Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Hydrology

  • catchment hydrology
  • soil hydrology
  • subsurface hydrology
  • watershed hydrology

  • Terms modified by Hydrology

  • hydrology model
  • hydrology models

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT. The catchment of the River Partnach, a torrent situated in a glacial valley in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Bavaria/Germany, was affected by a high-magnitude flood on 22/23 August 2005 with a peak discharge of more than 16 m3s -1 at the spring and about 50 m3s -1 at the catchment outlet. This flood was caused by a long period of intense rainfall with a maximum intensity of 230 mm per day. During this event, a landslide dam, which previously held a small lake, failed. The flood wave originating from the dam breach transported a large volume of sediment (more than 50 000 m3) derived from bank erosion and the massive undercutting of a talus cone. This caused a fundamental transformation of the downstream channel system including the redistribution of large woody debris and channel switching. Using terrestrial survey and aerial photography, erosional and depositional consequences of the event were mapped, pre- and post-event surfaces were compared and the sediment budget of the event calculated for ten consecutive channel reaches downstream of the former lake. According to the calculations more than 100 000 tonnes of sediment were eroded, 75% of which was redeposited within the channel and the proximal floodplain. A previous large flood which occurred a few weeks prior to the August 2005 event had a significant effect on controlling the impact of this event. [source]


    Norman L. Miller
    ABSTRACT: Previous reports based on climate change scenarios have suggested that California will be subjected to increased wintertime and decreased summertime streamflow. Due to the uncertainty of projections in future climate, a new range of potential climatological future temperature shifts and precipitation ratios is applied to the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model and Anderson Snow Model in order to determine hydrologic sensitivities. Two general circulation models (GCMs) were used in this analysis: one that is warm and wet (HadCM2 run 1) and one that is cool and dry (PCM run B06.06), relative to the GCM projections for California that were part of the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A set of specified incremental temperature shifts from 1.5°C to 5.0°C and precipitation ratios from 0.70 to 1.30 were also used as input to the snow and soil moisture accounting models, providing for additional scenarios (e.g., warm/dry, cool/wet). Hydrologic calculations were performed for a set of California river basins that extend from the coastal mountains and Sierra Nevada northern region to the southern Sierra Nevada region; these were applied to a water allocation analysis in a companion paper. Results indicate that for all snow-producing cases, a larger proportion of the streamflow volume will occur earlier in the year. The amount and timing is dependent on the characteristics of each basin, particularly the elevation. Increased temperatures lead to a higher freezing line, therefore less snow accumulation and increased melting below the freezing height. The hydrologic response varies for each scenario, and the resulting solution set provides bounds to the range of possible change in streamflow, snowmelt, snow water equivalent, and the change in the magnitude of annual high flows. An important result that appears for all snowmelt driven runoff basins, is that late winter snow accumulation decreases by 50 percent toward the end of this century. [source]


    D. M. Amatya
    ABSTRACT: A paired watershed approach was utilized to study the effects of three water management regimes on storm event hydrology in three experimental watersheds in a drained loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in eastern North Carolina. The regimes were: (1) conventional drainage, (2) controlled drainage (CD) to reduce outflows during spring fish recruitment, and (3) controlled drainage to reduce outflows and conserve water during the growing season. Data from two pit-treatment years and three years of CD treatment with raised weirs at the watershed outlet are presented. CD treatment resulted in rises in water table elevations during the summer. But the rises were small and short-lived due to increased evapotranspiration (ET) rates as compared to the spring treatment with lower ET demands. CD treatment had no effect on water tables deeper than 1.3 m. CD treatments, however, significantly (,= 0.05) reduced the stoning outflows for all events, and peak outflow rates for most of the events depending upon the outlet weir level. In some events, flows did not occur at all in watersheds with CD. When event outflows occurred, duration of the event was sharply reduced because of reduced effective ditch depth. Water table depth at the start of an event influenced the effect of CD treatment on storm event hydrology. [source]

    An integrated hydrological model for rain-induced landslide prediction

    P. L. Wilkinson
    Abstract This paper describes an extension to the Combined Hydrology And Stability Model (CHASM) to fully include the effects of vegetation and slope plan topography on slope stability. The resultant physically based numerical model is designed to be applied to site-specific slopes in which a detailed assessment of unsaturated and saturated hydrology is required in relation to vegetation, topography and slope stability. Applications are made to the Hawke's Bay region in New Zealand where shallow-seated instability is strongly associated with spatial and temporal trends in vegetation cover types, and the Mid-Levels region in Hong Kong, an area subject to a variety of landslide mechanisms, some of which may be subject to strong topographic control. An improved understanding of process mechanism, afforded by the model, is critical for reliable and appropriate design of slope stabilization and remedial measures. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A Paradigm Shift in Hydrology: Storage Thresholds Across Scales Influence Catchment Runoff Generation

    Christopher Spence
    A paradigm shift is occurring in the science surrounding runoff generation processes. Results of recent field investigations in landscapes and during periods previously unobservable are shaping new ideas on how runoff is generated and transferred from the hillslope to the catchment outlet. The previous paradigm saw runoff generation and contributing area variability as a continuum. The new paradigm is based not on continual storage satisfaction and runoff generation but threshold-mediated, connectivity-controlled processes dictated by heterogeneity in the catchment. This review focuses on the body of literature summarizing research on storage, storage thresholds and runoff generation, particularly over the last several years during which this paradigm shift has occurred. Storage thresholds that control the release of water exist at scales as small as the soil matrix and as large as the catchment. Hysteresis in storage,runoff relationships at all scales manifest because of these thresholds. Because storage thresholds at a range of scales have now been recognized as important, connectivity has become an important concept crucial to understanding how water is transferred through a catchment. This new paradigm requires basins to be instrumented within the context of a water budget investigation, with measurements taken within key catchment units, in order to be successful. New model approaches that incorporate connectivity are required to address the findings of field hydrologists. These steps are crucial if our community wishes to adopt the holisitic view of the catchment necessary to answer the questions posed to us by the society. [source]

    Dealing with Landscape Heterogeneity in Watershed Hydrology: A Review of Recent Progress toward New Hydrological Theory

    Peter A. Troch
    Predictions of hydrologic system response to natural and anthropogenic forcing are highly uncertain due to the heterogeneity of the land surface and subsurface. Landscape heterogeneity results in spatiotemporal variability of hydrological states and fluxes, scale-dependent flow and transport properties, and incomplete process understanding. Recent community activities, such as Prediction in Ungauged Basins of International Association of Hydrological Sciences, have recognized the impasse current catchment hydrology is facing and have called for a focused research agenda toward new hydrological theory at the watershed scale. This new hydrological theory should recognize the dominant control of landscape heterogeneity on hydrological processes, should explore novel ways to account for its effect at the watershed scale, and should build on an interdisciplinary understanding of how feedback mechanisms between hydrology, biogeochemistry, pedology, geomorphology, and ecology affect catchment evolution and functioning. [source]

    Catchment Classification and Hydrologic Similarity

    Thorsten Wagener
    Hydrology does not yet possess a generally agreed upon catchment classification system. Such a classification framework should provide a mapping of landscape form and hydro-climatic conditions on catchment function (including partition, storage, and release of water), while explicitly accounting for uncertainty and for variability at multiple temporal and spatial scales. This framework would provide an organizing principle, create a common language, guide modeling and measurement efforts, and provide constraints on predictions in ungauged basins, as well as on estimates of environmental change impacts. In this article, we (i) review existing approaches to define hydrologic similarity and to catchment classification; (ii) discuss outstanding components or characteristics that should be included in a classification scheme; and (iii) provide a basic framework for catchment classification as a starting point for further analysis. Possible metrics to describe form, hydro-climate, and function are suggested and discussed. We close the discussion with a list of requirements for the classification framework and open questions that require addressing in order to fully implement it. Open questions include: How can we best represent characteristics of form and hydro-climatic conditions? How does this representation change with spatial and temporal scale? What functions (partition, storage, and release) are relevant at what spatial and temporal scale? At what scale do internal structure and heterogeneity become important and need to be considered? [source]

    Geothermal prognoses for tunnels in the Andes / . Geothermische Prognose für Andentunnel

    Mag. Giorgio Höfer-Öllinger
    Geothermal energy - Geothermie; Reconnaissance - Baugrunderkundung; Hydrology - Hydrologie; Geology - Geologie Abstract Geothermal prognoses were carried out for two tunnel projects in the Andes, each running between Argentina and Chile. Different methods were applied in accordance with the different project phases. For the feasibility study of a 52 km long railway tunnel, hydrogeological mapping and hydrochemical analyses were carried out as well as isotope analyses on a thermal spring. An attempt to use silica and ionic solute geothermometers produced different results. For the central section of the tunnel temperatures are assumed to reach 50 to 70 °C and further investigations are recommended. The second tunnel project is now in the design phase. Two investigation phases have been completed including geological/ hydrogeological mapping, water sampling and analysis and core drilling. The geothermal gradient is well known from borehole temperature measurements. The thermal conductivity of the rocks was determined from core samples in a laboratory, and an average heat flow of approximately 100 mW/m2 was calculated. During the driving of the tunnel, temperatures of just over 50 °C are expected. Für zwei Tunnelvorhaben in den Anden, jeweils zwischen Argentinien und Chile, wurden geothermische Prognosen durchgeführt. Für verschiedene Projektphasen kamen entsprechend unterschiedliche Methoden zur Anwendung: Für eine Machbarkeitsstudie eines 52 km langen Eisenbahntunnels wurde eine Quellkartierung mit Probennahme durchgeführt sowie Isotopenanalytik an einer Thermalquelle. Ein Versuch, Geothermometer anhand der Lösungsfracht des Quellwassers zu verwenden, scheiterte. Für den zentralen Bereich des Tunnels werden Temperaturen von 50 bis 70 °C vermutet, weitere Erkundungen wurden empfohlen. Das zweite Tunnelvorhaben ist in der Planungsphase deutlich weiter. Neben Kartierungen liegen zwei Erkundungsphasen mit Kernbohrungen vor. Aus Bohrlochmessungen ist der geothermische Gradient bekannt, die Wärmeleitfähigkeit der Gesteine wurde anhand von Bohrkernen im Labor ermittelt. Es konnte ein durchschnittlicher Wärmefluss von etwa 100 mW/m2 errechnet werden, für den Tunnelvortrieb werden Gebirgstemperaturen von maximal knapp über 50 °C erwartet. [source]

    Hydrology and ecohydrology of Australian semi-arid wetlands

    Sébastien Lamontagne
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hydrologic prediction for urban watersheds with the Distributed Hydrology,Soil,Vegetation Model

    Lan Cuo
    Abstract Some relatively straightforward modifications to the Distributed Hydrology,Soil,Vegetation Model (DHSVM) are described that allow it to represent urban hydrological processes. In the modified model, precipitation that falls on impervious surfaces becomes surface runoff, and a spatially varying (depending on land cover) fraction of surface runoff is connected directly to the stream channel, with the remainder stored and slowly released to represent the effects of stormwater detention. The model was evaluated through application to Springbrook Creek watershed in a partially urbanized area of King County, Washington. With calibration, the modified DHSVM simulates hourly streamflow from these urbanized catchments quite well. It is also shown how the revised model can be used to study the effects of continuing urbanization in the much larger Puget Sound basin. Model simulations confirm many previous studies in showing that urbanization increases peak flows and their frequency, and decreases peak flow lag times. The results show that the urbanization parameterizations for DHSVM facilitate use of the model for prediction and/or reconstruction of a range of historic and future changes in land cover that will accompany urbanization as well as other forms of vegetation change. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Studies on the Mekong River Basin,Modelling of Hydrology and Water Resources

    Kuniyoshi Takeuchi Principal Investigator of RR2002(6) Project
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development,,

    Beverley Wemple
    Abstract Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9·6 km2) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped ,control' basin. West Branch (11·7 km2) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001,2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36,46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3,4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18,36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modelling hydrological management for the restoration of acidified floating fens

    Stefan C. Dekker
    Abstract Wetlands show a large decline in biodiversity. To protect and restore this biodiversity, many restoration projects are carried out. Hydrology in wetlands controls the chemical and biological processes and may be the most important factor regulating wetland function and development. Hydrological models may be used to simulate these processes and to evaluate management scenarios for restoration. HYDRUS2D, a combined saturated,unsaturated groundwater flow and transport model, is presented. This simulates near-surface hydrological processes in an acidified floating fen, with the aim to evaluate the effect of hydrological restoration in terms of conditions for biodiversity. In the acidified floating fen in the nature reserve Ilperveld (The Netherlands), a trench system was dug for the purpose of creating a runoff channel for acid rainwater in wet periods and to enable circum-neutral surface water to enter the fen in dry periods. The model is calibrated against measured conductivity values for a 5 year period. From the model simulations, it was found that lateral flow in the floating raft is limited. Furthermore, the model shows that the best management option is a combination of trenches and inundation, which gave the best soil water quality in the root zone. It is concluded that hydrological models can be used for the calculation of management scenarios in restoration projects. The combined saturated,unsaturated model concept used in this paper is able to incorporate the governing hydrological processes in the wetland root zones. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Preface: Hydrology in the urban environment

    Special Issue
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hydrology as a policy-relevant science

    Kuniyoshi Takeuchi
    Abstract Water is now a global political agenda and water science is part of it. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, the 3rd World Water Forum and Ministerial Conference in Kyoto in 2003 and the G8 Summit in Evian in 2003 were all concerned about urgent global water issues and call for international scientific research collaboration. Hydrology is responding to such political commitments with various scientific initiatives that include the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Predictions in Ungauged Basins (PUB), the Global Energy and Water Circulation Experiments (GEWEX) Coordinated Enhanced Observation Period (CEOP), and the Global Water Systems Project (GWSP). These initiatives will play key roles in the implementation of the new intergovernmental project, Global Earth Observing System of Systems, under preparation by Global Observation Summits from 2003 to 2005. In order to achieve the MDGs, hydrological science has to play a major role supporting policy makers by overcoming methodological obstacles and providing the necessary information. This paper emphasizes that: the availability of ground measurements is a limiting factor that prevents the full use of scientific knowledge; hydrology has to integrate and downscale the various global information into local-scale information useful for river basin management; as the availability of professional personnel is in critical short supply, in addition to funds needed, to achieve the MDGs any scientific research should always accompany capacity-building programmes to close the science divide between developed and developing nations. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrology and nitrogen balance of a seasonally inundated Danish floodplain wetland

    Hans Estrup Andersen
    Abstract This paper characterizes a seasonally inundated Danish floodplain wetland in a state close to naturalness and includes an analysis of the major controls on the wetland water and nitrogen balances. The main inputs of water are precipitation and percolation during ponding and unsaturated conditions. Lateral saturated subsurface flow is low. The studied floodplain owes its wetland status to the hydraulic properties of its sediments: the low hydraulic conductivity of a silt,clay deposit on top of the floodplain maintains ponded water during winter, and parts of autumn and spring. A capillary fringe extends to the soil surface, and capillary rise from groundwater during summer maintains near-saturated conditions in the root zone, and allows a permanently very high evapotranspiration rate. The average for the growing season of 1999 is 3·6 mm day,1 and peak rate is 5·6 mm day,1. In summer, the evapotranspiration is to a large degree supplied by subsurface storage in a confined peat layer underlying the silt,clay. The floodplain sediments are in a very reduced state as indicated by low sulphate concentrations. All nitrate transported into the wetland is thus denitrified. However, owing to modest water exchange with surrounding groundwater and surface water, denitrification is low; 71 kg NO3,N ha,1 during the study period of 1999. Reduction of nitrate diffusing into the sediments during water ponding accounts for 75% of nitrate removal. Biomass production and nitrogen uptake in above-ground vegetation is high,8·56 t dry matter ha,1 year,1 and 103 kg N ha,1 year,1. Subsurface ammonium concentrations are high, and convective upward transport into the root zone driven by evapotranspiration amounted to 12·8 kg N ha,1year,1. The floodplain wetland sediments have a high nitrogen content, and conditions are very favourable for mineralization. Mineralization thus constitutes 72% of above-ground plant uptake. The study demonstrates the necessity of identifying controlling factors, and to combine surface flow with vadose and groundwater flow processes in order to fully comprehend the flow and nitrogen dynamics of this type of wetland. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Special Issue of Hydrological Processes Wetland Hydrology and Eco-Hydrology

    Andrew J. Baird
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hydrology and water resources in monsoon Asia: a consideration of the necessity of establishing a standing research community of hydrology and water resources in the Asia Pacific region

    Katumi Musiake
    Abstract Hydrological and water resources issues appear very differently in different regions, and are strongly affected by geographical conditions. Hydrological knowledge and methodologies obtained in a specific region cannot necessarily be adapted to other regions. The purpose of this paper is to clarify one way to address adequately the regional characteristics of hydrology and water resources in monsoon Asia, especially the ,too much water' problems in the region. For this purpose, geomorphological factors, climatic factors and human intervention in the natural environment are taken into consideration as the three major factors governing the regional characteristics of the hydrology,water resources system. To identify geomorphological features macroscopically between the Asia Pacific region and other continental regions, the concepts ,tectonic zone' and ,stable region', which are two major subdivisions of continental masses in the world, are introduced. Also, a new climatic subdivision termed ,warm-humid' is proposed to express the abundant precipitation due to the Asian monsoon. Then, hydrological characteristics common or similar in ,warm-humid tectonic zones' in the Asia Pacific region, contrasted with those in stable regions, are enumerated together with the human intervention corresponding to these characteristics, and research targets peculiar to warm-humid tectonic zones are discussed. Finally, the establishment of a standing research community called ,Asia Pacific Association of Hydrology and Water Resources' is proposed to promote the exchange of operational knowledge and experience in water resources management, cooperative research activities, and professional education in the Asia Pacific region. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrology and biogeochemistry of forested catchments

    Jeffrey J. McDonnell
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Soil state and surface hydrology diagnosis based on MOSES in the Met Office Nimrod nowcasting system

    R. N. B. Smith
    Abstract A system has been developed and made operational at the Met Office for the real-time diagnosis of soil state and surface hydrology. It is based on the Met Office Surface Exchanges Scheme (MOSES) modified to take account of unresolved soil and topographic heterogeneity when calculating surface runoff by incorporating a Probability Distributed Moisture (PDM) scheme developed by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. The implementation of MOSES-PDM in the Met Office's Nimrod nowcasting system is described. High resolution soil characteristics and land cover data, together with Nimrod's analyses of precipitation amount and type, cloud cover and near-surface atmospheric variables are used to drive MOSES-PDM. Hourly values of snowmelt, runoff, net surface radiation, evaporation, potential evaporation, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil moisture deficit are calculated on a 5 km grid. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    Simulation of the Asian summer monsoon in five European general circulation models

    G. M. Martin
    Abstract A comparison is made of the mean monsoon climatology in five different general circulation models (GCMs) which have been used by the participants of a project, funded by the European Union, entitled Studies of the Influence, Hydrology and Variability of the Asian summer monsoon (SHIVA). The models differ considerably, in horizontal and vertical resolution, numerical schemes and physical parametrizations, so that it is impossible to isolate the cause of differences in their monsoon simulations. Instead, the purpose of this comparison is to document and compare the representation of the mean monsoon in models which are being used to investigate the characteristics of the monsoon, its variability and its response to different boundary forcings. All of the models produce a reasonable representation of the monsoon circulation, although there are regional variations in the magnitude and pattern of the flow at both 850 hPa and 200 hPa. Considerable differences between the models are seen in the amount and distribution of precipitation. The models all reproduce the basic monsoon seasonal variation, although the timing of the onset and retreat, and the maxima in the winds and precipitation during the established phase, differ between them. There are corresponding differences in the evolution of the atmospheric structure between the pre-monsoon season and its established phase. It is hoped that this study will set in context the investigations of the monsoon system and its impacts carried out using these models, both during SHIVA and in the future. Copyright © 2000 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    Large-scale processes in ecology and hydrology

    R.W.G. Caldow
    1. Several papers published in the 1980s stressed the importance of scaling issues, the inter-relatedness of patterns and processes at different scales of time and space, to our understanding of ecological systems. Scaling issues are of major theoretical interest and increasingly are of considerable applied importance. 2. In recognition of this, the Natural Environment Research Council, in partnership with the Scottish Executive Rural Affairs Department, funded a Thematic Programme entitled ,Large-scale Processes in Ecology and Hydrology'. The principal aim of this Programme was to integrate recent major developments in information resources and technologies with current theory in order to improve understanding of large-scale patterns and processes and their relationship to patterns and processes at smaller scales. 3. The Thematic Programme, which ran from 1995 until 1999, funded six research projects that have generated a large body of published papers. This volume, dedicated to the findings of the Programme, brings together outputs from all six projects with the aim of ensuring a rapid and widespread dissemination of the Programme's findings. A brief résumé of each of the papers is presented. 4. The papers in this volume cover a wide variety of subjects ranging from ions to the flora and fauna of the United Kingdom. Nonetheless, each study has sought in various ways to quantify observed spatio-temporal patterns at a range of scales, to determine whether those patterns are consistent across scales and to identify the interactions between small-scale patterns and processes and those at larger scales. The importance of the spatial and temporal scales at which studies are conducted, the key role played by dispersal in spatial population dynamics, and the diversity of ways in which large-scale patterns and processes relate to those at smaller scales are highlighted in many of the papers. 4. All of the papers presented here have direct relevance to applied issues. These issues are diverse and include the control of invasive alien species, the conservation of declining, threatened or endangered species, the development of survey techniques, strategies for farmland, woodland and forestry management, and the assessment of pollution sensitivity. Thus, the Thematic Programme has addressed issues of considerable theoretical interest and has at the same time generated results and predictive models that are of considerable practical and policy relevance. [source]

    Negative per capita effects of purple loosestrife and reed canary grass on plant diversity of wetland communities

    Shon S. Schooler
    ABSTRACT Invasive plants can simplify plant community structure, alter ecosystem processes and undermine the ecosystem services that we derive from biotic diversity. Two invasive plants, purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), are becoming the dominant species in many wetlands across temperate North America. We used a horizontal, observational study to estimate per capita effects (PCEs) of purple loosestrife and reed canary grass on plant diversity in 24 wetland communities in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Four measures of diversity were used: the number of species (S), evenness of relative abundance (J), the Shannon,Wiener index (H,) and Simpson's index (D). We show that (1) the PCEs on biotic diversity were similar for both invasive species among the four measures of diversity we examined; (2) the relationship between plant diversity and invasive plant abundance ranges from linear (constant slope) to negative exponential (variable slope), the latter signifying that the PCEs are density-dependent; (3) the PCEs were density-dependent for measures of diversity sensitive to the number of species (S, H,, D) but not for the measure that relied solely upon relative abundance (J); and (4) invader abundance was not correlated with other potential influences on biodiversity (hydrology, soils, topography). These results indicate that both species are capable of reducing plant community diversity, and management strategies need to consider the simultaneous control of multiple species if the goal is to maintain diverse plant communities. [source]

    A catchment scale evaluation of the SIBERIA and CAESAR landscape evolution models

    GR Hancock
    Abstract Landscape evolution models provide a way to determine erosion rates and landscape stability over times scales from tens to thousands of years. The SIBERIA and CAESAR landscape evolution models both have the capability to simulate catchment,wide erosion and deposition over these time scales. They are both cellular, operate over a digital elevation model of the landscape, and represent fluvial and slope processes. However, they were initially developed to solve research questions at different time and space scales and subsequently the perspective, detail and process representation vary considerably between the models. Notably, CAESAR simulates individual events with a greater emphasis on fluvial processes whereas SIBERIA averages erosion rates across annual time scales. This paper describes how both models are applied to Tin Camp Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, where soil erosion rates have been closely monitored over the last 10 years. Results simulating 10,000 years of erosion are similar, yet also pick up subtle differences that indicate the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two models. The results from both the SIBERIA and CAESAR models compare well with independent field data determined for the site over different time scales. Representative hillslope cross-sections are very similar between the models. Geomorphologically there was little difference between the modelled catchments after 1000 years but significant differences were revealed at longer simulation times. Importantly, both models show that they are sensitive to input parameters and that hydrology and erosion parameter derivation has long-term implications for sediment transport prediction. Therefore selection of input parameters is critical. This study also provides a good example of how different models may be better suited to different applications or research questions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Commonwealth of Australia [source]

    Topographic controls upon soil macropore flow

    Joseph Holden
    Abstract Macropores are important components of soil hydrology. The spatial distribution of macropore flow as a proportion of saturated hydraulic conductivity was tested on six humid,temperate slopes using transects of tension infiltrometer measurements. Automated water table and overland flow monitoring allowed the timing of, and differentiation between, saturation-excess overland flow and infiltration-excess overland flow occurrence on the slopes to be determined and related to tension-infiltrometer measurements. Two slopes were covered with blanket peat, two with stagnohumic gleys and two with brown earth soils. None of the slopes had been disturbed by agricultural activity within the last 20 years. This controlled the potential for tillage impacts on macropores. The proportion of near-surface macropore flow to saturated hydraulic conductivity was found to vary according to slope position. The spatial patterns were not the same for all hillslopes. On the four non-peat slopes there was a relationship between locations of overland flow occurrence and reduced macroporosity. This relationship did not exist for the peat slopes investigated because they experienced overland flow across their whole slope surfaces. Nevertheless, they still had a distinctive spatial pattern of macropore flow according to slope position. For the other soils tested, parts of slopes that were susceptible to saturation-excess overland flow (e.g. hilltoes or flat hilltops) tended to have least macropore flow. To a lesser extent, for the parts of slopes susceptible to infiltration-excess overland flow, the proportion of macropore flow as a component of infiltration was also smaller compared with the rest of the slope. The roles of macropore creation and macropore infilling by sheet wash are discussed, and it is noted that the combination of these may result in distinctive topographically controlled spatial patterns of macropore flow. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrology and dynamics of a polythermal (mostly cold) High Arctic glacier

    Robert G. Bingham
    Abstract To improve our understanding of the interactions between hydrology and dynamics in mostly cold glaciers (in which water flow is limited by thermal regime), we analyse short-term (every two days) variations in glacier flow in the ablation zone of polythermal John Evans Glacier, High Arctic Canada. We monitor the spatial and temporal propagation of high-velocity events, and examine their impacts upon supraglacial drainage processes and evolving subglacial drainage system structure. Each year, in response to the rapid establishment of supraglacial,subglacial drainage connections in the mid-ablation zone, a ,spring event' of high horizontal surface velocities and high residual vertical motion propagates downglacier over two to four days from the mid-ablation zone to the terminus. Subsequently, horizontal velocities fall relative to the spring event but remain higher than over winter, reflecting channelization of subglacial drainage but continued supraglacial meltwater forcing. Further transient high-velocity events occur later in each melt season in response to melt-induced rising supraglacial meltwater inputs to the glacier bed, but the dynamic response of the glacier contrasts with that recorded during the spring event, with the degree of spatial propagation a function of the degree to which the subglacial drainage system has become channelized. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Channel head location and characteristics using digital elevation models

    G. R. Hancock
    Abstract The drainage network is the conduit through which much surface water and sediment are routed within a catchment. In a catchment, the position of where hillslopes begin and channels end has long been considered the position of transition between diffusive processes upslope and the more incisive fluvial processes downslope. Consequently, understanding channel head location is an important issue in understanding catchment hydrology and geomorphology. This study examines channel head position and characteristics in a catchment in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, Australia. In this study the position of channel heads was mapped within the catchment and plotted on a reliable digital elevation model of the catchment. It was found that the majority of channel heads have relatively small source areas and that graphical catchment descriptors, such as the area,slope relationship and cumulative area distribution, can provide reliable measures of the field position of the heads of first-order streams and the transition from hillslope to channel. The area,slope relationship and cumulative area distribution are also shown to be good tools for determining digital elevation model grid size which can capture hillslope detail and the transition from hillslope to channel. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Interpolation processes using multivariate geostatistics for mapping of climatological precipitation mean in the Sannio Mountains (southern Italy)

    Nazzareno Diodato
    Abstract The spatial variability of precipitation has often been a topic of research, since accurate modelling of precipitation is a crucial condition for obtaining reliable results in hydrology and geomorphology. In mountainous areas, the sparsity of the measurement networks makes an accurate and reliable spatialization of rainfall amounts at the local scale difficult. The purpose of this paper is to show how the use of a digital elevation model can improve interpolation processes at the subregional scale for mapping the mean annual and monthly precipitation from rainfall observations (40 years) recorded in a region of 1400 km2 in southern Italy. Besides linear regression of precipitation against elevation, two methods of interpolation are applied: inverse squared distance and ordinary cokriging. Cross-validation indicates that the inverse distance interpolation, which ignores the information on elevation, yields the largest prediction errors. Smaller prediction errors are produced by linear regression and ordinary cokriging. However, the results seem to favour the multivariate geostatistical method including auxiliary information (related to elevation). We conclude that ordinary cokriging is a very flexible and robust interpolation method because it can take into account several properties of the landscape; it should therefore be applicable in other mountainous regions, especially where precipitation is an important geomorphological factor. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An integrated hydrological model for rain-induced landslide prediction

    P. L. Wilkinson
    Abstract This paper describes an extension to the Combined Hydrology And Stability Model (CHASM) to fully include the effects of vegetation and slope plan topography on slope stability. The resultant physically based numerical model is designed to be applied to site-specific slopes in which a detailed assessment of unsaturated and saturated hydrology is required in relation to vegetation, topography and slope stability. Applications are made to the Hawke's Bay region in New Zealand where shallow-seated instability is strongly associated with spatial and temporal trends in vegetation cover types, and the Mid-Levels region in Hong Kong, an area subject to a variety of landslide mechanisms, some of which may be subject to strong topographic control. An improved understanding of process mechanism, afforded by the model, is critical for reliable and appropriate design of slope stabilization and remedial measures. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Testing of the SIBERIA landscape evolution model using the Tin Camp Creek, Northern Territory, Australia, field catchment

    G. R. Hancock
    Abstract The SIBERIA landscape evolution model was used to simulate the geomorphic development of the Tin Camp Creek natural catchment over geological time. Measured hydrology, erosion and geomorphic data were used to calibrate the SIBERIA model, which was then used to make independent predictions of the landform geomorphology of the study site. The catchment, located in the Northern Territory, Australia is relatively untouched by Europeans so the hydrological and erosion processes that shaped the area can be assumed to be the same today as they have been in the past, subject to the caveats regarding long-term climate fluctuation. A qualitative, or visual comparison between the natural and simulated catchments indicates that SIBERIA can match hillslope length and hillslope profile of the natural catchments. A comparison of geomorphic and hydrological statistics such as the hypsometric curve, width function, cumulative area distribution and area,slope relationship indicates that SIBERIA can model the geomorphology of the selected Tin Camp Creek catchments. Copyright 2002 © Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Commonwealth of Australia. [source]