is maintained,and even amplified,over long distances (I. Chao, T.-S. Hwang, Angew. Chem.2001, 113, 2775,2777; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2001, 40, 2703,2705). In this study we report the results of an extensive theoretical investigation of this problem to provide insights into this intriguing phenomenon. In the systems we investigated it was found that the push,pull process between the hydrogen-bonding site and the protonatable reaction center was mediated with the greatest facility by conjugated bridges with low-lying , and ,* orbitals. [source]