Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Immigration

  • illegal immigration
  • recent immigration

  • Terms modified by Immigration

  • immigration control
  • immigration law
  • immigration policy
  • immigration rate
  • immigration status

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. In the late 1980s more than 1 million Brazilians left Brazil without returning. Today an estimated 2 million Brazilians live abroad, 1.2 million of them in the United States. In this article I show that Brazilians migrate for a variety of reasons, including the geographical imagination. Why are so many Brazilians leaving for the United States? What are their geographical imaginations, and how are they described in their migration process? Using primary and secondary data and multiple methods, I address these questions by providing insights into Brazilian migrants' place perceptions, experiences, and reasons for migrating, focusing on the geographical imagination. Those migrants who end up returning to Brazil are more likely to cite financial and curiosity reasons for having migrated. A web of transnational religious and social networks sustains those immigrants who remain in the United States. Reasons for migrating are not economic alone; rather, they are based on interrelated and complex factors that range from adventure to curiosity, the cultural influence of the United States, family members, education, and escape. [source]


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2003
    Daniel T. Griswold
    Lord Bauer understood that the human freedom of movement plays a vital role in development. Today, internal and cross-border migration generates hard-currency remittances that raise living standards and capital investment in the country of origin, promotes greater trade and investment ties between destination and origin countries, and raises a country's stock of human and physical capital when migrants return with new skills and investment funds. Immigration can also stimulate political and social reform when migrants return or foreign-born immigrants arrive with new ideas and experiences. Relaxing the pervasive controls on the international movement of people remains a huge piece of unfinished business on the market-driven development agenda. [source]

    Countervailing Immigration and Domestic Migration in Gateway Cities: Australian and Canadian Variations on an American Theme

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2007
    David Ley
    Abstract: This article addresses the spatial regularity of countervailing population flows of immigration and net domestic migration, respectively, into and out of large gateway cities. This regularity has been noted most often in the United States, and the argument presented here makes two new contributions. First, it extends the analysis to the principal Australian and Canadian gateway cities of Sydney and Toronto, making use of an extended time series of annual data. Second, it argues for the importance of the neglected effects of housing markets, in contrast to conventional accounts that stress cultural avoidance or labor market competition, in differentiating the two demographic streams. The article shows how trends in the housing market separate the locational preferences of immigrants from two diverse groups of domestic migrants. [source]

    Immigration to the Land of Redistribution

    ECONOMICA, Issue 308 2010
    Negative perceptions about migrants in Europe are driven by concerns that foreigners abuse welfare. Paradoxically, instruments of social inclusion are becoming weapons of mass exclusion. We compare evidence on welfare access and the net fiscal position of migrants with perceptions based on a largely unexploited database (EU-SILC). We find no evidence that legal migrants, notably skilled migrants, are net recipients of transfers from the state. However, there is evidence of ,residual dependency' on non-contributory transfers and self-selection of unskilled migrants in the countries with the most generous welfare states. Alternative strategies to unbundle migration from welfare access are discussed. [source]

    Immigration and the Economic Status of African-American Men

    ECONOMICA, Issue 306 2010
    George J. Borjas
    The employment rate of black men, and particularly of low-skilled black men, fell precipitously between 1960 and 2000. At the same time, their incarceration rate rose. This paper examines the relation between immigration and these trends in employment and incarceration. Using data from the 1960,2000 US censuses, we find that a 10% immigration-induced increase in the supply of workers in a particular skill group reduced the black wage of that group by 2.5%, lowered the employment rate by 5.9 percentage points, and increased the incarceration rate by 1.3 percentage points. [source]

    Public Pensions and Immigration: A Public Policy Approach.

    ECONOMICA, Issue 295 2007
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    How news content influences anti-immigration attitudes: Germany, 1993,2005

    Immigration is an increasingly important political issue in Western democracies and a crucial question relates to the antecedents of public attitudes towards immigrants. It is generally acknowledged that information relayed through the mass media plays a role in the formation of anti-immigration attitudes. This study considers whether news coverage of immigrants and immigration issues relates to macro-level dynamics of anti-immigration attitudes. It further explores whether this relationship depends on variation in relevant real world contexts. The models simultaneously control for the effects of established contextual explanatory variables. Drawing on German monthly time-series data and on ARIMA time-series modeling techniques, it is shown that both the frequency and the tone of coverage of immigrant actors in the news significantly influence dynamics in anti-immigration attitudes. The strength of the effect of the news, however, depends on contextual variation in immigration levels and the number of asylum seekers. Implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the increasing success of extreme right parties and growing opposition to further European integration. [source]

    Immigration and the new politics of inclusion and exclusion in the European Union: The effect of elites and the EU on individual,level opinions regarding European and non,European immigrants

    Within European politics, a distinction is currently being made at the elite level between internal and external immigration, with individuals from EU countries being given special rights and privileges when they migrate within the EU. This paper addresses the question of whether individual EU citizens also view the two types of immigrants differently and what structures their beliefs regarding these two sources of migration. The findings indicate that (a) the vast majority of EU citizens view internal and external migration as identical and (b) elite cues and debates regarding immigration within each of the countries are helping individuals form their opinions regarding the two different types of immigration. These findings and their implications are discussed in the body of the paper. [source]

    Between Immigration and Policing: Cross Recognition

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    Andrew Nicol
    The Dublin Convention of 1990 addressed some of the problems which this policy created, but left others unresolved. Domestic legislation has progressively reduced the opportunities for challenging safe third-country removals, especially to an EU state. The incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law has generated new possibilities for challenging safe third-country decisions where removal might damage physical or mental health. Articles 3 and 8 have been invoked in particular. The Dublin machinery established ,rules' to decide which member state was responsible for considering the asylum claim and the procedure to be followed. The article examines why the UK courts have said that these provisions are not justiciable in the English courts. Finally the article considers whether the experience with Dublin provides any useful guidance as to the approach that will be taken to European arrest warrants and extradition requests. [source]

    The Immigration and Asylum Agenda

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    Gisbert Brinkmann
    Immigration and asylum of third-country nationals was inserted into Title IV EC by the Treaty of Amsterdam of 1997/1999. The European Council of Tampere of October 1999 provided a substantive input. The proposals of the European Commission cover almost all aspects of immigration and asylum and, in line with the Tampere conclusions, are oriented at the status of EU citizens. A common European migration and asylum policy has been realised at an astonishing speed, though some core instruments have not yet been adopted. During the negotiations the proposals have been watered down and thus provide only relatively low standards, in particular as regards access to employment, which is an important requisite for the integration of migrants. [source]

    Erosion and Nutrient Loss on Sloping Land under Intense Cultivation in Southern Vietnam

    Abstract To help improve the well-being of the local people, a joint Vietnamese-UK team set out to establish a way of estimating soil and nutrient losses under different land management scenarios, using field data extrapolated through remote sensing and GIS, to obtain catchment-wide estimates of the impact of land cover change. Immigration from remote provinces to the Dong Phu District of Binh Phuóc Province, about 120 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, has led to disruption of soil surface stability on easily eroded clayey sandstones, creating rapid nutrient depletion that affects crop yields and siltation in the channel of the Rach Rat river downstream. The poor farmers of the areas see crop yields drop dramatically after two or three years of cultivation due to the fertility decline. Soil loss varies dramatically between wet season and dry season and with ground cover. Erosion bridge measurements showed a mean loss of 85.2 t ha,1 y,1 under cassava saplings with cashew nuts, 43.3 t ha,1 y,1 on uncultivated land and 41.7 t ha,1 y,1 under mature cassava. The rates of erosion were higher than those reported in many other parts of Vietnam, reflecting the high erodibility of the friable sandy soils on the steep side-slopes of the Rach Rat catchment. However, although the actual measurements provide better soil loss data than estimates based on the parameters of soil loss equations, a large number of measurement sites is needed to provide adequate coverage of the crop and slope combinations in this dissected terrain for good prediction using GIS and remote sensing. [source]

    Immigration, Migration, and State Redistributive Expenditures

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2001
    Katherine Hempstead
    The effect of immigration on state and local budgets is a frequent topic of both political and academic conversations. A controversial issue among scholars is whether or not immigration induces outmigration of low income native born residents, a population movement which would potentially have implications for the jurisdictional distribution of immigration's fiscal impact. It is hypothesized here that if interstate poverty migration occurred, it should cause fiscal spillovers by distributing some of the public sector burden of immigration from immigrant "host" states to neighboring states. This paper uses cross-sectional state data from 1988,1995 to explore the relationship between immigration in neighbor states and state redistributive expenditures. The results suggest that there is a positive relationship between immigration to neighboring states and redistributive expenditures. While most discussion of the fiscal impact of immigration has focused on the effects on host states and localities, the implications of these findings are that there are fiscal spillovers to neighboring states, suggesting that fiscal impacts on host states have been over-estimated and effects on neighboring states have been underestimated. Additionally, the implications of recent welfare reform, which gives states the opportunity to use citizenship as a criterion for program eligibility, are discussed. [source]

    Reasons for visiting Polish primary care practices by patients aged 18,44 years: the largest emigrating age group

    Magdalena Ignaszak-Szczepaniak MD PhD
    Abstract Over 3% of the entire Polish population migrate for a job within the European Union, most are aged 18,44 years. The main destinations are Germany, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Immigration is connected with the use of many public services, including healthcare services. Assuming Polish immigrants require medical consultations in the countries they reside in, the authors have analysed the reasons for patients' visits to general practitioners (GPs) in Poland in order to predict possible reasons why Polish patients living abroad may make appointments with GPs in other countries. Data from 22 769 visits to GP practices between June 2005 and May 2006 by Polish patients aged 18,44 years were collected electronically. Age was categorised into three groups (18,24, 25,34 and 35,44 years) and the reason for the visit was categorised according to the ICD 10 coding system. Among the 12 535 patients registered with GPs, 73.1% of women and 68.6% of men required consultations during the year the study was conducted. The highest percentage of visits was recorded for women aged 35,44 years, while men of the same age were the least likely to visit a GP. The mean number of visits per patient ranged from 1.89 for men aged 25,34 years to 3.11 for women aged 35,44 years. The means were similar for 18- to 24-year-old men and women. Women aged 35,44 years had a higher mean number of visits compared with women aged 18,24 years, whereas the opposite was true for men. The analysis of reasons for visits within the age groups indicated that the percentage of appointments for respiratory problems and general and unspecified problems dropped by more than half from the 18,24-year-olds to the 35,44-years-olds, while visits for musculosceletal, cardiovascular, and mental and behavioural problems increased by a factor of four. The presented results intend to enable healthcare services meet Polish immigrants' healthcare needs. [source]

    Molecular Epidemiology and Outcome of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Thailand: a Cultural Cross Roads

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2004
    Ratha-Korn Vilaichone
    ABSTRACT Background., Thailand is at the cultural cross roads between East and South Asia. It has been suggested that this is also the region where the predominant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotype changes from East Asian to South Asian. Methods., We compared the molecular epidemiology and outcome of H. pylori infections among different ethnic groups in Thailand (Thai, Thai-Chinese and Chinese). H. pylori isolates were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction based on cagA, cag right end junction and vacA genotypes. Results., Ninety-eight isolates from 38 ethnic Thai, 20 ethnic Chinese and 40 Thai-Chinese were categorized into East Asian (45%), South/Central Asian (26%), Western (1%) or mixed type (29%). The East Asian genotype was the most common among Chinese (85%) and Thai-Chinese (55%) (p < .01 compared to ethnic Thai). The ethnicity of the mother among mixed Thai-Chinese marriages predicted the genotype of the child's H. pylori (e.g. when the mother was Chinese, 84% had East Asian type vs. 29% when the mother was Thai) (p < .001). Gastric cancer was common among ethnic Chinese with East Asian genotype (e.g. all Chinese with gastric cancer or peptic ulcer disease had East Asian genotype, whereas only 40% of Chinese with gastritis had this genotype). Conclusions., Immigration, intermarriage and the variety of H. pylori genotypes in Thailand suggest that Thailand is an ideal site for epidemiological studies attempting to relate H. pylori genotypes and host factors to outcome. Our data also support the hypothesis that the primary caretaker of the children is most likely the source of the infection. [source]

    Parents and infants in changing cultural context: Immigration, trauma, and risk

    Marie Rose Moro
    "Entre les bibliothèques et les bébés en détresse, il y a un grand fossé" (S. Fraiberg). "Between library and at-risk infants themselves lies a great gulf" (Fraiberg, 1999, p. 416). Whether they are African or Asian, children of immigrant families live in at-risk situations where they may be exposed to serious trauma. Immigrant families often live in extreme conditions. Although research describes these conditions, the field of intervention remains weak. How many times have I heard that work among these families does not address treatment, but only basic needs, noting that the families are preoccupied with survival,where to find food, where to sleep, where to bury their dead. Yet, the psychological care of immigrant children and families has much to teach us. In this article I will describe work that attempts to bridge the gulf that Fraiberg referred to by sharing what I have learned regarding immigrant families with infants. ©2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Immigration as Local Politics: Re-Bordering Immigration and Multiculturalism through Deterrence and Incapacitation

    Small town governments in North America have, in recent years, posed the most aggressive challenge to national immigration policy and multiculturalism. Immigration-related municipal ordinances were introduced by local officials to defend the rights of local residents from the adverse effects of (unauthorized) immigration. Municipal measures proposed to control im/migrants not only present a constitutional challenge to the federal pre-emption in matters of immigration law (which ineptitude they purport to redress), they expand on what Didier Bigo called a ,governmentality of unease', where migration is increasingly rationalized as a security problem. Municipal measures are re-bordering the inclusion/exclusion of (unauthorized) migrants by expanding the territorial and political rationality of immigration control from the border to the interior, and by imposing and dispersing new mechanisms of control into the everyday spaces and practices of im/migrants regarded as ,illegal' and undesirable. This article examines two immigration-related municipal measures (Hazleton, PA and Hérouxville, QC) which impose a logic of immigration control and identity protection through deterrence and incapacitation strategies, and thus erode civil rights of im/migrants. Résumé Certaines petites municipalités nord-américaines ont récemment bousculé les politiques d'immigration nationales et le multiculturalisme. Les autorités locales en question ont fait voter des arrêtés municipaux liés à l'immigration afin de défendre les droits de leurs concitoyens contre les perceptions néfastes de l'immigration (irrégulière). Tout en représentant un défi constitutionnel à l'égard de la préemption fédérale en matière de législation sur l'immigration (dont l'inadéquation est censée être corrigée), les propositions municipales de contrôler les (im)migrants prolongent ce que Didier Bigo a appelé une ,gouvernementalité du malaise' qui voit de plus en plus la migration comme un problème de sécurité. Les mesures municipales redessinent les limites de l'inclusion-exclusion des migrants (irréguliers) en amenant, de la frontière jusqu'à l'intérieur, la logique territoriale et politique propre au contrôle de l'immigration, tout en imposant et en diffusant de nouveaux mécanismes de contrôle dans les pratiques et espaces quotidiens des (im)migrants jugés ,illégaux' et indésirables. L'article étudie deux mesures municipales liées à l'immigration (à Hazleton en Pennsylvanie et à Hérouxville au Québec), lesquelles dictent une logique de contrôle de l'immigration et de protection identitaire au travers de stratégies de dissuasion et de création d'incapacités; ce faisant, ces dispositions amoindrissent les droits civils des (im)migrants. [source]

    The Rise and Fall of Chinese Immigration to Canada: Newcomers from Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China1 and Mainland China, 1980,20002

    Peter S. Li
    ABSTRACT An emerging perspective in the study of global diasporas stresses the effect of economic globalization and migration shifts in reshaping the population and identifying the formation of diaspora communities. This paper analyses the immigration patterns from Hong Kong and mainland China to Canada between the 1980s and 1990s, and shows that the migration shifts have been influenced by political and economic forces in Hong Kong and China, as well as changes in Canada's immigration policy. The imminent return of Hong Kong to China in 1997 and its uncertain political future in the 1990s were often cited as the main reasons for Hong Kong's large emigration in the late 1980s and early 1990s. In reality, the rising volume of Hong Kong emigration was prompted by the 1989 Tiananmen Square incident in China and its aftermath, and by the booming economy of Hong Kong in the early 1990s that created the means for many middle-class Chinese to emigrate. At the same time, Canada's expansion of the Business Immigration Program in the mid-1980s also benefited immigrant entrepreneurs from Hong Kong. In contrast, the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 did not deter the economic growth of China. Immigration from China rose after 1989 when Canada allowed Chinese students studying in Canada to immigrate, but it was after the mid-1990s that immigration from China expanded due to Canada's greater emphasis on admitting economic immigrants and to China's growing middle class. The continuous arrival of well-educated and urban-based immigrants from China is likely to change the population composition and identity complexity of the Chinese community in Canada. LES HAUTS ET LES BAS DE L'IMMIGRATION CHINOISE AU CANADA : LES NOUVEAUX VENUS ORIGINAIRES DE LA RÉGION ADMINISTRATIVE SPÉCIALE DE HONG KONG1 ET DE LA CHINE CONTINENTALE, 1980,2000 Une perspective émergente dans l'étude des diasporas mondiales souligne l'effet de la mondialisation économique et des glissements migratoires dans le remodelage des populations et l'identification de la formation des communautés issues des diasporas. Cet ouvrage analyse les comportements migratoires en provenance de Hong Kong et de la Chine continentale en direction du Canada entre les années 80 et 90, et montre que les glissements migratoires ont été influencés par des forces politiques et économiques à l',uvre à Hong Kong et en Chine, ainsi que par des changements intervenus au niveau de la politique canadienne d'immigration. Le retour imminent de Hong Kong à la Chine en 1997 et son avenir politique incertain dans les années 90 ont souvent été cités comme les principales raisons pour l'importante émigration qui s'est produite au départ de Hong Kong à la fin des années 80 et au début des années 90. En réalité, l'ampleur croissante de l'émigration en provenance de Hong Kong a été suscitée par les événements de la place Tiananmen qui ont eu lieu en 1989 et par leurs retombées, ainsi que par l'essor économique de Hong Kong au début des années 90, ayant procuréà bon nombre de Chinois de la classe moyenne les moyens d'émigrer. Parallèlement, l'expansion du programme d'immigration commerciale mis en place par le Canada au milieu des années 80 a également profité aux entrepreneurs immigrants de Hong Kong. Par comparaison, la crise financière asiatique de 1997 n'a pas produit d'effet dissuasif sur la croissance économique de la Chine. L'immigration en provenance de Chine continentale a augmenté après 1989, lorsque le Canada a autorisé les étudiants chinois se trouvant sur son sol à immigrer légalement, mais ce n'est qu'après le milieu des années 90 que l'immigration en provenance de Chine s'est accélérée sous l'effet de la politique canadienne facilitant l'entrée au Canada des immigrants économiques et aussi de la progression de la classe moyenne en Chine. L'arrivée continue d'immigrants chinois instruits et originaires des villes est susceptible de modifier la composition de la population et la complexité identitaire de la communauté chinoise au Canada. EL AUMENTO Y CAÍDA DE LA INMIGRACIÓN CHINA AL CANADÁ: RECIÉN LLEGADOS DE LA REGIÓN ADMINISTRATIVA ESPECIAL DE HONG KONG1 Y DE CHINA, 1980,2000 En los estudios realizados sobre las diásporas en el mundo, se observa el efecto que tienen la globalización económica y los cambios migratorios en la reconfiguración de la población y en la conformación de comunidades de la diáspora. En este artículo se examinan los patrones de inmigración de Hong Kong y China al Canadá en los años ochenta y noventa, y se demuestra que los cambios en la migración resultan de fuerzas políticas y económicas en Hong Kong y China, así como de cambios en la política de inmigración del Canadá. La inminente devolución de Hong Kong a la China en 1997 y la incertidumbre sobre su futuro político, fueron consideradas como la principal razón de la numerosa inmigración de Hong Kong a finales de los años ochenta y principios de los noventa. En realidad, el creciente número de emigrantes de Hong Kong se debió al incidente en la Plaza de Tiananmen en China en 1989 y a sus consecuencias, y al auge económico de Hong Kong a principios de los años noventa, que permitió que la clase media china pudiera emigrar. Al mismo tiempo, la ampliación del Programa de Inmigración Empresarial instaurado por el Canadá a mediados de los años ochenta también atrajo a empresarios inmigrantes provenientes de Hong Kong. Por su parte, la crisis financiera asiática de 1997 no afectó el crecimiento económico en la China. La inmigración de China aumentó tras 1989, cuando el Canadá autorizó a la inmigración de los chinos que estudiaban en el Canadá, pero fue ulteriormente, a mediados de los años noventa, que la inmigración desde China se amplió debido a que el Canadá decidió aceptar a inmigrantes económicos y a la creciente clase media proveniente de China. La continua llegada de inmigrantes chinos instruidos y de zonas urbanas, probablemente afecte la composición y complejidad de la identidad de la población china en el Canadá. [source]

    The Role of Immigrants in the Italian Labour Market

    Murizio Ambrosini
    In little more than a decade, Italy has become a country characterized by immigration from abroad. This pattern is far removed from what central-northern European countries experienced during the 1950s and the 1960s. Immigration has not been explicitly demanded by employers, nor has it been ruled by agreements with the immigrants' countries of origin, nor perceived as necessary for the economic system. For all these reasons, immigration has been chaotic and managed in an emergency and approximate way, even though it is deemed useful and is requested by the "informal" as well as the "official" economy. Following presentations of statistics on trends in the phenomenon, three issues are analysed: - how immigrants are integrated into a labour market that has not called them and into circumstances characterized by the absence of public policies to help them in their job search. - whether it is possible to separate regular immigration involved in the "official" market from irregular immigration in the hidden economy, considering advantages of the first and harmful effects of the second for the Italian socio-economic system. - whether it is appropriate to address complementarity between immigrant labour and the national labour force in a country with 2,500,000 unemployed workers and heavy territorial unbalances. [source]

    Female Asylum-Seekers in the Netherlands: An Empirical Study

    Jos W. Van Wetten
    This article presents the findings from a study into the chances for refugee status, or a temporary residence permit, for three cohorts of male and female asylum-seekers to the Netherlands. The study investigated whether men and women with similar backgrounds in terms of country of origin, social and demographic characteristics have a similar likelihood of obtaining permission to stay in the Netherlands. The quantitative findings are corroborated with an in-depth qualitative study of refugees' files from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (IND), as well as with an experiment in which decision-making personnel were asked to judge hypothetical case studies of refugees in which gender as well as other gender-specific properties were systematically varied. We recommend that further in-depth studies be conducted to capture elements in the decision-making process that could not be investigated in our kind of large-scale study. [source]

    Europe and the Immigration of Highly Skilled Labour

    Sami Mahroum
    The competition for highly skilled labour continues to be fierce and is taking a more institutionalized pattern across most of the developed world. This article sketches the changes in policies, legislations, and procedures across various EU countries and compares these with those of other developed countries. The article shows that EU member states not only compete with non-EU countries and regions but also among themselves in order to attract and maintain sufficient flows of highly skilled labour. [source]

    Chipping Away at the Fortress: Unions, Immigration and the Transnational Labour Market

    Gamze Avci
    Conventional wisdom holds that in liberal industrialized countries, times of economic recession and high unemployment create pressures for restrictive immigration legislation, proposals which will be supported by trade unions as a means of safeguarding their interests. Drawing on a case study of British trade union opposition to the 1996 Asylum and Immigration Act, this article argues that trade unions, which traditional interpretation suggests support such protectionist measures, are actually at the forefront of opposition to them. We suggest that the increased transnationalization of labour markets, combined with the particular nature of the legislative response, had led unions to adopt this apparently paradoxical position. [source]

    Political Economy of Immigration in Germany: Attitudes and Citizenship Aspirations,

    Martin Kahanec
    This paper examines resident foreigners' interest in German citizenship. We use a unique data set from a survey of foreign residents in the German states to study the roles played by factors such as attitudes towards foreigners and political interest of foreigners. We find that negative attitudes towards foreigners and generational conflict within foreigner families are significant negative factors. While interest in political participation is among the important positive factors, hostile attitudes, lack of voting rights, or uncertainty about staying in Germany mainly discourage foreigners who actively participate in the labor market, have more years of schooling, and are younger. [source]

    The Use of Remittance Income in Mexico

    Jim Airola
    Immigration affects sending countries through the receipt of remittance income. The impact of these cash transfers on households and communities has brought attention to remittances as a development mechanism. This study attempts to understand the degree to which household consumption is affected by the receipt of remittance income and the ways in which the broader communities may be impacted. Using household income and expenditure data for Mexico, expenditure patterns of remittance-receiving households are analyzed. Regression analysis indicates that remittance-receiving households spend a greater share of total income on durable goods, healthcare, and housing. [source]

    Labor Force Trends and Immigration in Europe,

    Serge Feld
    Labor force trends up to 2025 for the fifteen countries (before May 1, 2004) of the European Community are examined. Will demographic decline have an early effect on manpower volume? An estimation is made to determine whether present migratory flow levels in these countries will be sufficient to counter labor force stagnation. Manpower trend scenarios are proposed for each country. They show highly contrasting situations. These countries favor different policies for mobilizing and increasing their manpower volume. There is wide divergence between the various EU countries as concerns their demogra hic situation and labor force partici ation rate as well as their social security systems. labor force partici ation rate as well as their social security systems. Considering these highly diverse national characteristics, the difficulty in arrivin at a consensus on EU migratory policy harmonization is stressed [source]

    Does the "New" Immigration Require a "New" Theory of Intergenerational Integration?,

    Hartmut Esser
    Starting from discussions on the validity of the classical assimilation concept, a general model for the explanation of different structural outcomes of interethnic relations is developed. The core of the model builds on the assumption that different outcomes are the often unintended and situation-logic results of (mis-)investments in and with ethnic and non-ethnic capital. Central initial conditions of the model are group size, social and cultural distances and the availability of social capital. The model specifies the mutual relations between these three constructs. Different variants of intergenerational integration of immigrants can thus be reconstructed as special cases of a general mechanism. [source]

    Young People of Migrant Origin in Sweden

    Charles Westin
    This article surveys immigration during the second part of the twentieth century with the aim of determining the origins of the immigrant population and the socioeconomic position of the second generation. It focuses on migration from Turkey from the 1960s onward. Originally, migration from Turkey was within the framework of labor recruitment. These migrants were predominantly ethnic Turks of rural origin. A second wave of migrants from Turkey was composed of Syriani/Assyrians, a Christian minority from eastern Turkey seeking asylum in the 1970s on the grounds of religious persecution. Since the 1980s, the main intake of migrants from Turkey has been Kurds seeking protection on the grounds of political persecution. Immigration of ethnic Turks and Syriani/Assyrians is restricted to family reunification and family formation; the numbers are low. Kurds, on the other hand, are accepted both on the grounds of refugee claims and family reunification/family formation. The article looks at conditions of growing up in Sweden, with a particular focus on education, mother-tongue classes and instruction in Swedish. Second-generation youth distinguish themselves by an overrepresentation among dropouts from school, but also by an overrepresentation among those who do well academically in comparison with native Swedes. This applies to second-generation youth with family roots in Turkey. Though very few under the age of 18 hold regular employment, the article also discusses the prospects of entering the labor market, based on information from the regular labor market surveys. Unemployment rates are consistently higher for second-generation migrants than for native-born Swedish youth. The article closes with a discussion about the developing multicultural society in Sweden and the niches that second-generation youth tend to occupy. [source]

    A Knitting Expedition: Immigration to Europe

    Brett Heindl
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Europeanization of National Policies and Politics of Immigration: Between Autonomy and the European Union , Edited by T. Faist and A. Ette

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Where do the feral oilseed rape populations come from?

    A large-scale study of their possible origin in a farmland area
    Summary 1Many cultivated species can escape from fields and colonize seminatural habitats as feral populations. Of these, feral oilseed rape is a widespread feature of field margins and roadside verges. Although considered in several studies, the general processes leading to the escape and persistence of feral oilseed rape are still poorly known. Notably, it remains unclear whether these annuals form transient populations resulting mainly from seed immigration (either from neighbouring fields or during seed transport), or whether they show real ability to persist (either through self-recruitment or seed banks). 2We conducted a 4-year large-scale study of factors involved in the presence of feral oilseed rape populations in a typical open-field area of France. The results were subjected to statistical methods suitable for analysing large data sets, based on a regression approach. We subsequently addressed the relative contribution of the ecological processes identified as being involved in the presence of feral populations. 3Many feral oilseed rape populations resulted from seed immigration from neighbouring fields (about 35,40% of the observed feral populations). Immigration occurred at harvest time rather than at sowing. Around 15% of such populations were attributed to immigration through seed transport. 4The other half resulted from processes of persistence, mainly through persistent seed banks (35,40% of the observed feral populations). This was all the more unexpected because seed banks have not yet been documented on road verges (despite being frequent within fields). Local recruitment was rare, accounting for no more than 10% of the feral populations. 5Synthesis and applications. Understanding the dynamics of feral oilseed rape populations is crucial for evaluating gene flow over an agro-ecosystem. Our results show that, while many feral populations do come from annual seed dispersal, a significant number also result from seeds stored in the soil for several years. In the current context of coexistence and management of transgenic with non-transgenic crops, feral persistence and, especially, the seed bank contribution to the dynamics of feral populations need to be considered seriously. The latter, combined with self-recruitment, indicates a high potential for the persistence of transgenes and the possible emergence of gene-stacking. [source]

    Immigration and femininity in Southern Europe: A gender-based psychosocial analysis

    J. M. González-González
    Abstract Despite the growing presence of female immigrants in Western countries, research on the subject highlights two important biases that hinder appropriate explanation of the migratory phenomenon and hence prevent adequate intervention. First, most of the research studies conducted so far focus on male migration; second, the macro-social perspective has prevailed in these areas of study since socio-economic and political aspects have taken centre stage in analyses on migratory phenomena, From a gender-based psychosocial perspective, this study addresses the migration project of 53 women from different South American countries, the Maghreb region and Eastern Europe now living in Southern Spain. For this purpose we conducted 23 in-depth interviews, and staged six discussion groups with the aim of elucidating to what extent gender-based psychosocial beliefs,stereotypes, ideology and identity,determine women's migration process. Our results suggest that the main stages in the process,deciding to emigrate, itinerary for social and labour integration in the host country, and general assessment of the migration experience,are strongly influenced by psychosociological constructs which arise as a result of female gender-typing or female profile. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]