Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula recorded in the Mesozoic palaeomagnetic results

Kazuhiro Takemoto
SUMMARY In order to describe features of tectonic deformation in the Indochina Peninsula, Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red sandstones were sampled at three localities in the Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks. Stepwise thermal treatment of most samples revealed the presence of characteristic remanent magnetization, which is generally unblocked by 680 C. This component from Phong Saly (21.6N, 101.9E) and Borikhanxay (18.5N, 103.8E) localities yield positive fold tests with Late Jurassic,Early Cretaceous directions of Dec/Inc = 28.8/32.1 (ks= 15.4, ,95= 8.8, N= 22) and Dec/Inc = 42.1/46.9 (ks= 20.1, ,95= 7.9, N= 18), respectively. Additionally, a syn-folding mid-Cretaceous characteristic magnetization is observed in the samples of Muang Phin locality (16.5N, 106.1E), which gave a mean direction of Dec/Inc = 30.8/39.9, k= 102.6, ,95= 3.0, N= 23. This reliable Late Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous palaeomagnetic directions from three different localities are incorporated into a palaeomagnetic database for Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks. Based on these compilations, tectonic deformation of the Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks is summarized as follows: (1) the Shan-Thai and Indochina blocks experienced a clockwise rotation of about 10 as a composite unit in the early stage of India,Asia collision and (2) following this, the Shan-Thai Block underwent an internal tectonic deformation, whereas the Indochina Block behaved as a rigid tectonic unit during the same period. Comparison of our palaeomagnetic results with seismic tomographic images suggests that the strength of continental lithosphere beneath these blocks played an important role in the process of deformation rather than any other tectonic regime. In contrast to the Shan-Thai Block, an existence of continental roots beneath the Indochina Block prevented its internal deformation. [source]

A Comparison of Two Botulinum Type A Toxin Preparations for the Treatment of Glabellar Lines: Double-Blind, Randomized, Pilot Study

Philippa L. Lowe MB ChB
Background. Botulinum toxins have been proven effective for reducing facial lines. There are two commercial types of botulinum toxin type A available in many countries but no published comparison studies. Objective. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of Botox Cosmetic and Dysport 50 U in the treatment of glabellar lines (using 20 U of Botox Cosmetic, which is the dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of glabellar lines, and 50 U of Dysport, which has been reported to be the optimal dose for this formulation). Study Design. Parallel-group double-blind pilot study. Evaluation by observing physician, photographic, and patient evaluations. Conclusion. Botox 20 U provided better and more prolonged efficacy than Dysport 50 U in the treatment of glabellar lines. NICHOLAS LOWE, MD, FRCP, AND RICKIE PATNAIK, MD, HAVE RECEIVED RESEARCH GRANTS FROM ALLERGAN INC. NICHOLAS LOWE OWNS STOCK IN ALLERGAN INC AND HAS RECEIVED CONSULTING PAYMENTS AND EDUCATIONAL GRANTS FROM ALLERGAN INC. THIS STUDY WAS FUNDED BY A GRANT FROM ALLERGAN INC. [source]

Inhibitory effects of a new bisphosphonate, minodronate, on proliferation and invasion of a variety of malignant bone tumor cells

Tadahiko Kubo
Abstract Little is known about the biological effects of bisphosphonates on primary malignant bone tumors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of newly developed minodronate (MIN) on a variety of human malignant bone tumors. We examined the effects of MIN and clinically relevant incadronate (INC) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of two osteosarcoma (Saos-2, MG-63), two chondrosarcoma (SW1353, OUMS27), and two Ewing's sarcoma (RD-ES, SK-ES-1) cell lines. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-invasion effects of MIN on sarcoma cells and the effects of MIN on tumor growth in nude mice. MIN inhibited the viability of all six cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 2.7 to 5.0 M, which were significantly lower than those of INC. Importantly, both bisphosphonates affected the viability of normal bone marrow stromal cells much less than sarcoma cells. Both bisphosphonates induced cell cycle perturbation in all sarcoma cells tested and apoptosis in Saos-2 and SW1353 cells, although they failed to induce apoptosis in RD-ES and SK-ES-1 cells. MIN significantly suppressed invasion, even at a low concentration of 1 M (p,<,0.01). Daily injection of 5 g of MIN inhibited the growth of SK-ES-1 xenograft sarcoma in nude mice without loss of body weight. These findings suggest that MIN may have a beneficial adjuvant role in the treatment of patients with malignant bone tumors. 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1138,1144, 2006 [source]

Effects of Weight Loss Intervention on Erectile Function in Older Men with Type 2 Diabetes in the Look AHEAD Trial

Rena R. Wing PhD
ABSTRACT Introduction., Overweight men with diabetes often report erectile dysfunction (ED), but few studies have examined effects of weight loss on this problem. Aim., This study examined 1-year changes in erectile function (EF) in overweight/obese men with type 2 diabetes participating in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. Methods., Participants in Look AHEAD were randomly assigned to a control condition involving diabetes support and education (DSE) or to intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) involving group and individual sessions to reduce weight and increase physical activity. Men from five of the clinical sites in Look AHEAD completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) at baseline (N = 372) and at 1 year (N = 306) (82%). Main Outcome Measures., Changes in EF as reported on the EF subscale of the IIEF. Results., At 1 year, the ILI group lost a greater percent of initial body weight (9.9% vs. 0.6 %) and had greater improvements in fitness (22.7% vs. 4.6%) than DSE. EF improved more in ILI (17.3 7.6 at baseline; 18.6 8.1 at 1 year) than in DSE (18.3 7.6 at baseline; 18.4 8.0 at 1 year); P = 0.04 and P = 0.06 after adjusting for baseline differences. Using established norms for none (i.e., normal EF), and three grades (i.e., mild, moderate, and severe) ED, 8% of men in ILI reported a worsening of EF from baseline to 1 year, 70% stayed in the same category, and 22% reported improvements. In contrast, 20% of DSE reported worsening, 57% stayed in the same category, and 23% improved (P = 0.006). Conclusion., In this sample of older overweight/obese diabetic men, weight loss intervention was mildly helpful in maintaining EF. Wing RR, Rosen RC, Fava JL, Bahnson J, Brancati F, Gendrano INC, Kitabchi A, Schneider SH, and Wadden TA. Effects of weight loss intervention on erectile function in older men with type 2 diabetes in the look AHEAD trial. J Sex Med 2010;7:156,165. [source]

Ectopic supernumerary tooth on the inferior nasal concha

Bappaditya Ray
Abstract Variations regarding the location of an ectopic tooth in the human nasal cavity, although rare, are documented in the literature, but presence of an ectopic tooth on the inferior nasal concha (INC) has not been reported. We observed an anomalous tooth projecting from the posterior margin of the right INC in two adult female skulls. A small quadrangular tooth projected beyond the posterior margin of the hard palate in one of the skulls and a medium sized conical tooth was observed in the other skull. The affected INC in both skulls were located more inferiorly compared to the opposite side and were in close approximation with the hard palate. No similar findings were noted on the contralateral side nor were there any associated congenital or iatrogenic deformity. The phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and clinical importance of this variant is described. Knowledge of such an anomaly is of paramount importance to otorhinolaryngologists, reconstructive and dental surgeons, and radiologists for identification of such rarities encountered during invasive or non-invasive procedures. Clin. Anat. 19:68,74, 2006. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome

P. Taramarcaz
Summary Background Allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma often coexist and may represent two manifestations of the same disease recently named combined AR and asthma syndrome (CARAS). Aim To review the common pathophysiology of combined AR and asthma and to investigate the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids (INCS). Methods Medline was used to identify articles relevant to mechanisms. A Cochrane systematic review was performed to assess the efficacy of INCS in CARAS. Results There is cross-talk, evidence of a common inflammatory response in both sites, linked by a systemic component. The efficacy of anti-inflammatory INCS on asthma outcomes was assessed in a systematic review of 12 randomized controlled trials involving 425 subjects. After INCS there were non-significant trends for improvement in asthma symptom score (standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.61; P=0.07), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (SMD of 0.31; P=0.08), and morning peak expiratory flow (weighted mean difference of 36.51; P=0.06). There was no impact on methacholine airways responsiveness (SMD of ,0.20; P=0.4). The review identified two promising new treatment options in united airway disease such as INCS as monotherapy in rhinitis and mild asthma, and a combined intranasal and intrabronchial corticosteroid (IBCS) deposition technique. Conclusion Common mucosal inflammatory responses occur in CARAS. This systematic review shows trends for a benefit of INCS in CARAS, but recognizes that more research is needed. At this stage, the current best practice is to treat asthma conventionally with IBCS with or without ,2 -agonist and to add INCS to improve specific rhinitis symptoms. [source]

Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Response Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type A in Subjects with Crow's Feet

Nicholas J. Lowe MD
Background Published evidence suggests that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) is an effective treatment for crow's feet. However, few dose-ranging studies have been performed. Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of a single treatment with one of four doses of BTX-A (Botox/Vistabel, Allergan Inc) compared with placebo for the improvement of crow's feet. Methods Subjects received a single bilateral treatment of 18, 12, 6, or 3 U of BTX-A or placebo injected into the lateral aspect of the orbicularis oculi muscle (parallel-group, double,blind design). Investigators and subjects rated crow's feet severity at maximum smile on day 7 and at 30-day intervals from days 30 to 180. Results As observed by both investigators and subjects, all doses of BTX-A resulted in improvements in crow's feet severity when compared with placebo. A dose-dependent treatment effect for efficacy was observed, with higher doses having an increased magnitude and duration of effect. However, a clear differentiation between the 18 U and 12 U doses was not apparent. Few adverse events were reported, with no statistically significant differences between BTX-A and placebo in the incidence of subjects experiencing adverse events. Conclusion BTX-A is safe and effective in decreasing the severity of crow's feet, with 12 U per side suggested as the most appropriate dose. THIS STUDY WAS FUNDED BY ALLERGAN, WHICH WAS ALSO INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE STUDY; COLLECTION, MANAGEMENT, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA; AND PREPARATION, REVIEW, AND APPROVAL OF THE MANUSCRIPT. DRS. LOWE AND FRACZEK ARE PAID CONSULTANTS FOR ALLERGAN, DRS. KUMAR AND EADIE ARE EMPLOYEES OF ALLERGAN, AND DRS. LOWE AND KUMAR HOLD STOCK OPTIONS. [source]

Original article: Prevalence of oral and dental disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht, Iran

Maryam Rabiei
doi:10.1111/j.1741-2358.2009.00313.x Prevalence of oral and dental disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht, Iran Objective:, The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental and oral mucosal lesions in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht. Background:, Oral health in the elderly people is important to tailor the health programmes for this increasing age group within the population. Methods:, A total of 216 elderly people residing in a geriatric nursing home were included in the study. Subjects were interviewed and examined clinically and registered in a data collection form and analysed using spss version 11 program (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Results:, The prevalence of dental and oral disorders was 44.9% and 86.1% respectively. The most frequent oral disorders were dry mouth (42.1%), fissure tongue (25.9%), atrophic of tongue (25%), sublingual varicosity (22.7%), burning sensation (16.7%) and varix (15.3%). The prevalence of edentulousness was 56% (95%CI: 49,63%). The mean level of retained teeth was 3.22. The odds of an oral mucosal disorder in females were significantly more than in males (OR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.25,6.23). Discussion:, The findings revealed a high prevalence of dental and oral disorders in institutionalised elderly people in Rasht in comparison to similar studies. The mean of retained teeth was also much lower than in other reports. Therefore, the necessity for regular oral examination of these rapidly expanding age groups of people is essential. [source]

Matched case,control study to evaluate risk factors for hyperlactataemia in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2003
D Datta
Background Lactic acidosis is a life-threatening event during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Hyperlactataemia may be a prelude to acidosis. Our database study suggested that female gender, intercurrent illness and didanosine (ddI)-based regimens may increase risk of lactic acidosis. The aim of this matched case,control study was to identify risk factors for hyperlactataemia requiring screening. Methods Cases were defined as patients with two consecutive lactate samples ,3.5 mmol/L taken more than 1 week apart. Cases were matched to two controls on gender, use of ddI and total duration of therapy using a 6-month window on either side. Controls never had raised lactate >2.5 mmol/L. A conditional logistic regression analysis using the PHREG procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) was performed with a discreet logistic model stratified by matching variables. Results Twenty-one cases were matched to 42 controls. In the univariate model, current use of stavudine (d4T), total cholesterol >5.3 mmol/L and glucose levels ,5.2 mmol/L gave increased likelihood of persistent hyperlactataemia. The multivariate model showed current use of d4T to be a significant independent predictor of persistent hyperlactataemia. Conclusions The results of this case,control study indicate that, when controlling for ddI use, d4T use is an additional risk factor for hyperlactataemia. [source]

Allelic heterogeneity of molecular events in human coagulation factor IX in Asian Indians,,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 5 2007
Anubha Mahajan
Abstract Mutations in Factor IX gene (F9) cause X-linked recessive bleeding disorder hemophilia B. Here, we characterized molecular events in nine North Indian hemophiliac families identifying four missense mutations (three novel), two nonsense mutations, and a deletion. We have also captured the mutational spectrum of this disease in India based on available reports and established their genotype/phenotype relationships. Indian F9 mutations data indicate the absence of an important germline mutagen in the Indian subcontinent over the last century, and are consistent with previously made conclusions that universal, presumably endogenous factors are predominant in the causation of the spontaneous mutations in F9. We also analyzed the distribution of Ala194Thr polymorphism in 1231 Asian Indians and have established that Ala variant is far more frequent and can certainly be exploited for carrier detection, contrary to earlier reports. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

The PFA-100 system for the assessment of platelet function in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies

Marco Marietta
Platelet function was studied in 30 pregnant women: 14 normotensive (C), and 16 affected by pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Platelet aggregometry (PA) on platelet-rich plasma according to Born was compared with the new PFA-100 System (Dade International Inc, Miami, USA). This device evaluates platelet function (expressed in seconds as closure time, CT) in anticoagulated whole blood ex vivo at high shear rates. PA (expressed as percentage of light transmission) and CT were measured at baseline and after incubation with L-Arginine (L-Arg). MANOVA for repeated measures showed that L-Arg incubation significantly decreased PA (F=7.2, P < 0.05) and increased CT (F=6.05, P < 0.05) in the whole population of pregnant women. Moreover, we analysed separately both parameters in C and in PIH subjects. No differences in PA were found in both groups, neither at baseline nor after L-Arginine incubation. In contrast, CT was significantly longer in PIH in comparison to C before (95.9 s vs. 84 s, P < 0.05) as well after (115 s vs. 92 s, P < 0.05) L-Arginine incubation. Data from PFA-100 confirm our previous reports that during pregnancy the L-Arginine: Nitric Oxide pathway regulates platelet function. In hypertensive patients a significant decrease in platelet function was found by using the PFA-100 system. [source]

Effects of morphine on testosterone levels in rat C6 glioma cells: Modulation by anastrozole

Ilaria Ceccarelli
Rat C6 glioma cells are commonly used to investigate the functions of glial cells. To evaluate the presence of testosterone and its metabolism in rat C6 glioma cells, we cultured them in media with or without the addition of testosterone propionate and anastrozole, a blocker of aromatase, the enzyme needed to transform testosterone into estradiol. The same procedure was repeated with morphine (10 and 100,M), known to decrease testosterone levels in the brain (in rats) and plasma (in rats and humans). Confluent cells were exposed to the test media for 48,h and then collected. Cell pellets were used to determine testosterone by radioimmunoassay. The C6 cells contained detectable levels of testosterone and the levels increased with the addition of testosterone to the medium. Aromatase blockage by anastrozole increased cellular levels of testosterone regardless of the addition of exogenous testosterone. Both concentrations of morphine dose-dependently decreased testosterone levels in the C6 cells; this effect was also present with the contemporary administration of anastrozole. Our findings show that testosterone is present in rat C6 glioma cells and can be metabolized by aromatase. Moreover, the presence of morphine in the culture medium strongly decreased testosterone, demonstrating that the glia would be a target of the morphine-induced hypogonadal effect. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 1,4, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Differentiation dependent expression of TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells

Lauri M. Louhivuori
TRPA1 and TRPM8 are transient receptor potential (TRP) channels involved in sensory perception. TRPA1 is a non-selective calcium permeable channel activated by irritants and proalgesic agents. TRPM8 reacts to chemical cooling agents such as menthol. The human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 undergoes a remarkable differentiation in response to treatment with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. The cells acquire a neuronal morphology with increased expression of N-type voltage gated calcium channels and neurotransmitters. Here we show using RT-PCR, that mRNA for TRPA1 and TRPM8 are strongly upregulated in differentiating IMR-32 cells. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings, we demonstrate that activators of these channels, wasabi, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) and menthol activate membrane currents in differentiated cells. Calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that AITC mediated elevation of intracellular calcium levels were attenuated by ruthenium red, spermine, and HC-030031 as well as by siRNA directed against the channel. This indicates that the detected mRNA level correlate with the presence of functional channels of both types in the membrane of differentiated cells. Although the differentiated IMR-32 cells responded to cooling many of the cells showing this response did not respond to TRPA1/TRPM8 channel activators (60% and 90% for AITC and menthol respectively). Conversely many of the cells responding to these activators did not respond to cooling (30%). This suggests that these channels have also other functions than cold perception in these cells. Furthermore, our results suggest that IMR-32 cells have sensory characteristics and can be used to study native TRPA1 and TRPM8 channel function as well as developmental expression. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 67,74, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

cAMP activation by PACAP/VIP stimulates IL-6 release and inhibits osteoblastic differentiation through VPAC2 receptor in osteoblastic MC3T3 cells

Azusa Nagata
The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) superfamily, stimulates cyclic AMP accumulation initiating a variety of biological processes such as: neurotropic actions, immune and pituitary function, learning and memory, catecholamine biosynthesis and regulation of cardiopulmonary function. Both osteoclasts and osteoblasts have been shown to express receptors for PACAP/VIP implicated in their role in bone metabolism. To further understand the role of PACAP/VIP family in controlling bone metabolism, we investigated differentiation model of MC3T3-E1 cells, an osteoblastic cell line derived from mouse calvaria. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MC3T3-E1 cells expressed only VPAC2 receptor and its expression was upregulated during osteoblastic differentiation, whereas VPAC1 and PAC1 receptors were not expressed. Consistent with expression of receptor subtype, both PACAP and VIP stimulate cAMP accumulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner with the similar potency in undifferentiated and differentiated cells, while Maxadilan, a specific agonist for PAC1-R, did not. Furthermore, downregulation of VPAC2-R by siRNA completely blocked cAMP response mediated by PACAP and VIP. Importantly, PACAP/VIP as well as forskolin markedly suppressed the induction of alkaline phosphatase mRNA upon differentiation and the pretreatment with 2,,5,-dideoxyadenosine, a cAMP inhibitor, restored its inhibitory effect of PACAP. We also found that PACAP and VIP stimulated IL-6 release, a stimulator of bone resorption, and VPAC2-R silencing inhibited IL-6 production. Thus, PACAP/VIP can activate adenylate cyclase response and regulate IL-6 release through VPAC2 receptor with profound functional consequences for the inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 75,83, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Alterations in the temporal expression and function of cadherin-7 inhibit cell migration and condensation during chondrogenesis of chick limb mesenchymal cells in vitro

Dongkyun Kim
Endochondral bone formation requires a complex interplay among immature mesenchymal progenitor cells to form the cartilaginous anlagen, which involves migration, aggregation and condensation. Even though condensation of chondrogenic progenitors is an essential step in this process, its mechanism(s) has not been well studied. Here, we show that cadherin-7 plays a central role in cellular condensation by modulating cell motility and migration. In this study, many mesenchymal cells failed to migrate, and precartilage condensation was inhibited, after knockdown of endogenous cadherin-7 levels. Exposure of mesenchymal cells to SB203580 (a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK), LiCl (an inhibitor of GSK-3,) or overexpression of ,-catenin resulted in inhibition of cadherin-7 levels and, subsequently, suppression of cell migration. Collectively, our results suggest that cadherin-7 controls cell migration in chick limb bud mesenchymal cells, and that p38MAPK and GSK signals are responsible for regulating cadherin-7-mediated cell migration. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 161,170, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Atypical protein kinase C activity is required for extracellular matrix degradation and invasion by Src-transformed cells

Elena M. Rodriguez
Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms have been shown to mediate Src-dependent signaling in response to growth factor stimulation. To determine if aPKC activity contributes to the transformed phenotype of cells expressing oncogenic Src, we have examined the activity and function of aPKCs in 3T3 cells expressing viral Src (v-Src). aPKC activity and tyrosine phosphorylation were found to be elevated in some but not all clones of mouse fibroblasts expressing v-Src. aPKC activity was inhibited either by addition of a membrane-permeable pseudosubstrate, by expression of a dominant-negative aPKC, or by RNAi-mediated knockdown of specific aPKC isoforms. aPKC activity contributes to morphological transformation and stress fiber disruption, and is required for migration of Src-transformed cells and for their ability to polarize at the edge of a monolayer. The , isoform of aPKC is specifically required for invasion through extracellular matrix in Boyden chamber assays and for degradation of the extracellular matrix in in situ zymography assays. Tyrosine phosphorylation of aPKC, is required for its ability to promote cell invasion. The defect in invasion upon aPKC inhibition appears to result from a defect in the assembly and/or function of podosomes, invasive adhesions on the ventral surface of the cell that are sites of protease secretion. aPKC was also found to localize to podosomes of v-Src transformed cells, suggesting a direct role for aPKC in podosome assembly and/or function. We conclude that basal or elevated aPKC activity is required for the ability of Src-transformed cells to degrade and invade the extracellular matrix. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 171,182, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) induces inflammation through chromatin modification in retinal capillary endothelial cells under diabetic conditions

Lorena Perrone
Chronic hyperglycemia and activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are known risk factors for microvascular disease development in diabetic retinopathy. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous inhibitor of antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX), plays a causative role in diabetes and its vascular complications. Herein we investigate whether HG and RAGE induce inflammation in rat retinal endothelial cells (EC) under diabetic conditions in culture through TXNIP activation and whether epigenetic mechanisms play a role in inflammatory gene expression. We show that RAGE activation by its ligand S100B or HG treatment of retinal EC induces the expression of TXNIP and inflammatory genes such as Cox2, VEGF-A, and ICAM1. TXNIP silencing by siRNA impedes RAGE and HG effects while stable over-expression of a cDNA for human TXNIP in EC elevates inflammation. p38 MAPK-NF-,B signaling pathway and histone H3 lysine (K) nine modifications are involved in TXNIP-induced inflammation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays reveal that TXNIP over-expression in EC abolishes H3K9 tri-methylation, a marker for gene inactivation, and increases H3K9 acetylation, an indicator of gene induction, at proximal Cox2 promoter bearing the NF-,B-binding site. These findings have important implications toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of ocular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic retinopathy. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 262,272, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

The Management of Hypertension in the African American Patient

Jackson T. Wright MD
A panel was convened to discuss the topic of the management of hypertension in the African American patient. Jackson T. Wright, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, moderated the panel. Kenneth A. Jamerson, MD, Professor of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, and Keith C. Ferdinand, MD, Association of Black Cardiologists, Inc, and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, participated in the discussion. This expert panel discussion was supported by Novartis and each author received an honorarium from Novartis for time and effort spent participating in the discussion and reviewing the transcript for important intellectual content prior to publication. The authors maintained full control of the discussion and the resulting content of this article; Novartis had no input in the choice of topic, speakers, or content. [source]

The ALLHAT Study Revisited: Do Newer Data From This Trial and Others Indicate Changes in Treatment Guidelines?

Marvin Moser MD
Following a hypertension symposium in Washington, DC, in November 2006, a panel was convened to discuss new data from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) and to revisit the significance of this trial in the management of hypertension. Based on these data and information from other trials, the expert panel also addressed the questions, "Is it time for a new Joint National Committee report?" and "Should the 2003 hypertension treatment recommendations be updated or are they still valid?" The panel was moderated by Marvin Moser, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. On the panel were Suzanne Oparil, MD, Professor of Medicine at the University of Alabama in Birmingham, and President of the American Society of Hypertension (ASH); William Cushman, MD, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Medicine at the University of Tennessee in Memphis and attending physician at the Washington, DC, VA Medical Center; and Vasilios Papademetriou, MD, Professor of Medicine at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, and attending physician at the Washington, DC, VA Medical Center. This expert panel discussion was supported by Pfizer Inc and each author received an honorarium from Pfizer Inc for time and effort spent participating in the discussion and reviewing the transcript for important intellectual content prior to publication. The authors maintained full control of the discussion and the resulting content of this article; Pfizer had no input in the choice of topic, speakers, or content. (Please note that Dr Oparil's comments herein do not represent the official opinion of ASH.) [source]

SCL-90-R profiles in a sample of severely violent psychiatric inpatients

Stl Bjrkly
Abstract A sample of 39 patients who had committed serious violent acts toward others were assessed with the revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The SCL-90-R is a self-report symptom inventory for the measurement of psychopathology in psychiatric and medical patients. In addition to the patients' self-report, an observer-rated SCL-90-R was obtained. This was accomplished by letting one pair of nurses complete SCL-90-R ratings for each patient. The first aim of the study was to compare the SCL-90-R self-report scores of the patient sample with the psychiatric inpatient norms [Derogatis LR (1992): Clinical Psychometric Research Inc]. Another purpose of this study was to explore possible trends of discordance between the observer ratings and the self-reports of the study group. Always considering the limitations of the small sample, it was nevertheless also of interest to look for possible sex differences and differences between violent subgroups and between diagnostic groups in the self-reported scores as well as in the observer ratings. The most striking findings of the present study were that the self-reported scores were lower than the inpatient norms for SCL-90-R and that the patients' self-reported levels of distress were significantly lower than those found in the observer ratings. Underreporting of psychopathology as a marker of violence risk is discussed in light of these findings. In this study, women reported higher distress levels than men in the Interpersonal Sensitivity symptom dimension. There were no significant differences concerning SCL-90-R ratings between patients who had committed homicide, attempted homicide, or physically assaulted another person in a serious but not life-threatening way. Aggr. Behav. 28:446,457, 2002. 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of light source and time on the polymerization of resin cement through ceramic veneers

Flavio H. Rasetto Odont
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of 3 different light sources to polymerize a light curing resin cement beneath 3 types of porcelain veneer materials. Materials and Methods A conventional halogen light, a plasma arc light, and a high intensity halogen light were used to polymerize resin cement (Variolink II; Ivoclar North America Inc, Amherst, NY) through disks of veneer materials. Equal diameter and thickness disks of feldspathic porcelain (Ceramco II; Ceramco Inc, Burlington, NJ), pressable ceramic (IPS Empress; Ivoclar North America Inc), and aluminous porcelain (Vitadur Alpha; Vident Inc, Brea, CA) were used as an interface between the curing light tips and the light polymerized resin cement. The resin cement/veneer combinations were exposed to 4 different photopolymerization time protocols of 5 seconds, 10 seconds, 15 seconds, and 20 seconds for high intensity light units (Apollo 95E [Dental Medical Diagnostic Systems Inc, Westlake Village, CA] and Kreativ 2000 [Kreativ Inc, San Diego, CA]), and 20 seconds, 40 seconds, 60 seconds, and 80 seconds for conventional halogen light (Optilux; Demetron Research Inc, Danbury, CT). A surface hardness test (Knoop indenter) was used to determine the level of photopolymerization of the resin through the ceramic materials with each of the light sources. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and a post-hoc Scheffe test (p < .05). Results The data indicates that the Variolink II Knoop Hardness Number values vary with the light source, the veneer material, and the polymerization time. For a given light and veneer material, Knoop Hardness Number increases with longer polymerization times. The Kreativ light showed statistically significant differences (p < .05) between all test polymerization times. Use of this light required a polymerization time of greater than 20 seconds to reach maximum resin cement hardness. For samples polymerized with the Apollo light, there were statistically significant (p < .05) differences in surface hardness between samples polymerized at all times, except for the 15-second and 20-second times. Samples polymerized with the halogen light showed no statistically significant (p < .05) differences in hardness between polymerization times of 60 seconds and 80 seconds. Conclusions High intensity curing lights achieve adequate polymerization of resin cements through veneers in a markedly shorter time period than the conventional halogen light. However, the data in this report indicate that a minimum exposure time of 15 seconds with the Kreativ light and 10 seconds with the Apollo 95E light should be used to polymerize the Variolink II resin, regardless of the composition of the veneer. Conventional halogen lights required a correspondingly greater polymerization time of 60 seconds. [source]

Observations on the presence of E domain variants of estrogen receptor-, in the breast tumors

Vijay L. Kumar PhD
Abstract Background and Objectives Estrogen receptor-, (ER-,) that exists as multiple splice variants, has been widely used as a prognostic marker in the management of breast cancer. Here we have analyzed the hormone binding E domain splice variants of ER-, in the breast tumors with reference to the immunoreactive receptor. Methods Thirty breast cancer patients undergoing surgery at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were analyzed for the splice variants of E domain by RT-PCR. The ER level was determined by ELISA and the samples were considered positive if the receptor levels were ,,15 fmol/mg protein. Results Our results show that exon 4 and 5 deletions were prevalent in both ER-positive and ER-negative categories. While most ER-positive cases expressed wild-type (wt) exon 6,+,7, nearly 40% of ER-negative cases showed deletion of exon 6,+,7. Therefore, deletion of exon 6,+,7 or masking of epitopes could lead to underestimation of ER by ELISA. All the metastasis and recurrence cases had undetectable levels of ER. A significant number of node-positive cases expressed immunoreactive ER and wt exon 6,+,7 (r,=,0.509, P,<,0.37). Conclusions Estimation of ER levels combined with composite analysis of ER variants may be a better prognostic marker for breast cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2006;94:332,337. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Restructuring "Germany Inc.": The Politics of Company and Takeover Law Reform in Germany and the European Union

LAW & POLICY, Issue 4 2002
John W. Cioffi
The reform of German company law by the Control and Transparency Law (KonTraG) of 1998 reveals the politics of corporate governance liberalization. The reforms strengthened the supervisory board, shareholder rights, and shareholder equality, but left intra-corporate power relations largely intact. Major German financial institutions supported the reform's contribution to the modernization of German finance, but blocked mandatory divestment of equity stakes and cross-shareholding. Conversely, organized labor prevented any erosion of supervisory board codetermination. Paradoxically, by eliminating traditional takeover defenses, the KonTraG's liberalization of company law mobilized German political opposition to the European Union's (EU) draft Takeover Directive and limited further legal liberalization. [source]

Coiling of lumbar epidural catheters

Y. J. Lim
Background: The difficulties in threading an epidural catheter to vertebral levels remote to the puncture level have been well documented. This study was undertaken to determine the length that a single orifice epidural catheter can be threaded into the lumbar space without coiling (coiling length), and whether this is affected by the direction of the epidural needle bevel. Methods: Forty-five young male patients scheduled for surgery under epidural analgesia were enrolled. The epidural space was identified using a midline approach at the L2,3 or L3,4 interspace with the loss of resistance to air technique. A 19-G single-orifice epidural catheter (Flextip PlusTM, Arrow International, Inc, Reading, PA, USA) was inserted through a Tuohy needle oriented either cephalad (n=20) or caudad (n=25). During insertion, the path and the position of the catheter tip was determined by fluoroscopy using iohexol dye. Results: The median coiling length was 2.8 cm, ranging from 1.0 to 8.0 cm. Only 13% of epidural catheters could be threaded 4 cm beyond the tip of the needle without coiling. No significant difference was found in coiling length between the cephalad group (2.9 cm) and the caudad group (2.5 cm). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that coiling length is independent of whether the bevel of the Tuohy needle is directed cephalad or caudad. We recommend that an optimal insertion depth of an end-hole single orifice catheter is 3 cm. [source]

Spinal cord stimulation with percutaneous leads after loss of coverage with implanted surgical lead

Alexander E. Yakovlev MD
Objective:, This case report presents an application of percutaneous spinal cord stimulation to a patient with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 involving the bilateral lower extremities with loss of coverage with surgical lead. Measurements:, The patient underwent an uneventful spinal cord stimulator trial with percutaneous placement of two temporal eight-electrode epidural leads (Medtronic Inc, Minneapolis, MN, USA) to level T11. Results:, Upon experiencing excellent pain relief over the next three days, the patient was implanted with permanent leads and rechargeable generator four weeks later and reported sustained pain relief. Conclusion:, Percutaneous spinal cord stimulation offers an alternative treatment option for the patient with loss of coverage with surgical lead. [source]

Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a pediatric cystic fibrosis center: Natural history and implications for segregation

G. Davies MBChB
Abstract It has been suggested that cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harboring multiresistant (MR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) should be seen in separate clinics. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of this by longitudinally studying the consistency of isolates of MRPA in individuals. We analyzed all respiratory tract cultures undertaken in 1 year from a pediatric CF clinic population (n,=,367). PA was classified as MR according to the definition of the American CF Foundation: resistance to all agents in at least two of the following groups of antibiotics: ,-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluroquinolones. PA was cultured from 96 children during the year of study. Thirty-six were infected with at least one MR strain. Following initial identification of MRPA, MR in subsequent cultures was highly variable. Twenty-three of 36 patients had subsequent cultures in which PA was identified. However, 21 of 23 patients had at least one isolate that was not MR following detection of MRPA. The variability with time in isolation of MR strains from individuals demonstrates the potential difficulties in designing segregation policies based on antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003; 35:253,256. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Occupational exposure to UV light and mortality from multiple sclerosis,

M. Westberg MD
Abstract Background The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is largely unknown; low exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light has been a suggested risk factor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to UV light reduces the risk of death from MS. Methods The cohort was based on all individuals in the Swedish census in 1980. All MS-related deaths were identified in the national registry of causes of death. A job-exposure matrix was developed to classify the occupational exposure to UV light. Results MS was recorded as a cause of the death for 839 individuals. The risk of MS-related death decreased with increasing occupational exposure to UV light. The relative risk adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status was 0.48 (95% CI 0.28,0.80) in the high-exposure group and 0.88 (95% CI 0.73,1.06) in the intermediate-exposure group. Conclusions Occupational exposure to UV light was associated with a reduced risk of MS. Our findings are corroborated by previous observations that UV light has a preventive role in the development of MS, although the possibility of reversed causality cannot be completely ruled out. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:353,357, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Hospitalization in Winnipeg, Canada due to occupational disease: A pilot study

Allen G. Kraut MD, FRCPC
Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to identify the extent of occupational exposures to hazardous substances amongst male medical inpatients and to determine the extent to which these exposures may have contributed to the development of medical conditions. Methods A random sample of 297 male who were admitted from outside the hospital to the medical wards to a large tertiary care hospital, were between age 18,75 and could communicate in English completed an occupational history questionnaire. This information was merged with an inpatient database which contained patient demographics, admission diagnoses, and co-morbidity data. A specialist in occupational medicine and internal medicine determined whether the medical conditions the participants had were related to their exposures. Results One individual had a condition causing admission that was related to his work and 12 others (4%) had a condition that was possibly related to their work which had caused symptoms. One additional individual was found to have asymptomatic asbestos related pleural fibrosis. Fourteen of 37 possible harmful occupational exposures were reported by more than 10% of the study participants. On average each participant reported 5.5 exposures. Conclusions Occupational exposures to male medical inpatients are common. For 4.4% (13/297) of male admissions to the general medical wards from the emergency room occupational factors may have played a role in the development of medical conditions which led to admission or to major co-morbidities. Detailed occupational histories will likely lead to more suspected cases of work related medical admissions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:372,379, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Workers' compensation experiences of computer users with musculoskeletal disorders

Shona Fang SM
Abstract Background Computer-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are of concern as computer use continues to increase. While MSDs are among the most disabling conditions in the United States, the workers' compensation (WC) experiences of individuals with these occupational disorders are not well described. Methods We conducted a study among 149 adults with work-related MSDs of the neck, upper back, or upper extremity related to computer use. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on subjective experiences with WC and economic issues. Results Seventy-four percent filed for WC. Twenty-five percent of all participants reported major financial difficulties after developing their MSD, though the majority filed for WC. Despite filing for WC, a large proportion relied partially on government, employer, or personal financial sources. Sixty-two percent reported that overall satisfaction with the WC insurer was poor. Conclusions Findings indicate that a majority of participants filed for WC. Despite filing for WC financial difficulties after developing their MSD were considerable. Am. J. Ind. Med. 50:512,518, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Casual Chocolate Consumption and Inhibition of Platelet Function

Bryan Bordeaux DO
Observational studies have associated reduced cardiovascular mortality with chocolate consumption. Feeding studies of high-dose, flavanol-rich chocolate show antiplatelet effects, but the effect of casual chocolate consumption on platelet function is unknown. Healthy adults (N=1535) were proscribed from consuming foods affecting platelet function, including chocolate, for 48 hours and completed a 24-hour dietary recall before ex vivo platelet testing with the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 (Dade Behring, Inc, Deerfield, IL) test and in vivo testing with urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (Tx-M) measurements. Some participants (n=141) reported ignoring the prohibition of consuming chocolate before platelet testing. Despite having similar baseline characteristics, chocolate consumers had longer PFA closure times (130 vs 123 seconds, P=.005) and decreased Tx-M levels (175 vs 290 ng/mol creatinine, P=.03). Chocolate remained a significant independent predictor of both ex vivo and in vivo platelet function testing after adjusting for confounders. The authors concluded that even consuming modest amounts of commercial chocolate has important antiplatelet effects. [source]