Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Increasing

  • concentration increasing

  • Terms modified by Increasing

  • increasing ability
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  • increasing acceptance
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  • increasing activity
  • increasing age
  • increasing altitude
  • increasing amount
  • increasing annealing temperature
  • increasing application
  • increasing aridity
  • increasing atomic number
  • increasing attention
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  • increasing awareness
  • increasing body
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  • increasing burden
  • increasing chain length
  • increasing clay content
  • increasing competition
  • increasing complexity
  • increasing concentration
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  • increasing consumption
  • increasing content
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  • increasing degree
  • increasing demand
  • increasing density
  • increasing depth
  • increasing dietary lipid level
  • increasing dietary protein level
  • increasing difficulty
  • increasing distance
  • increasing diversity
  • increasing dominance
  • increasing dosage
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  • increasing duration
  • increasing effect
  • increasing elevation
  • increasing emphasis
  • increasing evidence
  • increasing evidence point
  • increasing expectation
  • increasing experience
  • increasing exposure
  • increasing exposure time
  • increasing expression
  • increasing field
  • increasing filler content
  • increasing film thickness
  • increasing fish size
  • increasing flow rate
  • increasing focus
  • increasing fraction
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  • increasing function
  • increasing grade
  • increasing health problem
  • increasing height
  • increasing impact
  • increasing importance
  • increasing incidence
  • increasing initiator concentration
  • increasing insight
  • increasing intake
  • increasing integration
  • increasing intensity
  • increasing interest
  • increasing irradiation dose
  • increasing knowledge
  • increasing latitude
  • increasing length
  • increasing level
  • increasing life expectancy
  • increasing likelihood
  • increasing load
  • increasing loading
  • increasing loss
  • increasing moisture content
  • increasing molecular weight
  • increasing momentum
  • increasing morbidity
  • increasing need
  • increasing number
  • increasing order
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  • increasing participation
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  • increasing proportion
  • increasing protein concentration
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  • increasing quartile
  • increasing rainfall
  • increasing range
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  • increasing reaction temperature
  • increasing recognition
  • increasing recruitment
  • increasing reliance
  • increasing research
  • increasing resistance
  • increasing resource
  • increasing return
  • increasing risk
  • increasing role
  • increasing salinity
  • increasing salt concentration
  • increasing sensitivity
  • increasing severity
  • increasing significance
  • increasing size
  • increasing soil depth
  • increasing soil moisture
  • increasing solvent polarity
  • increasing sophistication
  • increasing speed
  • increasing stage
  • increasing stiffness
  • increasing stocking density
  • increasing storage time
  • increasing strain
  • increasing strength
  • increasing substrate temperature
  • increasing survival rate
  • increasing temperature
  • increasing tendency
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  • increasing threat
  • increasing time
  • increasing trend
  • increasing understanding
  • increasing use
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  • increasing value
  • increasing variety
  • increasing volume
  • increasing water temperature

  • Selected Abstracts

    Simulation of Direct-Current Microdischarges for Application in Electro-Thermal Class of Small Satellite Propulsion Devices

    P. S. Kothnur
    Abstract Microdischarges are miniature non-equilibrium plasma discharges with characteristic dimensions of ,10's,100's ,m and relatively high operating pressures of ,10's,100's Torr. Microdischarges possess several unique properties that have been exploited in a number of new applications. We have recently proposed amicrodischargebased electro-thermal class of microthrusters for small satellite propulsion. These devices utilize intense gas heating in microdischarges to preheat a propellant gas stream before it is expanded in a micronozzle to produce thrust; thereby improving specific impulse of the device over a conventional cold gas microthruster. This paper addresses direct-current microdischarge phenomena in a flowing gas stream. A two-dimensional, selfconsistent, fluid model of a helium microdischarge in a bulk gas flow is developed. For relatively high current/power levels considered in this study, the microdischarge operates in an abnormal glow mode with positive differential resistivity. Increasing discharge pressures for fixed power and bulk flow rates results in a decrease in charged species densities and the electron and gas temperatures. Also the discharge becomes increasingly constricted with increasing pressures, resulting in a more normal glow mode-like operation. Increasing bulk flow rates results in exactly the same trends as increasing pressures. For given input power and pressure, there exists an optimum flow rate for which the average outlet gas temperature from the discharge is a maximum. An increase in input electrical power results in an almost linear increase in the gas temperatures; this property of microdischarges is the key feature that is exploited in our microdischarge-based thruster concept. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Effects of varying the monetary value of voucher-based incentives on abstinence achieved during and following treatment among cocaine-dependent outpatients

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2007
    Stephen T. Higgins
    ABSTRACT Aims This study examined whether increasing the amount of abstinence achieved during outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence is an effective method for increasing longer-term cocaine abstinence. Design A two-condition, parallel groups, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Setting The trial was conducted in a university-based research clinic. Participants A total of 100 cocaine-dependent outpatients participated in the trial. Intervention Participants were assigned randomly to receive treatment based on the community reinforcement approach (CRA) plus voucher-based incentives set at a relatively high monetary value (maximal value = $1995/12 weeks) or CRA with vouchers set at a relatively low monetary value (maximal value = $499/12 weeks). Vouchers were earned contingent on cocaine-negative urinalysis results during the initial 12 weeks of the 24-week outpatient treatment. Measurements Outcomes were evaluated using urine-toxicology testing, questionnaires and other self-report instruments. Findings Increasing voucher value increased the duration of continuous cocaine abstinence achieved during the 24-week treatment period. Point-prevalence cocaine abstinence assessed every 3 months throughout an 18-month follow-up period was greater in the high- than low-value voucher conditions. The duration of abstinence achieved during treatment predicted abstinence during follow-up, although that relationship weakened over time. Conclusions Increasing the value of abstinence-contingent incentives during the initial weeks of treatment appears to represent an effective method for increasing during-treatment and longer-term cocaine abstinence, but the positive association of during-treatment abstinence with longer-term outcome dissipates with time. [source]

    Increasing or Widening Participation in Higher Education?

    a European overview
    First page of article [source]

    Lipid damage during frozen storage of Gadiform species captured in different seasons

    Santiago P. Aubourg
    Abstract Quality loss of two gadiform fish species (blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou; hake, Merluccius merluccius) during frozen storage (,30 and ,10,C; up to 12,months) was studied. For this, hydrolytic (formation of free fatty acids, FFA) and oxidative (conjugated dienes, peroxide and interaction compound formation) lipid damage were analysed. For both species, individual fishes captured in two different trials (May and November) were considered. Increasing (p,<0.05) lipid hydrolysis and oxidation (peroxide and interaction compound formation) were observed for all kinds of samples throughout the frozen storage. Interaction compound detection by fluorescence analysis showed the best correlation values with storage time. Some higher (p,<0.05) hydrolysis development could be observed in hake captured in May than in its counterpart from the November trial, while frozen blue whiting did not provide definite differences for FFA formation between both trials. Concerning peroxide formation, higher (p,<0.05) values were obtained for individual blue whiting and hake captured in November when compared to their corresponding May fish for both frozen storage conditions. Interaction compound formation was also found to be higher (p,<0.05) for November hake fish than for its counterpart captured in May, while blue whiting did not provide definite differences between trials. [source]

    The HOMER Study: The Effect of Increasing the Dose of Metronidazole When Given with Omeprazole and Amoxicillin to Cure Helicobacter pylori Infection

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2000
    Karna Dev Bardhan
    Background.Helicobacter pylori eradication with omeprazole, amoxycillin, and metronidazole is both effective and inexpensive. However, eradication rates with different dosages and dosing vary, and data on the impact of resistance are sparse. In this study, three different dosages of omeprazole, amoxycillin, and metronidazole were compared, and the influence of metronidazole resistance on eradication was assessed. Methods. Patients (n = 394) with a positive H. pylori screening test result and endoscopy-proven duodenal ulcer in the past were enrolled into a multicenter study performed in four European countries and Canada. After baseline endoscopy, patients were randomly assigned to treatment for 1 week with either omeprazole, 20 mg twice daily, plus amoxycillin, 1,000 mg twice daily, plus metronidazole, 400 mg twice daily (low M); or omeprazole, 40 mg once daily, plus amoxycillin, 500 mg three times daily, plus metronidazole, 400 mg three times daily (medium M); or omeprazole, 20 mg twice daily, plus amoxycillin, 1,000 mg twice daily, plus metronidazole, 800 mg twice daily (high M). H. pylori status at entry was assessed by a 13C urea breath test and a culture. Eradication was defined as two negative 13C-urea breath test results 4 and 8 weeks after therapy. Susceptibility testing using the agar dilution method was performed at entry and in patients with persistent infection after therapy. Results. The eradication rates, in terms of intention to treat (ITT) (population n = 379) (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) were as follows: low M 76% (68%, 84%), medium M 76% (68%, 84%), and high M 83% (75%, 89%). By per-protocol analysis (population n = 348), the corresponding eradication rates were: low M 81%, medium M 80%, and high M 85%. No H. pylori strains were found to be resistant to amoxycillin. Prestudy resistance of H. pylori strains to metronidazole was found in 72 of 348 (21%) of the cultures at entry (range, 10%,39% in the five countries). The overall eradication rate in prestudy metronidazole-susceptible strains was 232 of 266 (87%) and, for resistant strains, it was 41 of 70 (57%; p < .001). Within each group, the results were as follows (susceptible/resistant): low M, 85%/54%; medium M, 86%/50%; and high M, 90%/75%. There were no statistically significant differences among the treatment groups. 23 strains susceptible to metronidazole before treatment were recultured after therapy failed; 20 of these had now developed resistance. Conclusions.H. pylori eradication rates were similar (approximately 80%) with all three regimens. Metronidazole resistance reduced efficacy; increasing the dose of metronidazole appeared not to overcome the problem or significantly improve the outcome. Treatment failure was generally associated with either prestudy or acquired metronidazole resistance. These findings are of importance when attempting H. pylori eradication in communities with high levels of metronidazole resistance. [source]

    Cytoplasmic ,-catenin accumulation is a good prognostic marker in upper and lower gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Michael G A Norwood
    Norwood M G A, Bailey N, Nanji M, Gillies R S, Nicholson A, Ubhi S, Darnton J J, Steyn R S, Womack C, Hughes A, Hemingway D, Harrison R, Waters R & Jankowski J A (2010) Histopathology,57, 101,111 Cytoplasmic ,-catenin accumulation is a good prognostic marker in upper and lower gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas Aims:, ,-Catenin is an important molecule in cancer biology. Membranous ,-catenin enhances cellular differentiation and inhibits invasion by its action on E-cadherin. The aim was to ascertain whether the cellular expression of these molecules in colorectal and oesophageal cancer specimens is associated with survival in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. Methods and results:, Tumour samples from 149 patients undergoing resection for colorectal adenocarcinoma and 147 patients undergoing resection for oesophageal adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analysed using immunohistochemical techniques to assess ,-catenin expression. Increasing ,-catenin expression in the cytoplasm was associated with improved survival for colorectal cancer cases on both univariate (P = 0.003) and multivariate (P = 0.01) analysis. In addition, increased expression in the most recent cohort of oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients was associated with improved TNM staging (P = 0.007). Membrane expression was weakly associated with survival in colorectal cancer on univariate analysis (P = 0.09), but not on multivariate analysis (P = 0.21). Complete absence of ,-catenin expression at all three sites was associated with reduced 5-year survival in colorectal cancer. Conclusions:, This is one of the largest prognostic studies of ,-catenin in gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. It shows that low levels of cytoplasmic ,-catenin expression are associated with reduced survival in patients with colorectal cancer as well as worse TNM staging in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (a recognized surrogate end-point for survival). We believe this is the first time that this has been reported. This finding should be tested prospectively in oncological trials to validate whether the presence of cytoplasmic ,-catenin could be used as a prognostic marker for less aggressive disease. [source]

    fMRI study of language lateralization in children and adults

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 3 2006
    Jerzy P. Szaflarski
    Abstract Language lateralization in the brain is dependent on family history of handedness, personal handedness, pathology, and other factors. The influence of age on language lateralization is not completely understood. Increasing left lateralization of language with age has been observed in children, while the reverse has been noted in healthy young adults. It is not known whether the trend of decreasing language lateralization with age continues in the late decades of life and at what age the inflection in language lateralization trend as a function of age occurs. In this study, we examined the effect of age on language lateralization in 170 healthy right-handed children and adults ages 5,67 using functional MRI (fMRI) and a verb generation task. Our findings indicate that language lateralization to the dominant hemisphere increases between the ages 5 and 20 years, plateaus between 20 and 25 years, and slowly decreases between 25 and 70 years. Hum Brain Mapp, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Increasing cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) gene expression in the progression of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma correlates with that of Bcl-2

    Daisuke Shimizu
    Abstract Previous studies from our laboratory and others have suggested that increased expression of cox-2 is important in the genesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma. In vitro studies suggest that cox-2 regulates expression of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2, thus possibly accounting for reduced apoptosis in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of these 2 genes in the development of Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma. Histologic sections from endoscopic biopsies or esophagectomy specimens were classified as non-dysplastic Barrett's (n = 30), intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 12) and adenocarcinoma (n = 48). The desired tissue was isolated by laser capture microdissection and expression levels of cox-2 and bcl-2 were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (Taqman). Gene expression levels were compared to samples of the distal esophageal squamous epithelium (n = 55) and reflux-esophagitis (n = 25), without Barrett's or cancer. Expression of both bcl-2 and cox-2 were increased in non-dysplastic Barrett's (p = 0.0077, p = 0.0037), intraepithelial neoplasia (p = 0.0053, p = 0.0220) and adenocarcinoma (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001) compared to squamous epithelium or reflux-esophagitis. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between these two genes, especially in carcinoma (p < 0.0001). 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    R3 Increasing the awareness of the role of the dental team in child protection

    A. M. CAIRNS
    Aims:, Construction and delivery of a multiagency child protection (CP) course for the dental team in five health board areas; increase knowledge of the signs of physical child abuse (CA); increase likelihood of referral when concerned; aid development of individual practice protocols; increase familiarity with local referral protocols and procedures. Method:, A 3-hour course was designed and delivered in five health board areas by two paediatric dentists and a member of the local CP team. The course content included: orofacial signs of CA; role of the dental team in CP; and local referral procedures and protocols. Questionnaires concerning the above topics were distributed to the course participants immediately prior to the start, and 1 month after the course. Results:, A total of 117 members of the dental team completed the first questionnaire and 65 the second. Knowledge of the signs and symptoms of CA improved from 68.5% to 81%. Prior to and following the course: 58.9% and 40.6% reported that a fear of consequences to the child would influence the decision to report (P = 0.019); 79.5% and 38.5% were concerned that their lack of knowledge would negatively influence the decision to report (P < 0.001); 19.4% and 38.9% had a practice protocol (P < 0.001); 17.3% and 48.4% had seen their local guidelines (P < 0.001). Conclusions:, The course achieved increased: knowledge of the signs of CA; likelihood to refer due to reduction in fear of consequences to child and increased knowledge of both indicators of CA and referral procedures; dental practice protocols; familiarity with local procedures and protocols. [source]

    Diverticular disease hospital admissions are increasing, with poor outcomes in the elderly and emergency admissions

    Summary Background, Diverticular disease has a changing disease pattern with limited epidemiological data. Aim, To describe diverticular disease admission rates and associated outcomes through national population study. Methods, Data were obtained from the English ,Hospital Episode Statistics' database between 1996 and 2006. Primary outcomes examined were 30-day overall and 1-year mortality, 28-day readmission rates and extended length of stay (LOS) beyond the 75th percentile (median inpatient LOS = 6 days). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of these outcomes. Results, Between the study dates 560 281 admissions with a primary diagnosis of diverticular disease were recorded in England. The national admission rate increased from 0.56 to 1.20 per 1000 population/year. 232 047 (41.4%) were inpatient admissions and, of these, 55 519 (23.9%) were elective and 176 528 (76.1%) emergency. Surgery was undertaken in 37 767 (16.3%). The 30-day mortality was 5.1% (n = 6735) and 1-year mortality was 14.5% (n = 11 567). The 28-day readmission rate was 9.6% (n = 21 160). Increasing age, comorbidity and emergency admission were independent predictors of all primary outcomes. Conclusions, Diverticular disease admissions increased over the course of the study. Patients of increasing age, admitted as emergency and significant comorbidity should be identified, allowing management modification to optimize outcomes. [source]

    Changing patterns of coeliac serology requests

    K. E. EVANS
    Summary Background, Accurate serological tests have revolutionized the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Aim, To quantify the volume of coeliac serology requests at a district hospital over a decade, identify their origin, assess positivity rates and subsequent duodenal biopsy and histological confirmation rates. Methods, Details of patients in whom coeliac serology was requested from 1997 to 2006 were obtained from laboratory databases. The origins of request were categorized into gastroenterology, general practice, paediatrics and other specialities. Duplicate requests were excluded. Results, A total of 9976 serological tests were requested. Testing increased from 302 in 1997, to 1826 in 2006. In all, 66% of requests were in females. Tests in children accounted for 14,25% of each year's total. General practitioner requests increased from 3.3% in 1997 to 52% in 2006. The proportion of positive serological results fell from 5.7% in 1997 to 2.6% in 2006. Duodenal biopsies were performed in approximately 85% of seropositive patients in earlier years and approximately 75% of seropositive patients in later years. Most nonbiopsied seropositive patients had serology requested by general practitioners. Biopsies confirmed coeliac disease in 91% of seropositive patients. Conclusion, Increasingly, coeliac serological testing is requested by general practitioners. Twice as many females are tested. Increasing test numbers but diminishing positivity rates suggest testing is requested at lower symptom thresholds. Positive serological results are often not confirmed histologically. [source]

    Photobleaching of Ga2S3 -GeS2 films prepared with pulsed laser deposition

    A. Tverjanovich
    Abstract Influence of the illumination with energy above band gap on optical properties of the thin (x)(Ga2S3)(1-x)(GeS2) films prepared with Pulsed Laser Deposition was investigated. Observed photo-induced bleaching is due to photo-oxidation of Ge and possible Ga atoms. Increasing of Ga content in the film results in increasing of the bleaching effect. This process is limited by the rate of diffusion of oxygen. ( 2007 by Astro Ltd., Published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) [source]


    ABSTRACT. Increasing demand for water by environmental interests, coupled with the diminishing prospects for constructing new water diversion projects, is forcing farmers in the western United States to cope with reduced surface water deliveries. The cost of improving instream water quality by reducing agricultural diversions is shown to depend mainly on how the supply reductions are allocated among users and on the extent of water trading. A central contribution of this paper is a methodology for measuring the impacts of water supply policy reforms on irrigated agriculture. The paper nests three empirical models in a general conceptual framework. The models differ in terms of their degree of detail and assumptions about input substitution. By comparing model results, it is possible to place bounds on the consequences of policy changes, and to identify critical factors determining economic impacts. The models are applied to the problem of improving water quality in the San Francisco Bay/Delta estuary. [source]

    Heart Disease Awareness Increasing

    Carolyn Davis Cockey MLS executive editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Quercetin Enhances Melanogenesis By Increasing the Activity and Synthesis of Tyrosinase in Human Melanoma Cells and in Normal Human Melanocytes

    Hidetaka Nagata
    Quercetin (3,3,,4,,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a diphenyl propanoid widely distributed in edible plants. In this study, we examined the effect of quercetin on melanogenesis in human HMVII melanoma cells and in normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) in the absence of ultraviolet radiation. Upon the addition of quercetin to the culture medium, the melanin content in melanoma cells (HMVII) increased remarkably in time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, quercetin induced melanogenesis in cultured NHEM. As compared with controls, melanin content was increased about sevenfold by treatment with 20 ,M (HMVII) or 1 ,M (NHEM) quercetin for 7 d. Tyrosinase activity was also increased, to 61.8-fold higher than the control. The expression of tyrosinase protein was slightly increased by the addition of quercetin. However, quercetin did not affect the expression of tyrosinase mRNA. Tyrosinase activation by quercetin was blocked by actinomycin-D or by cycloheximide demonstrating that its actions in stimulating melanogenesis may involve both transcriptional and translational events. Tyrosinase activity was increased dramatically whereas the level of melanogenic inhibitor was remarkably decreased following quercetin treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in human melanoma cells and in NHEM, quercetin stimulates melanogenesis by increasing tyrosinase activity and decreasing other factors such as melanogenic inhibitors. [source]

    Interactions between atmospheric CO2 concentration and phosphorus nutrition on the formation of proteoid roots in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 8 2002
    C. D. Campbell
    Abstract Atmospheric [CO2] affects photosynthesis and therefore should affect the supply of carbon to roots. To evaluate interactions between carbon supply and nutrient acquisition, the [CO2] effects on root growth, proteoid root formation and phosphorus (P) uptake capacity were studied in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown hydroponically at 200, 410 and 750 mol mol,1 CO2, under sufficient (025 mm P) and deficient (069 m P) phosphorus. Plant size increased with increasing [CO2] only at high P. Both P deficiency and increasing [CO2] increased the production of proteoid clusters; the increase in response to increased [CO2] was proportionally greater from low to ambient [CO2] than from ambient to high. The activity of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase in the proteoid root, the exudation of organic acids from the roots, and the specific uptake of P increased with P deficiency, but were unaffected by [CO2]. Increasing [CO2] from Pleistocene levels to those predicted for the next century increased plant size and allocation to proteoid roots, but did not change the specific P uptake capacity per unit root mass. Hence, rising [CO2] should promote nutrient uptake by allowing lupins to mine greater volumes of soil. [source]

    Effect of resin compositions on microwave processing and thermophysical properties of benzoxazine-epoxy-phenolic ternary systems filled with silicon carbide (SiC) whisker

    Chanchira Jubsilp
    Microwave processing of silicon carbide (SiC) whisker filled ternary systems based on benzoxazine, epoxy, and phenolic resins has been investigated using an industrial microwave apparatus at a fixed frequency of 2.45 GHz. The low viscosity molding compound and void-free cured specimens can easily be obtained from the resin mixtures. Increasing of epoxy mass fraction in the ternary systems provided a better microwave coupling, therefore, a faster curing time and higher conversion under microwave irradiation. However, the greater amount of epoxy resin in the mixture was observed to retard the traditional thermal cure process as seen in the shifting of the exothermic curing peaks to higher temperature. The higher dielectric constant of epoxy resin comparing with the benzoxazine resin can be attributed to the observed phenomenon. Additionally, benzoxazine fraction was found to render a reduction in linear thermal expansion coefficient of the ternary systems. The development of ternary systems yields the polymer systems with high flexibility in resin-curing agent mixing ratios with relatively high Tg in the broader range of mixing ratios i.e., BEP451-BEP811. Synergism in glass transition temperature of the ternary systems is also observed with the maximum Tg up to 160C in BEP721. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Beyond the 50-Minute Hour: Increasing Control, Choice, and Connections in the Lives of Low-Income Women

    Lisa A. Goodman
    Although poverty is associated with a range of mental health difficulties among women in this country, mainstream mental health interventions are not sufficient to meet the complex needs of poor women. This article argues that stress, powerlessness, and social isolation should become primary targets of our interventions, as they are key mediators of the relationship between poverty and emotional distress, particularly for women. Indeed, if ways are not found to address these conditions directly, by increasing women's control, choice, and connections, the capacity to improve the emotional well-being of impoverished women will remain limited at best. This is the first of 5 articles that comprise a special section of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, called "Beyond the 50-Minute Hour: Increasing Control, Choice, and Connections in the Lives of Low-Income Women." Together, these articles explore the nature and impact of a range of innovative mental health interventions that are grounded in a deep understanding of the experience of poverty. This introduction: (a) describes briefly how mainstream approaches fail to address the poverty-related mental health needs of low-income women; (b) illuminates the role of stress, powerlessness, and social isolation in women's lives; (c) highlights the ways in which the articles included in this special section address each of these by either adapting traditional mental health practices to attend to poverty's role in participants' lives or adapting community-based, social-justice-oriented interventions to attend to participants' mental health; and (d) discusses the research and evaluation implications of expanding mental health practices to meet the needs of low-income communities. [source]

    Regulation of Government: Has it Increased, is it Increasing, Should it be Diminished?

    Christopher Hood
    This article examines arms-length ,regulation' of UK government , the public-sector analogy to regulation of business firms , and assesses the precepts for public-sector regulation embodied in the Blair Labour government's official vision of public-man-agement reform, its Modernising Government White Paper of 1999. As a background to assessing the recipes for public-sector regulation in Modernising Government, the article shows that such regulation grew markedly both in the two decades up to 1997 and in the plans and activities of the Blair government from 1997 to 1999. Against that background, the design principles for public-sector regulation contained in Modernising Government are assessed. The White Paper was notable for embracing a doctrine of ,enforced self-regulation' for the public sector that involved aspirations to both more and less public-sector regulation in the future. It put its faith in a mixture of oversight and mutuality for ,regulating regulation'. But in spite of the radical-sounding tone of Modernising Government, the measures proposed appeared limited and half-hearted, and two well-known institutional design principles for regulation seemed to be missing altogether from the Blair government's view of administrative ,modernity'. [source]

    British isles lupus assessment group 2004 index is valid for assessment of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 12 2007
    Chee-Seng Yee
    Objective To determine the construct and criterion validity of the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 (BILAG-2004) index for assessing disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Patients with SLE were recruited into a multicenter cross-sectional study. Data on SLE disease activity (scores on the BILAG-2004 index, Classic BILAG index, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 [SLEDAI-2K]), investigations, and therapy were collected. Overall BILAG-2004 and overall Classic BILAG scores were determined by the highest score achieved in any of the individual systems in the respective index. Erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESRs), C3 levels, C4 levels, anti,double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) levels, and SLEDAI-2K scores were used in the analysis of construct validity, and increase in therapy was used as the criterion for active disease in the analysis of criterion validity. Statistical analyses were performed using ordinal logistic regression for construct validity and logistic regression for criterion validity. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Of the 369 patients with SLE, 92.7% were women, 59.9% were white, 18.4% were Afro-Caribbean and 18.4% were South Asian. Their mean SD age was 41.6 13.2 years and mean disease duration was 8.8 7.7 years. More than 1 assessment was obtained on 88.6% of the patients, and a total of 1,510 assessments were obtained. Increasing overall scores on the BILAG-2004 index were associated with increasing ESRs, decreasing C3 levels, decreasing C4 levels, elevated anti-dsDNA levels, and increasing SLEDAI-2K scores (all P < 0.01). Increase in therapy was observed more frequently in patients with overall BILAG-2004 scores reflecting higher disease activity. Scores indicating active disease (overall BILAG-2004 scores of A and B) were significantly associated with increase in therapy (odds ratio [OR] 19.3, P < 0.01). The BILAG-2004 and Classic BILAG indices had comparable sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. Conclusion These findings show that the BILAG-2004 index has construct and criterion validity. [source]

    Measuring Prevalence: Increasing ,active prevalence' of cancer in Western Australia and its implications for health services

    Kate J. Brameld
    Objective:To measure the active and total prevalence of cancer in Western Australia from 1990,98 and to examine trends in utilisation of hospital services by prevalent cancer patients. Method:Longitudinal analysis of linked cancer registrations, hospital separations and death registrations in Western Australia in 1990,98 using a population-based record linkage system. Results:There was an estimated total of 53,450 patients ever-diagnosed with cancer in Western Australia at 30 June 1998 (29.7 per 1,000 population), an increase of 51 % since mid-1990 (21.9/1,000). Patients with active disease accounted for 25% of the total prevalence, and the active prevalence of cancer increased from 5.1/1,000 in 1990 to 7.4/1,000 in 1998. In patients with active cancer, hospital admission rates for procedures other than chemotherapy and radiotherapy were stable or declining, but admission rates for chemotherapy and radiotherapy increased. The annual average cumulative length of stay decreased. Conclusions and implications:There has been a rapid increase in the number of prevalent patients requiring health care services for cancer during the 1990s. Most of the increase is due to improved survival, population growth and ageing. Further strain on Australian health care expenditure seems inevitable. [source]

    Modelling interactions between fold,thrust belt deformation, foreland flexure and surface mass transport

    BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2006
    Guy D. H. Simpson
    ABSTRACT Interactions between fold and thrust belt deformation, foreland flexure and surface mass transport are investigated using a newly developed mathematical model incorporating fully dynamic coupling between mechanics and surface processes. The mechanical model is two dimensional (plane strain) and includes an elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The evolving model is flexurally compensated using an elastic beam formulation. Erosion and deposition at the surface are treated in a simple manner using a linear diffusion equation. The model is solved with the finite element method using a Lagrangian scheme with marker particles. Because the model is particle based, it enables straightforward tracking of stratigraphy and exhumation paths and it can sustain very large strain. It is thus ideally suited to study deformation, erosion and sedimentation in fold,thrust belts and foreland basins. The model is used to investigate how fold,thrust deformation and foreland basin development is influenced by the non-dimensional parameter , which can be interpreted as the ratio of the deformation time scale to the time scale for surface processes. Large values of imply that the rate of surface mass transport is significantly greater than the rate of deformation. When , the rates of surface processes are so slow that one observes a classic propagating fold,thrust belt with well-developed wedge top basins and a largely underfilled foreland flexural depression. Increasing causes (1) deposition to shift progressively from the wedge top into the foredeep, which deepens and may eventually become filled, (2) widespread exhumation of the fold,thrust belt, (3) reduced rates of frontal thrust propagation and possible attainment of a steady-state orogen width and (4) change in the style and dynamics of deformation. Together, these effects indicate that erosion and sedimentation, rather than passively responding to tectonics, play an active and dynamic role in the development of fold,thrust belts and foreland basins. Results demonstrate that regional differences in the relative rates of surface processes (e.g. because of different climatic settings) may lead to fold,thrust belts and foreland basins with markedly different characteristics. Results also imply that variations in the efficiency of surface processes through time (e.g., because of climate change or the emergence of orogens above sea level) may cause major temporal changes in orogen and basin dynamics. [source]

    Optimization of Enzymatic Gas-Phase Reactions by Increasing the Long-Term Stability of the Catalyst

    Clara Ferloni
    Enzymatic gas-phase reactions are usually performed in continuous reactors, and thus very stable and active catalysts are required to perform such transformations on cost-effective levels. The present work is concerned with the reduction of gaseous acetophenone to enantiomerically pure ( R)-1-phenylethanol catalyzed by solid alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (LBADH), immobilized onto glass beads. Initially, the catalyst preparation displayed a half-life of 1 day under reaction conditions at 40 C and at a water activity of 0.5. It was shown that the observed decrease in activity is due to a degradation of the enzyme itself (LBADH) and not of the co-immobilized cofactor NADP. By the addition of sucrose to the cell extract before immobilization of the enzyme, the half-life of the catalyst preparation (at 40 C) was increased 40 times. The stabilized catalyst preparation was employed in a continuous gas-phase reactor at different temperatures (25,60 C). At 50 C, a space-time yield of 107 g/L/d was achieved within the first 80 h of continuous reaction. [source]

    Black-White Mortality Disparities Increasing for Some Cancers

    Mary Desmond Pinkowish News & Views Editor
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Competition and Cost Accounting: Adapting to Changing Markets,

    Ranjani Krishnan
    Abstract The relation of competition and cost accounting has been the subject of conflicting prescriptions, theories, and empirical evidence. Practitioner literature and textbooks argue that higher competition generally requires more accurate product costing. Theoretical economic analysis, in contrast, predicts that the optimal level of product-costing accuracy is sometimes higher at lower levels of competition. Results of survey research are inconsistent, suggesting a need for further identification of conditions under which higher competition leads to more accurate product costing. This study shows experimentally that individuals' choices of the level of product-costing accuracy depend not only on the current level of competition but also on the previous level of competition , that is, on an interaction between market structure (monopoly, duopoly, and four-firm competition) and market history (increasing versus decreasing competition). In the experiment, subjects decide on the quantity of data to collect at a pre-set price per datum to support more accurate product-cost estimates. Subjects collect the most cost data (i.e., choose the most accurate product costing) in monopoly, collect the least in duopoly, and an intermediate amount in the four-firm market, consistent with the pattern of optimal cost-data collection in Hansen's 1998 model. The process of convergence to the optimum differs significantly across market types and market histories, however. Subjects who begin in four-firm competition adapt more successfully to change than those who begin in monopoly. The lowest levels of decision performance occur when ex-monopolists face their first competitor: they overreact to this first encounter with competition and overspend on cost data. [source]

    Depression, hopelessness and suicide ideation among vulnerable prisoners

    Emma J. Palmer PhD
    Background Self-harm among prisoners is high, and suicide rates increasing. Assessment of depressive characteristics is easy. To what extent are these linked with previous self-harm? Aims To compare depressive characteristics of prisoners who report previous self-harm with those who do not. Methods Twenty-four new arrivals at an adult male category B local prison who reported previous episodes of suicidal behaviour (including self-harm and/or explicit attempted suicide) were assessed using the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. A further 24 new arrivals were matched as closely as possible with them on sociodemographic and offending characteristics. Results Mean scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation were significantly higher among the prisoners with a history of self-harm. Discussion Prisoners with a previous history of self-harm are more likely than those without to show a range of depressive symptoms than their imprisoned peers without such a history, suggesting a continued vulnerability to self-harm and perhaps suicide. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Correlation between the residual resistivity ratio and the power-law of the normal-state resistivity in MgB2

    I. M. Obaidat
    Abstract MgB2 polycrystalline superconducting specimens were irradiated with several doses of ,-rays up to 100 MR. An increase in the normal state resistivity and a broadening of the resistive transition to the superconducting state were observed with increasing ,-irradiation dose. Although very small changes to the superconducting transition temperature were obtained after ,-irradiation, different temperature dependence of normal-state resistivity and different residual resistivity ratios, RRR were obtained for different doses. We have found a correlation between RRR and the power law dependence of resistivity, n as the irradiation dose increases. This correlation may be an indication that the electron-phonon interaction is important in these samples. These results are attributed to the disorder caused by ,-rays. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Growth and characterization of pure and doped nonlinear optical l-arginine acetate single crystals

    M. Gulam Mohamed
    Abstract Single crystals of organic nonlinear optical material of pure, Cu2+ and Mg2+ doped L-arginine acetate (LAA) were successfully grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra of pure and doped LAA indicate that these crystals possess a wide optical transmission window from 240-1600 nm. Non-linear optical studies reveal that the SHG efficiency of LAA is nearly three times that of KDP. The dielectric response of the samples was studied in the frequency region 100 Hz to 2 MHz and the influence of Cu2+ and Mg2+ substitution on the dielectric behaviour had been investigated. Photoconductivity study proves that both pure and Cu2+ and Mg2+ doped LAA crystal exhibit positive photoconductivity. It is evident from the Vickers hardness study that the hardness of the crystal decreases with increasing load both for pure and doped samples. ESR studies confirmed the incorporation of Cu2+ into LAA and the value of g-factor was found to be 2.1654. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    PSSS-controlled synthesis of CaCO3 superstructures

    Hua Tang
    Abstract Complex CaCO3 superstructure can be easily synthesized by using poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSSS) as a structure directing agent to direct the controlled precipitation of calcium carbonate from aqueous solution. The products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results revealed that the morphology of the products changed significantly with the increasing of the concentration of PSSS in solution, from rhombohedral particles to plate-packed aggregates to spheres with smooth surface, to sponge-like spheres and finally to complex spherical superstructure consisted of plate-like sub-units. We hypothesize that the observed sequential changes in morphology of CaCO3 particles with added PSSS concentration may be due to the influence of PSSS on nucleation, growth and aggregation of CaCO3 crystals. The formation mechanisms of CaCO3 crystals with different morphologies were discussed. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Determination of nucleation parameters and the solid liquid interfacial energy of the KCl-ethanol-water system

    Waid Omar
    Abstract The kinetic parameters of homogeneous nucleation of KCl in different ethanol-water solvent mixtures were determined at 25C from the experimental measurements of the width of the metastable zone at different cooling rates. The ethanol mass ratio in the ethanol water solvent mixture was varied from 0-0.9 and the metastable zone width for each solvent mixture was measured under the cooling rates of 10, 20 and 30 K/h. The influence of ethanol ratio on the activity coefficient was calculated. It was found that increasing the ethanol ratio in the solvent mixture leads to an increase in the mean molal activity coefficient. The experimental results obtained showed that the increase in the ethanol ratio in the solvent widens the metastable zone for the crystallization of KCl. Also it has inferred from the calculations based on the classical nucleation theory that increasing of the ethanol ratio in the solvent mixture resulted in an increase of the nucleation rate order, increase of the critical size of nuclei and increase of the solid liquid interfacial energy. It has been found that the solid liquid interfacial energy can be good correlated with inversely proportionality to the solubility. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]