Human Inherited Disease (human + inherited_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Gene conversion causing human inherited disease: Evidence for involvement of non-B-DNA-forming sequences and recombination-promoting motifs in DNA breakage and repair,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 8 2009
Nadia Chuzhanova
Abstract A variety of DNA sequence motifs including inverted repeats, minisatellites, and the , recombination hotspot, have been reported in association with gene conversion in human genes causing inherited disease. However, no methodical statistically based analysis has been performed to formalize these observations. We have performed an in silico analysis of the DNA sequence tracts involved in 27 nonoverlapping gene conversion events in 19 different genes reported in the context of inherited disease. We found that gene conversion events tend to occur within (C+G)- and CpG-rich regions and that sequences with the potential to form non-B-DNA structures, and which may be involved in the generation of double-strand breaks that could, in turn, serve to promote gene conversion, occur disproportionately within maximal converted tracts and/or short flanking regions. Maximal converted tracts were also found to be enriched (P<0.01) in a truncated version of the ,-element (a TGGTGG motif), immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch repeats, translin target sites and several novel motifs including (or overlapping) the classical meiotic recombination hotspot, CCTCCCCT. Finally, gene conversions tend to occur in genomic regions that have the potential to fold into stable hairpin conformations. These findings support the concept that recombination-inducing motifs, in association with alternative DNA conformations, can promote recombination in the human genome. Hum Mutat 30:1,10, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Inhibition of defective adenylosuccinate lyase by HNE: A neurological disease that may be affected by oxidative stress

BIOFACTORS, Issue 1-4 2005
C. Crifò
Abstract Adenylosuccinate lyase is an enzyme of fumarase superfamily that participates in the purine biosynthetic pathway, catalysing the nonhydrolytic cleavage of succinyl groups from SAICA ribotide and adenylosuccinate. Enzyme defects are associated with a human inherited disease, which arises from single point mutations to the gene and results in mild to severe psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, muscle wasting, and autistic features. Adenylosuccinate lyase activity is lost to a different extent in the patients. Diminished levels of enzyme have been attributed to loss of catalytic activity, protein instability, or environmental factors. P100A/D422Y mutation represents a feasible model for studying the effect of cell milieu on the activity of the impaired enzyme. The defective enzyme is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major product of membrane peroxidation that has been found to accumulate in brain tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. It is suggested that inactivation of defective adenylosuccinate lyase by HNE and other membrane peroxidation products may account, at least in part, for the impairment of neurological functions and recurrent worsening of the symptoms. [source]

Revealing the human mutome

JM Chen
Chen JM, Férec C, Cooper DN. Revealing the human mutome. The number of known mutations in human nuclear genes, underlying or associated with human inherited disease, has now exceeded 100,000 in more than 3700 different genes (Human Gene Mutation Database). However, for a variety of reasons, this figure is likely to represent only a small proportion of the clinically relevant genetic variants that remain to be identified in the human genome (the ,mutome'). With the advent of next-generation sequencing, we are currently witnessing a revolution in medical genetics. In particular, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has the potential to identify all disease-causing or disease-associated DNA variants in a given individual. Here, we use examples of recent advances in our understanding of mutational/pathogenic mechanisms to guide our thinking about possible locations outwith gene-coding sequences for those disease-causing or disease-associated variants that are likely so often to have been overlooked because of the inadequacy of current mutation screening protocols. Such considerations are important not only for improving mutation-screening strategies but also for enhancing the interpretation of findings derived from genome-wide association studies, whole-exome sequencing and WGS. An improved understanding of the human mutome will not only lead to the development of improved diagnostic testing procedures but should also improve our understanding of human genome biology. [source]

The heat shock protein 70 molecular chaperone network in the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum , a quantitative approach

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2007
Andreas Weitzmann
Traditionally, the canine pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been the workhorse for cell-free studies on protein transport into the mammalian ER. These studies have revealed multiple roles for the major ER-luminal heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, IgG heavy chain-binding protein (BiP), at least one of which also involves the second ER-luminal Hsp70, glucose-regulated protein (Grp) 170. In addition, at least one of these BiP activities depends on Hsp40. Up to now, five Hsp40s and two nucleotide exchange factors, Sil1 and Grp170, have been identified in the ER of different mammalian cell types. Here we quantified the various proteins of this chaperone network in canine pancreatic rough microsomes. We also characterized the various purified proteins with respect to their affinities for BiP and their effect on the ATPase activity of BiP. The results identify Grp170 as the major nucleotide exchange factor for BiP, and the resident ER-membrane proteins ER-resident J-domain protein 1 plus ER-resident J-domain protein 2/Sec63 as prime candidates for cochaperones of BiP in protein transport in the pancreatic ER. Thus, these data represent a comprehensive analysis of the BiP chaperone network that was recently linked to two human inherited diseases, polycystic liver disease and Marinesco,Sjögren syndrome. [source]

UMD-predictor, a new prediction tool for nucleotide substitution pathogenicity,application to four genes: FBN1, FBN2, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 6 2009
Mélissa Yana Frédéric
Abstract Approximately half of gene lesions responsible for human inherited diseases are due to an amino acid substitution, showing that this mutational mechanism plays a large role in diseases. Distinguishing neutral sequence variations from those responsible for the phenotype is of major interest in human genetics. Because in vitro validation of mutations is not always possible in diagnostic settings, indirect arguments must be accumulated to define whether a missense variation is causative. To further differentiate neutral variants from pathogenic nucleotide substitutions, we developed a new tool, UMD-Predictor®. This tool provides a combinatorial approach that associates the following data: localization within the protein, conservation, biochemical properties of the mutant and wild-type residues, and the potential impact of the variation on mRNA. To evaluate this new tool, we compared it to the SIFT, PolyPhen, and SNAP software, the BLOSUM62 and Yu's Biochemical Matrices. All tools were evaluated using variations from well-validated datasets extracted from four UMD,LSDB databases (UMD,FBN1, UMD,FBN2, UMD,TGFBR1, and UMD,TGFBR2) that contain all published mutations of the corresponding genes, that is, 1,945 mutations, among which 796 different substitutions corresponding to missense mutations. Our results show that the UMD-Predictor® algorithm is the most efficient tool to predict pathogenic mutations in this context with a positive predictive value of 99.4%, a sensitivity of 95.4%, and a specificity of 92.2%. It can thus enhance the interpretation of variations in these genes, and could easily be applied to any other disease gene through the freely available UMD® generic software ( Hum Mutat 30:1,8, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Microcephalia with mandibular and dental dysplasia in adult Zmpste24-deficient mice

F. De Carlos
Abstract ZMPSTE24 (also called FACE-1) is a zinc-metalloprotease involved in the post-translational processing of prelamin A to mature lamin A, a major component of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the ZMPSTE24 gene or in that encoding its substrate prelamin A (LMNA) result in a series of human inherited diseases known collectively as laminopathies and showing regional or systemic manifestations (i.e. the Hutchinson,Gilford progeria syndrome). Typically, patients suffering some laminopathies show craniofacial or mandible anomalies, aberrant dentition or facial features characteristic of aged persons. To analyse whether Zmpste24,/, mice reproduce the cranial phenotype observed in humans due to mutations in ZMPSTE24 or LMNA, we conducted a craniometric study based on micro-computer tomography (µCT) images. Furthermore, using simple radiology, µCT, µCT-densitometry and scanning electron microscopy, we analysed the mandible and the teeth from Zmpste24,/, mice. Finally, the structure of the lower incisor was investigated using an H&E technique. The results demonstrate that Zmpste24,/, mice are microcephalic and show mandibular and dental dysplasia affecting only the mandible teeth. In all cases, the lower incisor of mice lacking Zmpste24 was smaller than in control animals, showed cylindrical morphology and a transverse fissure at the incisal edge, and the pulpal cavity was severely reduced. Structurally, the dental layers were normally arranged but cellular layers were disorganized. The inferior molars showed a reduced cusp size. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Zmpste24,/, mice represent a good model to analyse the craniofacial and teeth malformations characteristic of lamin-related pathologies, and might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events underlying these diseases. [source]