Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Immigrants

  • arrived immigrant
  • asian immigrant
  • chinese immigrant
  • female immigrant
  • first-generation immigrant
  • hispanic immigrant
  • illegal immigrant
  • japanese immigrant
  • jewish immigrant
  • latino immigrant
  • legal immigrant
  • many immigrant
  • mexican immigrant
  • muslim immigrant
  • new immigrant
  • older immigrant
  • other immigrant
  • recent immigrant
  • second-generation immigrant

  • Terms modified by Immigrants

  • immigrant adolescent
  • immigrant association
  • immigrant child
  • immigrant community
  • immigrant country
  • immigrant earning
  • immigrant entrepreneur
  • immigrant experience
  • immigrant family
  • immigrant female
  • immigrant group
  • immigrant groups
  • immigrant incorporation
  • immigrant integration
  • immigrant labour
  • immigrant male
  • immigrant mother
  • immigrant parent
  • immigrant population
  • immigrant right
  • immigrant settlement
  • immigrant status
  • immigrant woman
  • immigrant youth

  • Selected Abstracts


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2009
    Dennis CarlsonArticle first published online: 6 OCT 200
    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction of the "problem" of "illegal immigrants" in U.S. public schools. This entails a discussion of three interrelated discourses and practices of hospitality: a universalistic discourse of philosophical and religious principles, a legalistic-juridical discourse, and a discourse and practice grounded in the ethos of everyday life. Derrida suggested that a democratic cultural politics must interweave these three discourses and also recognize the limitations of each of them. Moreover, a democratic cultural politics must be most firmly rooted in the praxis of ethos, and in the ethical claims of openness to the other. [source]


    The impact of immigration on labour markets depends, among other factors, on the substitutability or complementarity between immigrants and natives. This relationship is examined by treating migrant and native labour, along with capital, as inputs in production process. Estimated price elasticities of substitution between immigrants and native labour suggest that in Australian context, an increase in the wage rate of one group of workers leads to an increased demand for the other. The estimated elasticities of substitution between immigrant and native workers and the complementary relationship between immigrants and capital provide an insight into the complex effects of immigration. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2005
    Patrik Nosil
    Abstract The classification of reproductive isolating barriers laid out by Dobzhansky and Mayr has motivated and structured decades of research on speciation. We argue, however, that this classification is incomplete and that the unique contributions of a major source of reproductive isolation have often been overlooked. Here, we describe reproductive barriers that derive from the reduced survival of immigrants upon reaching foreign habitats that are ecologically divergent from their native habitat. This selection against immigrants reduces encounters and thus mating opportunities between individuals from divergently adapted populations. It also reduces the likelihood that successfully mated immigrant females will survive long enough to produce their hybrid offspring. Thus, natural selection against immigrants results in distinctive elements of premating and postmating reproductive isolation that we hereby dub "immigrant inviability". We quantify the contributions of immigrant inviability to total reproductive isolation by examining study systems where multiple components of reproductive isolation have been measured and demonstrate that these contributions are frequently greater than those of traditionally recognized reproductive barriers. The relevance of immigrant inviability is further illustrated by a consideration of population-genetic theory, a review of selection against immigrant alleles in hybrid zone studies, and an examination of its participation in feedback loops that influence the evolution of additional reproductive barriers. Because some degree of immigrant inviability will commonly exist between populations that exhibit adaptive ecological divergence, we emphasize that these barriers play critical roles in ecological modes of speciation. We hope that the formal recognition of immigrant inviability and our demonstration of its evolutionary importance will stimulate more explicit empirical studies of its contributions to speciation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2002
    Amy B. Marr
    Abstract We studied heterosis and outbreeding depression among immigrants and their descendants in a population of song sparrows on Mandarte Island, Canada. Using data spanning 19 generations, we compared survival, seasonal reproductive success, and lifetime reproductive success of immigrants, natives (birds with resident-hatched parents and grandparents), and their offspring (F1s, birds with an immigrant and a native parent, and F2s, birds with an immigrant grandparent and resident-hatched grandparent in each of their maternal and paternal lines). Lifetime reproductive success of immigrants was no worse than that of natives, but other measures of performance differed in several ways. Immigrant females laid later and showed a tendency to lay fewer clutches, but had relatively high success raising offspring per egg produced. The few immigrant males survived well but were less likely to breed than native males of the same age that were alive in the same year. Female F1s laid earlier than expected based on the average for immigrant and native females, and adult male F1s were more likely to breed than expected based on the average for immigrant and native males. The performance differences between immigrant and native females and between F1s and the average of immigrants and natives are consistent with the hypothesis that immigrants were disadvantaged by a lack of site experience and that immigrant offspring benefited from heterosis. However, we could not exclude the possibility that immigrants had a different strategy for optimizing reproductive success or that they experienced ecological compensation for life-history parameters. For example, the offspring of immigrants may have survived well because immigrants laid later and produced fewer clutches, thereby raising offspring during a period of milder climatic conditions. Although sample sizes were small, we found large performance differences between F1s and F2s, which suggested that either heterosis was associated with epistasis in F1s, that F2s experienced outbreeding depression, or that both phenomena occurred. These findings indicate that the performance of dispersers may be affected more by fine-scale genetic differentiation than previously assumed in this and comparable systems. [source]


    Alberto Dávila
    ABSTRACT Using 1990 and 2000 U.S. census data, this study investigates changes in immigrant/native earnings disparities for workers in U.S. cities along the international border with Mexico vis-à-vis the U.S. interior during the 1990s. Our findings,based on estimating earnings functions and employing the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce (1993, JPE) wage decomposition technique,indicate that the average earnings of Mexican immigrants along the U.S.-Mexico border improved relative to those accrued by their counterparts in the U.S. interior and by otherwise similar U.S.-born Mexican Americans between 1990 and 2000. However, when comparing Mexican-born workers to U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites, the immigrant border-earnings penalty remained statistically unchanged. [source]


    Tim Wallace
    Soccer is a worldwide sport with fervent fans across the United States, Mexico, and Central America. Recent Hispanic arrivals in the United States find common ground with U.S. American soccer fans, but social and cultural issues are still barriers to better relationships among Hispanics and non-Hispanic residents. Using the concept of "soccer borderzone," I relate the ways in which futból (soccer) is a mechanism by which immigrants from Latin America can relax and adapt to life in their new communities. This article discusses the underlying issues that bring together and divide soccer fans in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina (Raleigh, Chapel Hill, and Durham). It also illustrates different cultural norms in the organization of league play. I use my eight-year experience as the president of a Hispanic Soccer League, La Liga de Raleigh, to explain the cultural norms of Hispanic participation in league play while feeling the effects of being an outsider in a new community. This article concludes by suggesting that in spite of common ground among soccer fans North and South, the recent spike in anti-immigrant rhetoric accompanied by the sinking of the American economy has slowed the process of integration within the soccer borderzone. [source]

    Ethnicity, Class, and Wilsonian Internationalism Reconsidered: The Mexican-American and Irish-American Immigrant Left and U.S. Foreign Relations, 1915,1922

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 4 2001
    Elizabeth McKillen
    First page of article [source]

    The Use of Safety Suitability Tests for The Assessment of Immigrant and Majority Group Job Applicants

    Jan Te Nijenhuis
    Safety jobs, meaning jobs where employees are responsible for the safety of customers, other employees and/or public in general are of special importance for our present society and deserve continued attention from I/O psychologists. The central question addressed in this study is whether the scores on safety suitability tests are comparable for immigrants and majority group members. Use was made of test data on first-generation immigrants (N=786) and majority group members (N=584) who applied for blue collar jobs at the Dutch Railways and at regional bus companies. The tests used measured selective attention, attentional speed, continuous attention, perceptual-motor ability and general mental ability. Immigrants' mean scores are systematically below the level of the mean scores of the majority group. The tests appear to have a strong dimensional comparability between the different groups. There is very little indication of test bias. The increasing number of immigrants and the increase of safety jobs pose challenges for selection psychologists. It is suggested that continued use of safety suitability tests is needed to keep the number of safety accidents at a minimum. [source]

    Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Presenting as Granulomatous Hepatitis in an Immigrant from the Philippines with Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Tuberculous Lymphadenitis, and a History of Alcohol Abuse

    Joseph Torresi
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    CHAPTER 6: Researching and Educating Somali Immigrant and Refugee Youth

    Article first published online: 17 AUG 2010
    First page of article [source]

    A comparison of techniques for assessing dispersal behaviour in gundis: revealing dispersal patterns in the absence of observed dispersal behaviour

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 15 2008
    Abstract Knowledge of the dispersal status of group members is important to understanding how sociality may have evolved within a species. I assessed the effectiveness of four techniques for elucidating dispersal behaviour in a rock-dwelling rodent (Ctenodactylus gundi) with small group sizes (2,10 animals): genetic parentage assignment, haplotype data and kinship analyses, assignment testing, and F -statistics. The first two methods provided the greatest insight into gundi dispersal behaviour. Assignment testing and F -statistics proved of limited use for elucidating fine-scale dispersal, but could detect large-scale patterns despite low sex-biased dispersal intensity (1.9 : 1) because of moderate genetic differentiation among groups (FST = 0.10). Findings are discussed in light of current dispersal theory. In general, gundi dispersal is plastic, and seems to be dependent on body weight (for males), group composition, and scale of analysis (total dispersal events recorded within the population were almost twice the immigration rate into the population). Most groups were comprised of a single matriline and one immigrant male. Immigrant rather than philopatric males bred with group females. Dispersal among groups was male-biased, but dispersal or philopatry could occur by either sex. During a drought, both sexes delayed dispersal and cooperative social units formed. Whether such behaviour resulted directly from the drought or not remains unclear, however, since comparative information was not available from nondrought years. Combining fine-scale analyses with information on large-scale patterns provided substantial insight into gundi dispersal behaviour despite the limited movement of animals during a drought, and may prove useful for elucidating dispersal behaviour in other social animals. [source]

    Are immigrants, ethnic and linguistic minorities over-represented in jobs with a high level of compensated risk?

    Canada study using census, Results from a montréal, workers' compensation data
    Abstract Objectives Few Canadian data sources allow the examination of disparities by ethnicity, language, or immigrant status in occupational exposures or health outcomes. However, it is possible to document the mechanisms that can create disparities, such as the over-representation of population groups in high-risk jobs. We evaluated, in the Montréal context, the relationship between the social composition of jobs and their associated risk level. Methods We used data from the 2001 Statistics Canada census and from Québec's workers' compensation board for 2000,2002 to characterize job categories defined as major industrial groups crossed with three professional categories (manual, mixed, non-manual). Immigrant, visible, and linguistic minority status variables were used to describe job composition. The frequency rate of compensated health problems and the average duration of compensation determined job risk level. The relationship between the social composition and risk level of jobs was evaluated with Kendall correlations. Results The proportion of immigrants and minorities was positively and significantly linked to the risk level across job categories. Many relationships were significant for women only. In analyses done within manual jobs, relationships with the frequency rate reversed and were significant, except for the relationship with the proportion of individuals with knowledge of French only, which remained positive. Conclusions Immigrants, visible, and linguistic minorities in Montréal are more likely to work where there is an increased level of compensated risk. Reversed relationships within manual jobs may be explained by under-reporting and under-compensation in vulnerable populations compared to those with knowledge of the province's majority language. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:875,885, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Services for immigrant women: an evaluation of locations

    The Toronto region receives one-quarter of new immigrants to Canada and they become widely dispersed throughout the metropolitan area. Most immigrants arrive with language, social and cultural needs, creating demand for social services from existing agencies. ,How can agencies choose locations that meet the needs of new immigrants?' is the central focus. The results of a study in Metropolitan Toronto of 68 nonprofit agencies that provide a variety of settlement services for immigrant and refugee women are discussed. Immigrant and language groups and the agencies serving them are mapped; the locations of agencies are evaluated. While service agencies are responding to the arrival of new groups and the spatial dispersion of new immigrants, more services in the northern portions of the study area are required. The spatial dispersion of some language groups means that they have poorer access to services than groups that are concentrated in the traditional immigrant reception area. La région de Toronto accueille le quart des immigrants au Canada, et ceux-ci sont dispersés dans l'agglomération torontoise. La plupart d'entre eux ont des exigences linguistiques, sociales et culturelles qui augmentent la demande en services sociaux dispensés par les organismes en place. Ce document porte essentiellement sur la façon dont ces derniers determinent les lieux de prestation de services qui répondront le mieux aux besoins des immigrants. II est également question des résultats d'une étude menée dans la communauté urbaine de Toronto auprés de 68 organismes à but non lucratif offrant un éventail de services d'établissement pour les immigrantes et les réfugiées. Les immigrants et les groupes linguistiques, ainsi que les organismes qui les servent, y sont répertoriés géographiquement. La localisation de ces organismes fait aussi l'objet d'une évaluation. La plupart répondent déjà aux besoins des nouveaux venus et tiennent compte de leur dispersion mais, selon cette étude, il faudrait plus de services dans le nord de l'agglomération torontoise. En raison de cet éparpillement, certains groupes linguistiques ont plus difficilement accès à des services que d'autres qui se trouvent dans les zones d'ancrage habituelles. [source]

    Life with a new baby: How do immigrant and Australian-born women's experiences compare?

    Mridula Bandyopadhyay
    Abstract Objective: Little is known about immigrant mothers' experiences of life with a new baby, apart from studies on maternal depression. Our objective was to compare the post-childbirth experiences of Australian-born and immigrant mothers from non-English speaking countries. Methods: A postal survey of recent mothers at six months postpartum in Victoria (August 2000 to February 2002), enabled comparison of experiences of life with a new baby for two groups of immigrant women: those born overseas in non-English-speaking countries who reported speaking English very well (n=460); and those born overseas in non-English-speaking countries who reported speaking English less than very well (n=184) and Australian-born women (n=9,796). Results: Immigrant women were more likely than Australian-born women to be breastfeeding at six months and were equally confident in caring for their baby and talking to health providers. No differences were found in anxiety or relationship problems with partners. However, compared with Australian-born women, immigrant mothers less proficient in English did have a higher prevalence of depression (28.8% vs 15%) and were more likely to report wanting more practical (65.2% vs 55.4%) and emotional (65.2% vs 44.1%) support. They were more likely to have no ,time out' from baby care (47% vs 28%) and to report feeling lonely and isolated (39% vs 17%). Conclusion and implications: Immigrant mothers less proficient in English appear to face significant additional challenges post-childbirth. Greater awareness of these challenges may help to improve the responsiveness of health and support services for women after birth. [source]

    Ethnic origin and increased risk for schizophrenia in immigrants to countries of recent and longstanding immigration

    M.-J. Dealberto
    Dealberto M-J. Ethnic origin and increased risk for schizophrenia in immigrants to countries of recent and longstanding immigration. Objectives:, Compare the risk for schizophrenia in immigrants to countries of recent and longstanding immigration. Compare prevalence and incidence rates in black subjects under different conditions. Method:, An electronic literature search was complemented by review articles and cross-references. Studies reporting standard diagnosis and incidence or prevalence rates were included. Results:, Immigrants had an increased risk for schizophrenia in countries of longstanding immigration, but with lower risk ratios than in those of recent immigration. The risk was higher in black immigrants and the black population living in the United States. But incidence and prevalence rates in Africa and the Caribbean were similar to those of international studies. Conclusion:, Comparing the most recent generation of immigrants with descendants of previous ones may account for the lower risk ratios observed in countries of longstanding vs. recent immigration. Two neurobiological hypotheses are proposed to explain the epidemiological findings in black populations and in immigrants. [source]

    Geography and the Immigrant Division of Labor

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2007
    Mark Ellis
    Abstract: Immigrants concentrate in particular lines of work. Most investigations of such employment niching have accented either the demand for labor in a limited set of mostly low-wage industries or the efficiency of immigrant networks in supplying that labor; space has taken a backseat or has been ignored. In contrast, this article's account of immigrant employment niching modulates insights built on social network theories with understandings derived from relative location. We do so by altering the thinking about employment niches as being metropolitan wide to considering them as local phenomena. Specifically, the analysis examines the intraurban variation in niching by Mexican, Salvadoran, Chinese, and Vietnamese men and women in four industries in Los Angeles. Niching is uneven; in some parts of the metropolitan area, these groups niche at high rates in these industries, whereas in others, there is no unusual concentration. We show how a group's propensity to niche in an industry is generally higher when the industry is located close to the group's residential neighborhoods and demonstrate the ways in which the proximity of competing groups dampens this geographic advantage. The study speaks to debates on immigrant niching and connects with research on minority access to employment and accounts of the agglomeration of firms. More generally, it links the geographies of home and work in a new way, relating patterns of immigrant residential segregation to those of immigrant employment niches. [source]

    Filial Piety, Modernization, and the Challenges of Raising Children for Chinese Immigrants: Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2004
    This study examines Chinese immigrant parents' perceptions of filial piety. The concept of filial piety is introduced and we discuss the impacts of modernization and immigration experience on the challenges faced by contemporary Chinese immigrants as they reconcile traditional values with the demands of sociohistorical change and child rearing in the United States. Factor analysis of a commonly applied scale demonstrates multiple aspects of filial piety and reflects modifications from traditional views. Interview results point to aspects of filial piety not fully represented in the quantitative scale and expose specific challenges in child rearing related to filial values. These findings suggest the evolution of expectations and strategies related to a cultural adaptation of filial piety. One key demand is for strategies consistent with parental values while maintaining respect for children's unique point of view. The conclusions focus on the development of approaches to understanding the evolving conceptualization and meaning of filial piety for contemporary immigrant Chinese. [source]

    Emotional Bureaucracies: Emotions Civil Servants, and Immigrants in the Swedish Welfare State

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2002
    Mark Graham
    This article examines how Swedish emotional expression is both reflected in and helps to reproduce the ideology of the welfare state. A Swedish ideal of emotional compatibility and continuity between welfare bureaucracies and their clients has been challenged in the wake of refugee immigration. The resulting multicultural society is understood by civil servants to translate into an emotional complexity that has consequences for the levels of emotion in meetings with refugee clients, emotional barriers between staff and clients, emotional reciprocity, and the gendering and mobilization of emotion in bureaucratic encounters. The presence of refugee immigrants is shown to have consequences for the welfare state's ability to ensure emotional reproduction in society. How Swedish civil servants respond to refugee clients provides insights into the emotional dimension of bureaucracies in multicultural welfare states and bureaucratic work more generally. [source]

    Maintenance and Change in the Diet of Hispanic Immigrants in Eastern North Carolina

    Laura H. McArthur
    The objectives of this descriptive, exploratory study were to assess maintenance and change in the food consumption, preparation, and purchasing practices of Hispanic immigrants currently residing in eastern North Carolina who had lived in the United States for no more than 10 years, and to identify underlying ecological factors and perceptions about food quality that shape their postmigrational food habits. The participants were 33 Hispanic immigrants: 8 males and 25 females. Qualitative data were collected using individual interviews and a focus group session. Findings suggest that these Hispanic immigrants struggle to retain their cultural food traditions and are consuming more high-fat, high-sugar foods than they did in their home countries. Improved economic status and school food service offerings are examples of factors that promote dietary change among children and families. These influences and identified misconceptions about food safety and freshness are important topics for culturally sensitive nutrition education for this population. [source]

    How Adolescent Children of African Jamaican Immigrants Living in Canada Perceive and Negotiate their Roles within a Matrifocal Family

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2009
    This research project examined the adolescent/young adult-parent relationships of African Jamaican immigrants currently living in Canada. Specifically, we focused on the transmission of cultural values and beliefs within these relationships and how the adolescents navigated and negotiated potential changes in these values because of their acculturative experiences. An examination of various mundane family/cultural practices provided insight into perceived transmission attempts by parents and the adolescent/young adult interpretation of these attempts. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with adolescent/young adult members of African Jamaican immigrant families living in Canada. Using Grounded Theory methodology (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), several themes emerged during the analysis of the interviews,the most significant being the issue of matrifocality within the African Jamaican family. Issues of respect and adolescent agency are also discussed as they related to the manner in which the adolescent/young adult attempted to negotiate various roles within the family. RESUMEN En este proyecto de investigación se analizaron las relaciones entre adolescentes o jóvenes adultos y sus padres en familias de inmigrantes afro-jamaiquinos que actualmente viven en Canadá. Específicamente, nos centramos en la transmisión de valores y creencias culturales dentro de estas relaciones y en cómo los adolescentes atravesaron y negociaron posibles cambios en estos valores como consecuencia de sus experiencias aculturativas. Un análisis de diversas prácticas culturales o familiares rutinarias permitió la comprensión de los intentos de transmisión percibida que hicieron los padres y la interpretación que tuvieron los adolescentes o jóvenes adultos de estos intentos. Se realizaron veinte entrevistas minuciosas a adolescentes o jóvenes adultos miembros de familias inmigrantes afro-jamaiquinas que viven en Canadá. Mediante la aplicación del método de muestreo teórico (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), surgieron varios temas durante el análisis de las entrevistas (el más importante fue el tema de la matrifocalidad dentro de la familia afro-jamaiquina). También se habla de los temas de respeto y capacidad de acción de los adolescentes, ya que se relacionaron con la manera en la que los adolescentes o jóvenes intentaron negociar distintos roles dentro de la familia. Palabras clave: aculturación familiar, relación entre padres e hijos, socialización [source]

    Are Hispanic Immigrants in English-Only States at a Homeownership Disadvantage?

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 1 2003
    1990 U.S. Censuses, Evidence from the 1980
    Utilizing data from the 1980 and 1990 U.S. census, this study investigates whether the passage of official-English legislation at the state level during the 1980s affected the housing acquisition of foreign-born Hispanics. The results suggest that both limited-English-proficient (LEP) and English-fluent Hispanic immigrants who resided in states that passed English-only legislation were less likely to acquire a home during the 1980s compared to their counterparts in other areas. Consistent with economic theory, however, the group that seemed to be most affected included older LEP residents. One explanation for these findings is that the official-English legislation mirrored growing xenophobia against foreign-born Hispanics, resulting in additional social stratification on the basis of ethnicity in housing markets. [source]

    Immigrants and the use of preventive care in the United States,

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 7 2009
    Yuriy Pylypchuk
    Abstract Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we compare immigrants' use of preventive care with that of natives. We employ a multinomial switching regression framework that accounts for non-random selection into continuous private insurance, temporary private insurance, public insurance, and no insurance. Our results indicate that among the populations with continuous private coverage and without coverage (uninsured), immigrants, especially non-citizens, are less likely to use preventive care than natives. We find that the longer immigrants stay in the US the more their use of care approximates to that of natives. However, for most types of care, immigrants' use of care never fully converges to that of natives. Among the publicly insured population, immigrants' use of care is similar to natives, but non-citizen immigrants are significantly less likely to use preventive measures. We find that the ability to speak English does not have a significant effect on the use of preventive care among publicly insured persons. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Welfare Reform and Health Insurance of Immigrants

    Neeraj Kaushal
    Objective. To investigate the effect of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) on the health insurance coverage of foreign- and U.S.-born families headed by low-educated women. Data Source. Secondary data from the March series of the Current Population Surveys for 1994,2001. Study Design. Multivariate regression methods and a pre- and post-test with comparison group research design (difference-in-differences) are used to estimate the effect of welfare reform on the health insurance coverage of low-educated, foreign- and U.S.-born unmarried women and their children. Heterogenous responses by states to create substitute Temporary Aid to Needy Families or Medicaid programs for newly arrived immigrants are used to investigate whether the estimated effect of PRWORA on newly arrived immigrants is related to the actual provisions of the law, or the result of fears engendered by the law. Principal Findings. PRWORA increased the proportion of uninsured among low-educated, foreign-born, unmarried women by 9.9,10.7 percentage points. In contrast, the effect of PRWORA on the health insurance coverage of similar U.S.-born women is negligible. PRWORA also increased the proportion of uninsured among foreign-born children living with low-educated, single mothers by 13.5 percentage points. Again, the policy had little effect on the health insurance coverage of the children of U.S.-born, low-educated single mothers. There is some evidence that the fear and uncertainty engendered by the law had an effect on immigrant health insurance coverage. Conclusions. This research demonstrates that PRWORA adversely affected the health insurance of low-educated, unmarried, immigrant women and their children. In the case of unmarried women, it may be partly because the jobs that they obtained in response to PRWORA were less likely to provide health insurance. The research also suggests that PRWORA may have engendered fear among immigrants and dampened their enrollment in safety net programs. [source]

    The Unintended Impact of Welfare Reform on the Medicaid Enrollment of Eligible Immigrants

    Namratha R. Kandula
    Background. During welfare reform, Congress passed legislation barring legal immigrants who entered the United States after August 1996 from Medicaid for five years after immigration. This legislation intended to bar only new immigrants (post-1996 immigrants) from Medicaid. However it may have also deterred the enrollment of legal immigrants who immigrated before 1996 (pre-1996 immigrants) and who should have remained Medicaid eligible. Objectives. To compare the Medicaid enrollment of U.S.-born citizens to pre-1996 immigrants, before and after welfare reform, and to determine if variation in state Medicaid policies toward post-1996 immigrants modified the effects of welfare reform on pre-1996 immigrants. Data Source/Study Design. Secondary database analysis of cross-sectional data from 1994,2001 of the U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Demographic Survey of March Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Subjects. Low-income, U.S.-born adults (N=116,307) and low-income pre-1996 immigrants (N=24,367) before and after welfare reform. Measures. Self-reported Medicaid enrollment. Results. Before welfare reform, pre-1996 immigrants were less likely to enroll in Medicaid than the U.S.-born (OR=0.55; 95 percent CI, 0.51,0.59). After welfare reform, pre-1996 immigrants were even less likely to enroll in Medicaid. The proportion of immigrants in Medicaid dropped 3 percentage points after 1996; for the U.S.-born it dropped 1.6 percentage points (p=0.012). Except for California, state variation in Medicaid policy toward post-1996 immigrants did modify the effect of welfare reform on pre-1996 immigrants. Conclusions. Federal laws limiting the Medicaid eligibility of specific subgroups of immigrants appear to have had unintended consequences on Medicaid enrollment in the larger, still eligible immigrant community. Inclusive state policies may overcome this effect. [source]

    Authors of their Lives: The Personal Correspondence of British Immigrants to North America in the Nineteenth Century By David A. Gerber

    HISTORY, Issue 305 2007
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Immigrants working with co-ethnics: Who are they and how do they fare?

    Feng Hou
    Participation in ethnic economies has been regarded as an alternative avenue of economic adaptation for immigrants and minorities in major immigrant-receiving countries. This study examines one important dimension of ethnic economies: co-ethnic concentration at the workplace. Using a large national representative sample from Statistics Canada's 2002 Ethnic Diversity Survey, this study addresses four questions: (1) what is the level of co-ethnic concentration at the workplace for Canada's minority groups? (2) How do workers who share the same ethnicity with most of their co-workers differ from other workers in socio-demographic characteristics? (3) Is higher level of co-ethnic concentration at the workplace associated with lower earnings? (4) Is higher level of co-ethnic concentration at the workplace associated with higher levels of life satisfaction? The results show that only a small proportion of immigrants and the Canadian-born work in ethnically homogeneous settings. In Canada's eight largest metropolitan areas about 10 per cent of non-British/French immigrants share a same ethnic origin with the majority of their co-workers. The level is as high as 20 per cent among Chinese immigrants and 18 per cent among Portuguese immigrants. Among Canadian-born minority groups, the level of co-ethnic workplace concentration is about half the level for immigrants. Immigrant workers in ethnically concentrated settings have much lower educational levels and proficiency in English/French. Immigrant men who work mostly with co-ethnics on average earn about 33 per cent less than workers with few or none co-ethnic coworkers. About two thirds of this gap is attributable to differences in demographic and job characteristics. Meanwhile, immigrant workers in ethnically homogenous settings are less likely to report low levels of life satisfaction than other immigrant workers. Among the Canadian-born, co-ethnic concentration is not consistently associated with earnings and life satisfaction. [source]

    Immigration Policy and Employment Conditions of US Immigrants from Mexico, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic1

    Katharine M. Donato
    ABSTRACT Prior studies suggest that the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) in 1986 signalled a deterioration in the labour market conditions of Mexican migrants. In this paper, we examine whether and how labour market conditions worsened for Dominicans and Nicaraguans after 1986, and the extent to which these shifts were comparable to those experienced by Mexicans. Our analysis relies on a new source of data that offers comparable data across the three national origins. We estimate multivariate models that capture the effects of demographic attributes, human and social capital, migration-specific human and social capital, legal status, period of trip, national origin, and other controls on the hourly wages earned by household heads and whether they received cash wages on their last US trip. Models with interaction terms reveal significant pre- and post-1986 wage effects, but few differences in these effects between Mexicans and Dominicans or Nicaraguans. In contrast, group differences appear in the risk of cash receipt of wages. Dominicans and Nicaraguans experienced a greater increase in this risk relative to Mexicans pre- and post-1986. Together, these findings depict a broader, negative impact of IRCA on Latino migrant wages than has been documented elsewhere. [source]

    Chinese Immigrants in Canada: Their Changing Composition and Economic Performance1

    Shuguang Wang
    ABSTRACT Using landing records and tax data, this paper examines both the changing composition of the Chinese immigrants in Canada in the past two decades and their levels of economic performance. Our research found that, in addition to a shift in origin, economic immigrants have been on the rise and other classes of immigrants have declined. This has been accompanied by a significant increase in their educational qualifications and proficiency in a Canadian official language. Yet, despite their increased human capital, Chinese immigrants still experience very different economic outcomes in the Canadian labour market compared to members of the general population of Canada. For one thing, they have much lower employment and self-employment income than the general population. Moreover, these earning differentials hold true for all age groups, both genders, and Chinese immigrants from all origins. While their levels of economic performance increases with length of residency in Canada, this study suggests that it would take more than 20 years for Chinese immigrants to close the earning gaps with the general population. Evidence also suggests that Canadian-specific educational credentials are indeed worth more than those acquired in the immigrants' country of origin, and are much better remunerated by Canadian employers. IMMIGRÉS CHINOIS AU CANADA: ÉVOLUTION DE LEURS COMMUNAUTÉS ET DE LEUR RÉUSSITE ÉCONOMIQUE En s'appuyant sur les relevés d'embarquement et les données des services fiscaux, les auteurs examinent à la fois l'évolution de la composition des com-munautés chinoises immigrées au Canada au cours des deux dernières décennies et le niveau de leur réussite économique. Ils constatent que, outre un glissement au niveau des régions d'origine, les immigrés économiques sont de plus en plus nombreux, tandis que d'autres catégories d'immigrés sont en recul. Cette évolution s'accompagne d'un relèvement significatif du niveau d'instruction et de la connaissance des langues officielles du Canada. Cependant, malgré l'accroissement de leur capital humain, les immigrés chinois connaissent tou-jours des fortunes très différentes sur le marché du travail canadien, si on les compare avec la population canadienne en général. D'une part, leurs revenus en qualité de salariés ou d'indépendants sont nettement inférieurs à ceux de la population générale. D'autre part, les écarts de revenus se vérifient pour toutes les tranches d'âge et pour les deux sexes, et la région d'origine ne change rien à la donne. Alors que le niveau de réussite économique s'améliore au fil des ans, cette étude montre qu'il faudrait plus de 20 ans aux immigrés chinois pour se hisser au niveau de revenu de la population générale. Elle démontre également que les diplômes acquis au Canada sont nettement plus valorisés que ceux acquis dans le pays d'origine des migrants et que leurs titulaires sont nettement mieux rémunérés par les employeurs canadiens. INMIGRANTES CHINOS EN EL CANADÁ: CAMBIOS EN SU COMPOSICIÓN Y RENDIMIENTO ECONÓMICO Gracias a los registros de entrada en el país y de pago de impuestos a la renta, en este documento se examina la variación de las últimas dos décadas en la composición de los inmigrantes chinos en el Canadá y en su rendimiento económico. En este estudio se determina que, además de provenir ahora de distintos lugares de origen, los inmigrantes económicos no dejan de aumentar mientras que las demás categorías de inmigrantes disminuyen. Ello se acompaña de un considerable incremento en sus calificaciones educativas y del conocimiento de uno de los idiomas oficiales del Canadá. Sin embargo, a pesar del creciente capital humano, los inmigrantes chinos siguen experimentando, en general, resultados económicos sumamente diferentes en el mercado laboral canadiense en comparación al resto de la población del Canadá. Por una parte, tienen tasas de ingresos muy inferiores en empleo y autoempleo que el resto de la población. Por otra, la diferencia de ingresos es válida para todos los grupos de edad, para ambos géneros, y para los inmigrantes chinos de cualquier parte. Si bien el nivel de rendimiento económico aumenta con la duración de la residencia en el Canadá, este estudio apunta a que los inmigrantes chinos tardarían más de 20 años en colmar las brechas salariales con el resto de la población. También se demuestra que las credenciales educativas específicas canadienses valen mucho más que aquéllas adquiridas por los inmigrantes en su país de origen y, por ende, son mejor remuneradas por los empleadores canadienses. [source]

    Variation in Perspective: The Employment Success of Ethnic Minority Males in the Netherlands, 1988,2002

    Pieter Bevelander
    This article investigates the job chances of ethnic minority males in the Dutch labour market. Using information from the Social Position and Use of Facilities by Immigrants (SPVA) surveys for the years 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002, we trace the employment pattern of various ethnic minority groups and Dutch natives, and study some determining factors for the job chances in the Netherlands during this period. The analysis reveals a clear variation in the employment patterns for different ethnic minority groups. Individual characteristics, such as marital status and especially educational level, turn out to be important factors in explaining the job chances for all groups. Moreover, support is found for the effect of the regional demand for labour on the employment chances for most of the analysed ethnic groups, which implies that no support is found for the queuing theory. [source]