Human Inflammatory Bowel Disease (human + inflammatory_bowel_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Therapeutic benefit of pentostatin in severe IL-10,/, Colitis

Jeffrey B. Brown MD
Abstract Background: Pentostatin, an adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitor, is a purine antimetabolite used for the treatment of leukemias. ADA inhibition blunts expansion of proliferating lymphocytes and increases adenosine release, a potent anti-inflammatory molecule. Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is driven by expansion of effector T cells (Teff) that overwhelm reulatory T cells (Treg) and propagate innate immune reponses. Here we study the therapeutic benefits of ADA inhibition to impair Teff cell expansion and reduce inflammatory cytokine release in IL-10-deficient (IL-10 -/- ) mice. Methods: Colitis was induced in IL-10 -/- mice by administering piroxicam for two weeks. Mice were treated with daily pentostatin or phosphate-buffered saline for 1 week and effects on tissue inflammation, lymphocyte numbers and cytokine production examined. Results: Pentostatin reduced inflammation by >50% and nearly normalized serum amyloid A levels. Lymphocyte expansions in the colon and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) (3.5-fold and >5-fold respectively) dropped by >50-90%. Pro-inflammatory factors in the colon and MLN (IL-1,, IFN-,, IL-6, CXCL10, TNF) dropped whereas FoxP3 and TGF-, were unchanged. Reductions in cytokine production from equivalent numbers of T cells from pentostatin-treated mice after in vitro (36h) or in vivo (3h) activation suggested anti-inflammatory effects of pentostatin independent of lymphodepletion contributed to its therapeutic benefit. Analysis of mucosal lymphocyte subsets suggested pentostatin reduced numbers of effector CD4+ CD69+ T cells, while sparing CD4+ CD62L+ T cells. Conclusions: Pentostatin dosages that avoid severe lymphocyte depletion effectively treat colitis by impairing Teff cell expansion and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production while preserving regulatory Treg populations and function. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

The role of T-regulatory cells and Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel disease

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Megan E. Himmel
Summary Two related chronic inflammatory diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are together often referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current treatment options are not curative, and patients face lifelong therapy and debilitation. IBD is thought to be the product of a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in the abnormal regulation of immune responses. Experimental models have demonstrated that normal CD4+ T-regulatory (Treg) cell responses and commensal bacteria are required for the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis. Recent evidence that CD4+ T cells express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and respond directly to TLR ligands, suggests that signals from commensal bacteria may directly affect T-cell responses in the gut. In this review, we focus on evidence that defects in Treg cells may underlie IBD in humans. In addition, we discuss evidence that direct signaling via TLRs to T cells can affect IBD and that T-cell-dependent responses to bacterial proteins, such as flagellin, are central to the aetiology of this disease. [source]

Nitric oxide in inflammatory bowel disease: a universal messenger in an unsolved puzzle

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
George Kolios
Summary In recent years, nitric oxide (NO), a gas previously considered to be a potentially toxic chemical, has been established as a diffusible universal messenger that mediates cell,cell communication throughout the body. Constitutive and inducible NO production regulate numerous essential functions of the gastrointestinal mucosa, such as maintenance of adequate perfusion, regulation of microvascular and epithelial permeability, and regulation of the immune response. Up-regulation of the production of NO via expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) represents part of a prompt intestinal antibacterial response; however, NO has also been associated with the initiation and maintenance of inflammation in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies on animal models of experimental IBD have shown that constitutive and inducible NO production seems to be beneficial during acute colitis, but sustained up-regulation of NO is detrimental. This fact is also supported by studies on mice genetically deficient in various NOS isoforms. However, the mechanism by which NO proceeds from being an indispensable homeostatic regulator to a harmful destructor remains unknown. Furthermore, extrapolation of data from animal colitis models to human IBD is questionable. The purpose of this review is to update our knowledge about the role of this universal mediator and the enzymes that generate it in the pathogenesis of IBD. [source]

Dipeptidyl peptidase expression during experimental colitis in mice

Roger Yazbeck PhD
Abstract Background: We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection. Materials and Methods: Wildtype (WT) and DPIV,/, mice consumed 2% DSS in drinking water for 6 days to induce colitis. Mice were treated with saline or the DP inhibitors Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA or Ile-Thia. DP mRNA and enzyme levels were measured in the colon. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 and GLP-1 concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay, regulatory T-cells (Tregs) by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) on FOXp3+T cells in blood, and neutrophil infiltration assessed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. Results: DP8 and DP2 mRNA levels were increased (P < 0.05) in WT+saline mice compared to untreated WT mice with colitis. Cytoplasmic DP enzyme activity was increased (P < 0.05) in DPIV,/, mice at day 6 of DSS, while DP2 activity was increased (P < 0.05) in WT mice with colitis. GLP-1 (63%) and GLP-2 (50%) concentrations increased in WT+Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA mice compared to day-0 controls. MPO activity was lower in WT+Ile-Thia and WT+Ile-Pyrr-(2-CN)*TFA treated mice compared to WT+saline (P < 0.001) at day 6 colitis. Conclusions: DP expression and activity are differentially regulated during DSS colitis, suggesting a pathophysiological role for these enzymes in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DP inhibitors impaired neutrophil recruitment and maintenance of the Treg population during DSS-colitis, providing further preclinical evidence for the potential therapeutic use of these inhibitors in IBD. Finally, DPIV appears to play a critical role in mediating the protective effect of DP inhibitors. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010 [source]

Expression and functional characterization of FOXP3+CD4+ regulatory T cells in ulcerative colitis,

Qi T. Yu BS
Abstract Background: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (TR) can prevent or treat experimental murine colitis but little is known about their potential role in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FOXP3 is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development and function of CD4+CD25+ TR. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and functional characteristics of TR cells in colonic lymphoid tissues in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: FOXP3 expression was assessed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Functional characterization of CD4+CD25+ cells was analyzed by suppression of proliferation and secretion of cytokines by cocultured effector CD4+CD25, T cells. Results: FOXP3+CD4+ T cells are increased in the lamina propria (LP) of inflamed and noninflamed areas of UC colon compared to normal colon. CD4+CD25+ T cells in UC mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) express FOXP3 mRNA and protein and suppress the proliferation of autologous MLN CD4+CD25, T cells. The suppressor activity of MLN CD4+CD25+ T cells is cell contact-dependent but cytokine-independent. In addition, CD4+CD25+ T cells potently suppress the production of both Th1 (IFN-,, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-5, IL-13) cytokines by cocultured CD4+CD25, T cells. FOXP3+ cells localized in the T-cell-rich areas of MLN and occasionally present in the follicles. Conclusions: There is an expansion of FOXP3+CD4+ T cells in mucosal lymphoid tissues in UC. CD4+CD25+ isolated from UC MLN express FOXP3 and display features of TR cells in spite of active mucosal inflammation. These data suggest that their suppressor activity may be abrogated in vivo or they are unable to counterbalance the chronic mucosal inflammation in UC. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

The proportion of CD40+ mucosal macrophages is increased in inflammatory bowel disease whereas CD40 ligand (CD154)+ T cells are relatively decreased, suggesting differential modulation of these costimulatory molecules in human gut lamina propria

Dr. Hege S. Carlsen MD
Abstract Background: Signal transduction through binding of CD40 on antigen-presenting cells and CD40 ligand (CD154) on T cells appears to be crucial for mutual cellular activation. Antibodies aimed at blocking the CD40,CD154 costimulatory pathway dampen the severity of experimental colitis. To elucidate the microanatomical basis for signaling through this costimulatory pathway in human inflammatory bowel disease, we studied in situ the cellular distribution of these 2 molecules on lamina propria macrophages and T cells, respectively. Methods: Colonic specimens from 8 patients with ulcerative colitis and 8 with Crohn's disease, 8 small bowel specimens of Crohn's disease, and histologically normal control samples (6 from colon and 6 from small bowel) were included. Multicolor immunofluorescence in situ staining was performed to determine the percentage of subepithelial macrophages expressing CD40 and that of lamina propria T cells expressing CD154 while avoiding cells in lymphoid aggregates. Results: The proportion of subepithelial CD40highCD68+ macrophages was significantly increased in normal colon compared with normal small bowel and showed further elevation in both colon and small bowel afflicted with inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, on a per-CD68+ -cell basis, CD40 expression was significantly increased in severely inflamed compared with moderately inflamed colonic specimens. Conversely, the proportion of CD154+ T cells was similar in colon and small bowel, and interestingly, it was significantly reduced in colonic inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that modulation of CD40 expression by subepithelial macrophages and CD154 by lamina propria T cells is inversely modulated in the human gut. [source]

Prebiotics in chronic intestinal inflammation

Mirjam A.C. Looijer, Van Langen MD
Abstract Prebiotics are nondigestible fermentable fibers that are reported to have health benefits for the host. Older as well as more recent studies show beneficial effects in experimental colitis and lately also in human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and chronic pouchitis. In this review we give an overview of the benefits of prebiotics in rodent IBD models and in IBD patients and discuss their possible protective mechanisms. Commensal intestinal bacteria induce and perpetuate chronic intestinal inflammation, whereas others are protective. However, most of the current medications are directed against the exaggerated proinflammatory immune response of the host, some of them toxic and costly. Feeding prebiotics changes the composition of the intestinal microflora toward more protective intestinal bacteria and alters systemic and mucosal immune responses of the host. Therapy for IBD targeting intestinal bacteria and their function is just emerging. Prebiotics have the promise to be relatively safe, inexpensive, and easy to administer. Unraveling their protective mechanisms will help to develop rational applications of prebiotics. However, the initial promising results with dietary prebiotics in preclinical trials as well as small studies in human IBD will need to be confirmed in large randomized controlled clinical trials. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]