Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Idea

  • alternative idea
  • basic idea
  • business idea
  • central idea
  • clear idea
  • complex idea
  • core idea
  • creative idea
  • current idea
  • economic idea
  • essential idea
  • foucault idea
  • good idea
  • innovative idea
  • key idea
  • main idea
  • modern idea
  • new idea
  • new product idea
  • novel idea
  • old idea
  • own idea
  • policy idea
  • political idea
  • product idea
  • proposed idea
  • psychoanalytic idea
  • relate idea
  • religious idea
  • same idea
  • similar idea
  • simple idea
  • student idea
  • traditional idea
  • underlying idea
  • very idea

  • Terms modified by Idea

  • idea generation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Prevalence of abdominal obesity in primary care: the IDEA UK study

    J. Morrell
    Summary Background:, Abdominal obesity is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. However, despite the importance of abdominal obesity as a risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease, there are currently no UK-specific data on its prevalence in patients attending primary care. Aim:, The aim of the International Day for the Evaluation of Abdominal obesity (IDEA)-UK observational study was to determine the distribution of waist circumference , a marker of abdominal obesity , and its relationship with cardiovascular risk markers in a UK-based primary care population. Methods:, Patients underwent measurements of height, weight and waist circumference and provided data on reported cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Results:, A total of 1731 patients were assessed within the study, of which 719 were male and 1012 were female. Of these 1731 patients, 1718 had complete datasets for the presence of reported cardiovascular risk factors. Median waist circumference in the male and female populations respectively was 99.0 cm [interquartile range (IQR) 91.0,108.0 cm] and 89.0 cm (IQR 79.0,100 cm). In all, 38.8% of men and 51.2% of women were abdominally obese (waist circumference > 102 cm and > 88 cm respectively) according to the US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines. Within both male and female populations, the incidence of reported CVD, lipid disorders, hypertension and diabetes increased with increasing quartiles for waist circumference. Conclusion:, Increased waist circumference is widespread in patients attending primary care in the UK and is associated with elevated levels of reported diabetes, hypertension, lipid disorders and CVD. [source]

    Idea divergent editor using analogy: The IDEA system

    Takashi Hayashi
    In this article, an idea divergent editor using analogy (IDEA) system has been proposed. The analogies between two concepts are learned using a neural network through training. First, the problem that a user wants to solve is input to the proposed IDEA system. Second, the IDEA system can draw effective analogies from a knowledge base containing large-scale and wide-ranging concepts for solutions to various problems. The user chooses one of the analogies. Then, the IDEA system presents questions that prompt the user to analyze the problem with reference to the background of the analogy. Answering the presented questions triggers off an inspiration of a solution. The IDEA system facilitates users' divergent thinking, which creates many fragments of ideas. We performed an experiment to examine the effectiveness of the IDEA system; the number of ideas generated is increased about 1.5,2.0 times using the IDEA system. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    A. T. NUYEN

    IDEA: Interface dynamics and energetics algorithm

    D. Duca
    Abstract IDEA, interface dynamics and energetics algorithm, was implemented, in FORTRAN, under different operating systems to mimic dynamics and energetics of elementary events involved in interfacial processes. The code included a parallel elaboration scheme in which both the stochastic and the deterministic components, involved in the developed physical model, worked simultaneously. IDEA also embodied an optionally running VISUAL subroutine, showing the dynamic energy changes caused by the surface events, e.g., occurring at the gas-solid interface. Monte Carlo and ordinary differential equation system subroutines were employed in a synergistic way to drive the occurrence of the elementary events and to manage the implied energy flows, respectively. Biphase processes, namely isothermal and isobaric adsorption of carbon monoxide on nickel, palladium, and platinum surfaces, were first studied to test the capability of the code in modeling real frames. On the whole, the simulated results showed that IDEA could reproduce the inner characteristics of the studied systems and predict properties not yet experimentally investigated. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2007 [source]


    James Turner Johnson
    ABSTRACT What is, or should be, the role of defense in thinking about the justification of use of armed force? Contemporary just war thinking prioritizes defense as the principal, and perhaps the only, just cause for resorting to armed force. By contrast, classic just war tradition, while recognizing defense as justification for use of force by private persons, did not reason from self-defense to the justification of the use of force on behalf of the political community, but instead rendered the idea of just cause for resort to force in terms of the sovereign's responsibility to maintain justice, vindicating those who had suffered from injustice and punishing evildoers. This paper moves through three major stages in the historical development of just war thinking, first examining a critical phase in the formation of the classical idea of just cause as the responsibility to maintain justice, then discussing the shift, characteristic of the modern period, to an idea of sovereignty as connected to the state and the prioritization of defense of the state as just cause for use of force, and lastly showing how this conception of the priority of defense became part of the recovery of just war thinking in the latter part of the twentieth century. The paper concludes by noting recent changes in thought on international law that tend to emphasize justice at the expense of the right of self-defense, suggesting that the roots of just war thinking imply the need for a similar rethinking of contemporary just war discourse. [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
    This paper explores the ambiguity in Rudolph Otto's discussion of the mysterium tremendum in order to address a broader set of difficulties in The Idea of the Holy (1917). In doing so, I outline two common criticisms of Otto's position. The first attacks Otto for not providing a secure transition from the numinous experience of terror to the holy experience of faith. The second attacks Otto for upholding a kind of theistic dualism, which seemingly puts his thought at odds with mysticism. Rather than reconstruct Otto's argument in favour of theism, I maintain that numinous experience, while still a form of otherness or alterity, is best characterized as the breakdown of subject-object dualism. I further suggest that this breakdown is best understood in non-theistic terms. For examples of the latter, I briefly turn to Jean-Luc Marion's notion of saturated phenomena. [source]


    Few economics articles have achieved the celebrity that still attaches to the paper, "Protection and Real Wages", by Wolfgang Stolper and Paul Samuelson in (1941). In this paper I discuss how the Stolper-Samuelson theorem has been re-interpreted over subsequent decades, and how attempts to generalize the theorem to higher dimensions have met with qualified results. The theorem leads to a simple proposition in political economy: in competitive models any productive factor can have its real return increased by a non-transparent policy whereby relative commodity prices are altered if there are enough commodities and joint production, is not too severe. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 2 2005
    Élisabeth Lavezzi
    The decorative arts do not appear as a category of useful knowledge in Diderot's and d'Alembert's Encyclopédie but those arts now called decorative arts, such as cabinet-making, were central to the eighteenth-century Parisian economy and a defining feature of a publication which set itself the task of raising the status of the useful arts. This essay explores the antecedents of the notion of the decorative arts in the history of ideas. By comparing Renaissance, baroque and enlightened art theory, it charts the faltering emergence of a definition of arts such as marquetry that no longer sees them as either materially or procedurally dependent on the finer arts of painting or architecture. In the subtle shifts of meaning the object gives way to the maker as principal element upon which the definition of an art turns. [source]

    Identification of behavioral function in public schools and a clarification of terms

    Kelly Kates-McElrath
    The discipline-related component of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires that schools conduct a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) when a student's behavior disrupts the educational environment and/or results in suspension from school. Applied behavior analysts often make a distinction between the terms functional assessment/functional behavioral assessment, and functional analysis yet there exists no consensus on how that distinction should be made. A relevant review of the literature was conducted to identify research articles using functional analysis or functional assessment methodology in public school settings in an effort to identify the specific procedures employed by each. Results of the review support the existence of a discrepancy between proposed and actual school-based assessment models, as well as other claims regarding functional assessment research. We address the problem of distinguishing between the terms assessment and analysis as they relate to procedures employed to determine behavioral function of students exhibiting aberrant behavior. A clarification of terms is proposed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    IDentify, Educate and Alert (IDEA) trial: an intervention to reduce postnatal depression

    Joan Webster
    Objective To test the effectiveness of a prenatal intervention in reducing the incidence of postnatal depression. Design A randomized controlled trial. Setting A large metropolitan obstetric hospital. Population or sample Pregnant women with risk factors for postnatal depression. Methods Women attending their first prenatal visit at the Royal Women's Hospital, Brisbane, were screened for risk factors for postnatal depression (IDentify). Positively screened women were randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. The intervention consisted of a booklet about postnatal depression, which included contact numbers; prenatal screening using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; a discussion with the woman about her risk of developing postnatal depression (Educate); and a letter to the woman's referring general practitioner and local Child Health Nurse, alerting them of the woman's risk for postnatal depression (Alert). Main outcome measure Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale Score> 12 at 16 weeks postpartum. Results Of the 509 women who were sent a follow up questionnaire, 371 (72.9%) responded. The proportion of women who reported an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of>12 was 26%. There were no significant differences between intervention (46/192, 24%) and control groups (50/177, 28.2%) on this primary outcome measure (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.50,1.28). Conclusion Over one-quarter of women with risk factors will develop postnatal depression. It is a treatable disorder but under-diagnosis is common. Efforts to reduce postnatal depression by implementing interventions in the prenatal period have been unsuccessful. [source]


    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 2 2010
    ABSTRACT Recently, the diffusion of the so-called "new intellectual history" led to the dismissal of the old school of the "history of ideas" on the basis of its ahistorical nature (the view of ideas as eternal entities). This formulation is actually misleading, missing the core of the transformation produced in the field. It is not true that the history of ideas simply ignored the fact that the meaning of ideas changes over time. The issue at stake here is really not how ideas changed (the mere description of the semantic transformation they underwent historically), but rather why they do. The study of the German tradition of intellectual history serves in this essay as a basis to illustrate the meaning and significance of the recent turn from ideas as its object. In the process of trying to account for the source of contingency of conceptual formations, it will open our horizon to the complex nature of the ways by which we invest the world with meaning. That is, it will disclose the presence of different layers of symbolic reality lying beneath the surface level of "ideas," and analyze their differential nature and functions. It will also show the reasons for the ultimate failure of the "history of ideas" approach, why discourses can never achieve their vocation to constitute themselves as self-enclosed, rationally integrated systems, thereby expelling contingency from their realm. In sum, it will show why historicity is not merely something that comes to intellectual history from without (as a by-product of social history or as the result of the action of an external agent), as the history of ideas assumed, but is a constitutive dimension of it. [source]


    Andrew May
    Melbourne; suburbia; urban history This article draws on preliminary research into the social history of Melbourne, on the ways that suburban life in the post-World War II era provides both explanation and counterweight to persistently negative stereotypes of suburbia. Over recent decades, suburban histories have been eschewed in favour of historical reconsiderations of the inner city or the bush. The history of the Australian suburb, particularly since 1945, is yet to be written. Oral history and municipal archives will be crucial to the writing of such histories. The article suggests several research pathways, including intergenerational life stories, a wider scale of geographical analysis, and a subtler reading of cultural conformity and social differentiation. [source]


    Stuart Crainer
    Vittorio Colao has been the chief executive of Vodafone Group for two years. He brings to the company some special experience: from 2004,2006 he was CEO of RCS MediaGroup in Milan, which publishes newspapers, magazines and books in Italy, Spain and France. Prior to RCS, he held other jobs in Vodafone, before returning in 2006. Early in his career, he served as a partner at McKinsey in Milan. Colao graduated with a business degree from Bocconi University and an MBA from Harvard Business School. Stuart Crainer talked with Colao in his office overlooking London's Paddington Station, about his views on business, the global economy and leading Vodafone. [source]


    GlaxoSmithKline faced a situation common to large global organisations: how to allocate marketing resources to smaller, regional brands. Julian Birkinshaw and Peter Robbins report on the company's inventive approach to worldwide marketing that led to the development of a unique and productive network. [source]

    Metaphor and the Idea of a Dominant Conservation Ethic

    Laura Martin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Trust and Innovation: from Spin-Off Idea to Stock Exchange

    Marko Kohtamäki
    Trust among entrepreneurs, their co-workers and between the entrepreneurs and their business partners plays a key role in the early stages of formation of a new company. In this piece of research, trust is defined as a belief consisting of eight trusting beliefs, emphasising the rational consideration between these beliefs and other situational factors. The concept of trust is developed through objects, mechanisms and antecedents. The present paper is an empirical exploration of these phenomena in the context of innovativeness in a high-tech company. The goal is to describe the role, content and impact of trust at the different stages of a business evolution process. [source]

    On the Very Idea of a Science Forming Faculty

    DIALECTICA, Issue 2 2002
    John Collins
    It has been speculated, by Chomsky and others, that our capacity for scientific understanding is not only enabled but also limited by a biologically endowed science forming faculty (SFF). I look at two sorts of consideration for the SFF thesis and find both wanting. Firstly, it has been claimed that a problem-mystery distinction militates for the SFF thesis. I suggest that the distinction can be coherently drawn for cases, but that the purported,evidence'for even a fairly lose general demarcation of problems and mysteries is not best explained by a SFF. Secondly, I consider in detail a range of cognitive considerations for the SFF thesis and contend that it is at best moot whether science can be so construed as to make it feasible that it is a faculty competence. [source]

    Max Scheler and the Idea of a Well Rounded Education

    Tapio Puolimatka
    Abstract The German philosopher Max Scheler defines the human person as a value-oriented act structure. Since a person is ideally a free being with open possibilities, the aim of education is to help human beings develop their potential in various directions. At the centre of Scheler's educational philosophy is the idea of all-round education, which aims towards a developed capacity for assessment, an ability to make choices and an ability to focus on the objective nature of things. [source]

    Patient and Surrogate Autonomy: Good Idea,In Theory

    Kenneth V. Iserson MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The European Year of Equal Opportunities for All,2007: Is the EU Moving Away From a Formal Idea of Equality?

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2008
    Erica Howard
    The EU appears to be moving from a more formal to a more substantial notion of equality and the need to tackle deep-rooted patterns of inequality experienced by some groups is recognised. But is this move in the language reflected in the measures taken against discrimination or is it just a change in rhetoric? [source]

    Hair, Human Evolution, and the Idea of Human Uniqueness

    Niccolo Caldararo
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Great Idea: A Dual-Degree Program in Engineering and a Language

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Without the Persona of the Prince: Kings, Queens and the Idea of Monarchy in Late Medieval Europe

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2007
    Theresa Earenfight
    First page of article [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: Memoryscape: How Audio Walks Can Deepen Our Sense of Place by Integrating Art, Oral History and Cultural Geography

    Toby Butler
    Author's Introduction This article is concerned with the history and practice of creating sound walks or ,memoryscapes': outdoor trails that use recorded sound and spoken memory played on a personal stereo or mobile media to experience places in new ways. It is now possible to cheaply and easily create this and other kinds of located media experience. The development of multi-sensory-located media (,locedia') presents some exciting opportunities for those concerned with place, local history, cultural geography and oral history. This article uses work from several different disciplines (music, sound art, oral history and cultural geography) as a starting point to exploring some early and recent examples of locedia practice. It also suggests how it might give us a more sophisticated, real, embodied and nuanced experience of places that the written word just can not deliver. Yet, there are considerable challenges in producing and experiencing such work. Academics used to writing must learn to work in sound and view or image; they must navigate difficult issues of privacy, consider the power relations of the outsider's ,gaze' and make decisions about the representation of places in work that local people may try and have strong feelings about. Creating such work is an active, multi-sensory and profoundly challenging experience that can offer students the chance to master multi-media skills as well as apply theoretical understandings of the histories and geographies of place. Author Recommends 1.,Perks, R., and Thomson, A. (2006). The oral history reader, 2nd ed. London: Routledge. This is a wonderful collection of significant writing concerned with oral history. Part IV, Making Histories features much of interest, including a thought-provoking paper on the challenges of authoring in sound rather than print by Charles Hardy III, and a moving interview with Graeme Miller, the artist who created the Linked walk mentioned in the memoryscape article. These only feature in the second edition. 2.,Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: a short introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. A refreshingly clear and well-written guide to the different theoretical takes on what makes places , a good starting point for further reading. 3.,Carlyle, A. (ed.). (2008). Autumn leaves: sound and the environment in artistic practice. Paris, France: Double Entendre. This is a collection of short essays and examples of located sonic media art; it includes interviews with practitioners and includes Hildegard Westekamp's Soundwalking, a practical guide to leading students on a mute walk. Lots of thought provoking, applied reading material for students here. 4.,Blunt, A., et al. (eds) (2003). Cultural geography in practice. London: Arnold. A great book for undergraduate and postgraduate students , concepts explained and lots of examples of actually doing cultural geography. The chapter on mapping worlds by David Pinder is particularly useful in this context. 5.,Pinder, D. (2001). Ghostly footsteps: voices, memories and walks in the city. Ecumene 8 (1), pp. 1,19. This article is a thoughtful analysis of a Janet Cardiff sound walk in Whitechapel, East London. Online Materials This is my project website, which features two online trails, Dockers which explores Greenwich and the memories of the London Docks that are archived in the Museum of London, and Drifting which is a rather strange experiment-combining physical geography and oral history along the Thames at Hampton Court, but still makes for an interesting trail. Audio, maps and trails can be downloaded for free, so students with phones or iPods can try the trails if you are within reach of Surrey or London. The site features an online version, with sound-accompanying photographs of the location. This website has three more trails here, this time of the communities surrounding the Royal Docks in East London. The scenery here is very dramatic and anyone interested in the regeneration of East London and its impact on local communities will find these trails interesting. Like Dockers, the walks feature a lot of rare archive interviews. This project involved a great deal of community interaction and participation as I experimented with trying to get people involved with the trail-making process. The site uses Google maps for online delivery. This New York-based firm creates exceptionally high-quality soundwalks, and they are well worth the money. They started by producing trails for different districts of New York (I recommend the Bronx Graffiti trail) and have recently made trails for other cities, like Paris and Varanassi in India. This website is run by Hewlett Packard, which has a long history of research and development in located media applications. They currently give free licence to use their mscape software which is a relatively easy to learn way of creating global positioning system-triggered content. The big problem is that you have to have a pricey phone or personal digital assistant to run the software, which makes group work prohibitively expensive. But equipment prices are coming down and with the new generations of mobile phones developers believe that the time when the player technology is ubiquitous might be near. And if you ask nicely HP will lend out sets of equipment for teaching or events , fantastic if you are working within reach of Bristol. See also which has advice and examples of how mscape software has been used for teaching children. Sample Syllabus public geography: making memoryscapes This course unit could be adapted to different disciplines, or offered as a multidisciplinary unit to students from different disciplines. It gives students a grounding in several multi-media techniques and may require support/tuition from technical staff. 1.,Introduction What is a located mediascape, now and in the future? Use examples from resources above. 2.,Cultural geographies of site-specific art and sound Theories of place; experiments in mapping and site-specific performance. 3.,Walk activity: Westergard Hildekamp , sound walk, or one of the trails mentioned above The best way , and perhaps the only way , to really appreciate located media is to try one in the location they have been designed to be experienced. I would strongly advise any teaching in this field to include outdoor, on-site experiences. Even if you are out of reach of a mediascape experience, taking students on a sound walk can happen anywhere. See Autumn Leaves reference above. 4.,Researching local history An introduction to discovering historical information about places could be held at a local archive and a talk given by the archivist. 5.,Creating located multimedia using Google maps/Google earth A practical exercise-based session going through the basics of navigating Google maps, creating points and routes, and how to link pictures and sound files. 6.,Recording sound and oral history interviews A practical introduction to the techniques of qualitative interviewing and sound recording. There are lots of useful online guides to oral history recording, for example, an online oral history primer; a more in depth guide to various aspects of oral history or this simple oral history toolkit, with useful links to project in the North of England 7.,Sound editing skills Practical editing techniques including working with clips, editing sound and creating multi-track recordings. The freeware software Audacity is simple to use and there are a lot of online tutorials that cover the basics, for example, 8.,Web page design and Google maps How to create a basic web page (placing pictures, text, hyperlinks, buttons) using design software (e.g. Dreamweaver). How to embed a Google map and add information points and routes. There is a great deal of online tutorials for web design, specific to the software you wish to use and Google maps can be used and embedded on websites free for non-profit use. 9,and 10. Individual or group project work (staff available for technical support) 11.,Presentations/reflection on practice Focus Questions 1What can sound tell us about the geographies of places? 2When you walk through a landscape, what traces of the past can be sensed? Now think about which elements of the past have been obliterated? Whose past has been silenced? Why? How could it be put back? 3Think of a personal or family story that is significant to you. In your imagination, locate the memory at a specific place. Tell a fellow student that story, and describe that place. Does it matter where it happened? How has thinking about that place made you feel? 4What happens when you present a memory of the past or a located vision of the future in a present landscape? How is this different to, say, writing about it in a book? 5Consider the area of this campus, or the streets immediately surrounding this building. Imagine this place in one of the following periods (each group picks one): ,,10,000 years ago ,,500 years ago ,,100 years ago ,,40 years ago ,,last Thursday ,,50 years time What sounds, voices, stories or images could help convey your interpretation of this place at that time? What would the visitor hear or see today at different points on a trail? Sketch out an outline map of a located media trail, and annotate with what you hear/see/sense at different places. Project Idea small group project: creating a located mediascape Each small group must create a located media experience, reflecting an aspect of the history/geography/culture of an area of their choosing, using the knowledge that they have acquired over the course of the semester. The experience may be as creative and imaginative as you wish, and may explore the past, present or future , or elements of each. Each group must: ,,identify an area of interest ,,research an aspect of the area of the groups choosing; this may involve visiting local archives, libraries, discussing the idea with local people, physically exploring the area ,,take photographs, video or decide on imagery (if necessary) ,,record sound, conduct interviews or script and record narration ,,design a route or matrix of media points The final project must be presented on a website, may embed Google maps, and a presentation created to allow the class to experience the mediascape (either in the classroom or on location, if convenient). The website should include a brief theoretical and methodological explanation of the basis of their interpretation. If the group cannot be supported with tuition and support in basic website design or using Google mapping with sound and imagery, a paper map with locations and a CD containing sound files/images might be submitted instead. For examples of web projects created by masters degree students of cultural geography at Royal Holloway (not all sound based) see [source]

    Group phantasy: its place in the psychology of genocide

    James M. Glass
    Abstract This paper explores the leading role that ideas and beliefs can play in the formation of groups and their political action, with particular reference to the psychology of groups and movements involved in genocide. The paper asserts the notion of the Idea as leader; thus moving away from Freud's more limited notion in "Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego" of the leader as a person, a charismatic figure generating feelings of love and attachment. Alluding to the work of Bion, Neri and Anzieu, the paper examines the political and psychological significance , the willed quality , of group phantasy in group-initiated mass murder, from Nazi genocide to the ideology of radical Islamic terrorism. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Descartes: God as the Idea of Infinity

    It shows that because objectors ignore Descartes' opposition to the ,order of being' they are led to a binary and incorrect reading of his argument. However, by correctly following Descartes' own logic, the method of doubt can be used to prove the existence of an infinite God. [source]

    From White to Western: "Racial Decline" and the Idea of the West in Britain, 1890,1930

    It was a literature that, whilst claiming to defend and affirm white identity, in fact exposed the limits of whiteness as a form of social solidarity. It is shown how these studies drew together a variety of challenges deemed to be facing the white race and, more specifically, how they exhibited a contradictory desire to defend white racial community whilst attacking "the masses". The idea of the West, developing alongside, within and in the wake of this crisis literature, provided a less racially reductive but not necessarily less socially exclusive identity. [source]

    The Organizational Life of an Idea: Integrating Social Network, Creativity and Decision-Making Perspectives*

    Bob Kijkuit
    abstract Existing theories on the influence of social networks on creativity focus on idea generation. Conversely, the new product development literature concentrates more on the selection of ideas and projects. In this paper we bridge this gap by developing a dynamic framework for the role of social networks from idea generation to selection. We apply findings from creativity and behavioural decision-making literature and present an in-depth understanding of the sociological processes in the front-end of the new product development process. Our framework builds on the importance of mutual understanding, sensemaking and consensus formation. The propositions focus on both network structure and content and highlight the need to have strong ties and prior related knowledge, to incorporate decision makers, and to move over time from a large, non-redundant and heterogeneous to a smaller and more cohesive network structure. We conclude with a discussion on empirical validation of the framework and possible extensions. [source]

    Newman's Theory of a Liberal Education: A Reassessment and its Implications

    John Henry Newman provided the basic vocabulary and guiding rationale sustaining the ideal of a liberal education up to our day. He highlighted its central focus on the cultivation of the intellect, its reliance upon broadly based theoretical knowledge, its independence of moral and religious stipulations, and its being its own end. As new interpretations enter the debate on liberal education further educational possibilities emanate from Newman's thought beyond those contained in his theory of a liberal education. These are found in Newman's broader idea of a university education, incorporating social, moral, and spiritual formation and in his philosophical thought where he develops a theory of knowledge at odds with the Idea of a University. There are, in addition, intriguing possibilities that arise from Newman's theory of reasoning in concrete affairs both because of their implicit challenge to inherited theories of a liberal education and because of the educational possibilities they hold out in their own right and in actual educational developments to which they may lend support. [source]

    Rhetoric, Paideia and the Old Idea of a Liberal Education

    This paper argues that the modern curriculum of academic subject disciplines embodies a rationalist conception of pure, universal knowledge that does little to cultivate, humanise or form the self. A liberal education in the classical humanist tradition, by contrast, develops a personal culture or paideia, an understanding of the self as a social, political and cultural being, and the practical wisdom needed to make judgements in practical, political and human affairs. The paper concludes by asking whether the old liberal curriculum, traditionally centred on the humanities and the disciplines of grammar and rhetoric, can be recovered in the modern age. [source]