Human Infections (human + infections)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bartonella -related pseudomembranous angiomatous papillomatosis of the oral cavity associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and oral graft-versus-host disease

C. Vassallo
Summary Patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation are at high risk for infection with a variety of pathogens during different phases of the procedure. Human infections due to Bartonella spp. are viewed as emerging diseases typical in, although not exclusive to, immunosuppressed patients, in particular those with AIDS, organ transplants and haematological malignancies. We describe four patients, three children and one adult, who developed vegetating papillomatous lesions exclusively on the oral mucosae. They shared a history of haematological malignancy and allogeneic bone marrow/stem cell transplantation, and later developed chronic graft-versus-host disease, also involving the oral mucosae. Histopathologically, the vegetating lesions were characterized by a diffuse neoangiogenesis, granulation-like tissue, and a mixed cell infiltrate predominantly composed of neutrophils. Gram-negative bacteria were found in the endothelial cells of the vessels in the deeper portion of the corium by electron microscopy. In three cases, DNA of B. henselae was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. All the lesions healed after systemic antibiotic therapy, although some recurred after months, and regressed again after systemic antibiotic treatment associated with conservative surgical excision. [source]

The rhizosphere as a reservoir for opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria

Gabriele Berg
Summary During the last years, the number of human infections caused by opportunistic pathogens has increased dramatically. One natural reservoir of opportunistic pathogens is the rhizosphere, the zone around roots that is influenced by the plant. Due to a high content of nutrients, this habitat is a ,microbial hot-spot', where bacterial abundances including those with strong antagonistic traits are enhanced. Various bacterial genera, including Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Herbaspirillum, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas, contain root-associated strains that can encounter bivalent interactions with both plant and human hosts. Mechanisms responsible for colonization of the rhizosphere and antagonistic activity against plant pathogens are similar to those responsible for colonization of human organs and tissues, and pathogenicity. Multiple resistances against antibiotics are not only found with clinical strains but also with strains isolated from the rhizosphere. High competition, the occurrence of diverse antibiotics in the rhizosphere, and enhanced horizontal gene transfer rates in this microenvironment appear to contribute to the high levels of natural resistances. While opportunistic bacteria from the rhizosphere have some properties in common, each of these emerging pathogens has its own features, which are discussed in detail for Burkholderia, Ochrobactrum and Stenotrophomonas. [source]

The serodiagnosis of human infections with Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

Henrik Chart
Abstract The techniques of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of human infections with Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was prepared from strains comprising four serogroups of Y. enterocolitica and five serogroups of Y. pseudotuberculosis, tested against 200 sera submitted to the Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens for routine serodiagnosis, and shown to contain antibodies to Yersinia LPS by agglutination. Forty four sera were found to contain antibodies that bound to one of the LPS preparations used in the immunoassay. Thirty five of the sera contained antibodies to the LPS of Y. enterocolitica O3, whilst three contained antibodies to the LPS of Y. enterocolitica O5, 27 and Y. enterocolitica O9 LPS respectively. Two sera had antibodies to the LPS of Y. pseudotuberculosis II and a single serum contained antibodies to Y. pseudotuberculosis IV. The SDS-PAGE-immunoblotting procedure described proved to be a reliable procedure for the serodiagnosis of infections with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. [source]

Seasonal and pandemic influenza surveillance considerations for constructing multicomponent systems

Lynnette Brammer
Abstract, Surveillance for influenza is essential for the selection of influenza vaccine components and detection of human infections with novel influenza A viruses that may signal the start of a pandemic. Virologic surveillance provides the foundation from which this information can be obtained. However, morbidity and mortality data are needed to better understand the burden of disease, which, in turn, can provide useful information for policy makers relevant to the allocation of resources for prevention and control efforts. Data on the impact of influenza can be used to identify groups at increased risk for severe influenza-related complications, develop prevention and control policies, and monitor the effect of these policies. Influenza surveillance systems frequently monitor outpatient illness, hospitalizations, and deaths, but selection of influenza surveillance components should be based on the surveillance goals and objectives of the jurisdiction. [source]

The burden of influenza in East and South-East Asia: a review of the English language literature

James M. Simmerman
Abstract, While human infections with avian influenza A (H5NI) viruses in Asia have prompted concerns about an influenza pandemic, the burden of human influenza in East and Southeast Asia has received far less attention. We conducted a review of English language articles on influenza in 18 countries in East and Southeast Asia published from 1980 to 2006 that were indexed on PubMed. Articles that described human influenza-associated illnesses among outpatients or hospitalized patients, influenza-associated deaths, or influenza-associated socioeconomic costs were reviewed. We found 35 articles from 9 countries that met criteria for inclusion in the review. The quality of articles varied substantially. Significant heterogeneity was noted in case definitions, sampling schemes and laboratory methods. Early studies relied on cell culture, had difficulties with specimen collection and handling, and reported a low burden of disease. The recent addition of PCR testing has greatly improved the proportion of respiratory illnesses diagnosed with influenza. These more recent studies reported that 11,26% of outpatient febrile illness and 6-14% of hospitalized pneumonia cases had laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. The influenza disease burden literature from East and Southeast Asia is limited but expanding. Recent studies using improved laboratory testing methods and indirect statistical approaches report a substantial burden of disease, similar to that of Europe and North America. Current increased international focus on influenza, coupled with unprecedented funding for surveillance and research, provide a unique opportunity to more comprehensively describe the burden of human influenza in the region. [source]


ABSTRACT Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella are among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The majority of human infections caused by all of these organisms are associated with ingestion of undercooked and contaminated meat, dairy products and water where in the secreted bacterial toxins lead to foodborne intoxications. We, here, report a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of these important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The mPCR targeted Ail and virF genes of Y. enterocolitica, nuc and entB genes of S. aureus, aerA and 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas and invA, an invasion protein A gene of Salmonella. An internal amplification control designed to check the false negative reactions in mPCR was also included. This procedure could detect initial populations of 1,100 cfu/g or /mL within 24 h in experimentally spiked food and water samples. When evaluated on a total of 104 naturally occurring food samples, the mPCR detected two samples to contain S. aureus, one was identified to contain Y. enterocolitica and four samples were identified to contain Salmonella species individually. This was compared with the standard microbiological and biochemical identification procedures. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS All the microorganisms selected in this study are food and waterborne and contaminate a variety of food items. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Aeromonas species are able to grow and multiply and secrete toxins even at low temperatures. The high throughput and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction method reported here could be a viable alternative for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, S. aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella from food and environmental samples. [source]

Molecular changes associated with the transmission of avian influenza a H5N1 and H9N2 viruses to humans,

M. Shaw
Abstract In order to identify molecular changes associated with the transmission of avian influenza A H5N1 and H9N2 viruses to humans, the internal genes from these viruses were compared to sequences from other avian and human influenza A isolates. Phylogenetically, each of the internal genes of all sixteen of the human H5N1 and both of the H9N2 isolates were closely related to one another and fell into a distinct clade separate from clades formed by the same genes of other avian and human viruses. All six internal genes were most closely related to those of avian isolates circulating in Asia, indicating that reassortment with human strains had not occurred for any of these 18 isolates. Amino acids previously identified as host-specific residues were predominantly avian in the human isolates although most of the proteins also contained residues observed previously only in sequences of human influenza viruses. For the majority of the nonglycoprotein genes, three distinct subgroups could be distinguished on bootstrap analyses of the nucleotide sequences, suggesting multiple introductions of avian virus strains capable of infecting humans. The shared nonglycoprotein gene constellations of the human H5N1 and H9N2 isolates and their detection in avian isolates only since 1997 when the first human infections were detected suggest that this particular gene combination may confer the ability to infect humans and cause disease. J. Med. Virol. 66:107,114, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium Species on Grapevines

Angeles Aroca
Abstract Several Phaeoacremonium species have been recently described to include some species involved in disease of decline of woody plants and others associated with human infections. Thirteen species are currently reported on grapevines and they are suspected to be involved in Esca and Petri disease. The pathogenic character of new defined species is still unknown and, therefore, pathogenicity studies were conducted in this work. The pathogenicity of the following species was studied on grapevine seedlings and cuttings: Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, P. angustius, P. inflatipes, P. krajdenii, P. mortoniae, P. parasiticum, P. scolyti, P. venezuelense, P. viticola, and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora included as positive control. Two-month-old grapevine seedlings of Vitis vinifera cv. Malvar and cv. Airen were inoculated by watering 10 individual pots with a spore suspension (107 spores/ml) of each Phaeoacremonium species. All inoculated seedlings showed typical symptoms of a vascular disease 2 months after inoculation. Grapevine cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell were vacuum-inoculated with a spore suspension (108 spores/ml) and individually planted. Plants rated after 5 months showed that all Phaeoacremonium species and P. chlamydospora (used as positive control) caused a significant vascular discoloration, while only Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaoeacremonium mortoniae and P. aleophilum caused a significant root weight reduction compared with a non-inoculated control. Phaoeacremonium parasiticum, P. angustius, P. inflatipes and P. venezuelense caused significant foliar symptoms that included interveinal chlorosis and stunted leaves. [source]

The Bps polysaccharide of Bordetella pertussis promotes colonization and biofilm formation in the nose by functioning as an adhesin

Matt S. Conover
Summary Many respiratory pathogens establish persistent infection or a carrier state in the human nasopharynx without overt disease symptoms but the presence of these in the lungs usually results in disease. Although the anatomy and microenvironments between nasopharynx and lungs are different, a virulence factor with an organ-specific function in the colonization of the nasopharynx is unknown. In contrast to the severity of pertussis and mortality in non-vaccinated young children, Bordetella pertussis results in milder and prolonged cough in vaccinated adolescents and adults. Individuals harbouring bacteria in the nasopharynx serve as reservoirs for intrafamilial and nosocomial transmission. We show that the Bps polysaccharide of B. pertussis is critical for initial colonization of the mouse nose and the trachea but not of the lungs. Our data reveal a biofilm lifestyle for B. pertussis in the nose and the requirement of Bps in this developmental process. Bps functions as an adhesin by promoting adherence of B. pertussis and Escherichia coli to human nasal but not to human lung epithelia. Patient serum specifically recognized Bps suggesting its expression during natural human infections. We describe the first bacterial factor that exhibits a differential role in colonization and adherence between the nasopharynx and the lungs. [source]

Yeast associated with human infections in south-eastern Nigeria

MYCOSES, Issue 6 2006
L. N. Abia-Bassey
Summary A total of 1921 specimens from nine clinical sources were examined by direct microscopy and culture to recover yeast associated with human infection. Identification of yeast was based on their carbon assimilation patterns, using API 20C AUX and ID 32 C (bioMérieux, France) commercial kits. A total of 178 specimens (9.3%) were positive for yeast. Most of the yeast isolates were recovered from urine samples and genital swabs. Prevalence was significantly higher in women (14.7%) than in men (1.4%) (P < 0.05). The age group 21,30 years recorded the highest prevalence of yeast infection (65.2%) followed by age group 11,20 years (16.9%) and >40 years (9.0%). When genital samples were considered, prevalence was significantly higher in the age group 21,30 years than that in older ones (P < 0.05). Isolates recovered included seven species of Candida and Trichosporon inkin. C. albicans accounted for the highest number of isolates (128) followed by C. tropicalis (23) and C. parapsilosis (9). Two isolates each of C. famata and C. norvegensis were recorded and are reported for the first time in Nigeria. The two isolates of T. inkin were recovered from perianal lesions and are also reported for the first time from Nigeria. C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei were found to be the most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease in south-eastern Nigeria. [source]

Ultrastructure and Development of Pleistophora ronneafiei n. sp., a Microsporidium (Protista) in the Skeletal Muscle of an Immune-Compromised Individual

ABSTRACT. This report provides a detailed ultrastructural study of the life cycle, including proliferative and sporogonic developmental stages, of the first Pleistophora species (microsporidium) obtained from an immune-incompetent patient. In 1985, the organism obtained from a muscle biopsy was initially identified as belonging to the genus Pleistophora, based on spore morphology and its location in a sporophorous vesicle. Since that initial report, at least two new microsporidial genera, Trachipleistophora and Brachiola, have been reported to infect the muscle tissue of immunologically compromised patients. Because Trachipleistophora development is similar to Pleistophora, and as Pleistophora was only known to occur in cold-blooded hosts, the question of the proper classification of this microsporidium arose. The information acquired in this study makes it possible to compare Pleistophora sp. (Ledford et al. 1985) to the known human infections and properly determine its correct taxonomic position. Our ultrastructural data have revealed the formation of multinucleate sporogonial plasmodia, a developmental characteristic of the genus Pleistophora and not Trachipleistophora. A comparison with other species of the genus supports the establishment of a new species. This parasite is given the name Pleistophora ronneafiei n. sp. [source]

Photodynamic therapy: a targeted therapy in periodontics

M Raghavendra
Abstract The oral cavity is colonized by a large number and highly diversified communities of micro-organisms. Bacterial biofilm present on tooth or root surface is a major cause of gingivitis and periodontitis. Chemical antimicrobial agents are widely used in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens for dental plaque related diseases, which are among the most common human infections. As these agents are difficult to maintain at therapeutic concentrations in the oral cavity and can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in target organisms, there is a need for an alternative antimicrobial approach. A novel approach, photodynamic therapy (PDT), could be a solution to these problems. Lethal photosensitization of many bacteria, both Gram positive and Gram negative was found in many studies. The advantage of this new approach includes rapid bacterial elimination, minimal chance of resistance development and safety of adjacent host tissue and normal microflora. Thus, the available knowledge of photodynamic therapy should encourage a more clinically oriented application of this technique. [source]

Speciation and susceptibility of Nocardia isolated from ocular infections

A.K. Reddy
Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1168,1171 Abstract Twenty Nocardia spp. isolated from ocular infections were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and susceptibility was determined using the E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Species distribution among the 20 isolates was as follows: Nocardia levis (n = 7), Nocardia farcinica (n = 3), Nocardia abscessus (n = 2), Nocardia brasiliensis (n = 2), Nocardia amamiensis (n = 2), Nocardia puris (n = 1), Nocardia beijingensis (n = 1), Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (n = 1) and Nocardia thailandica (n = 1). All isolates were sensitive to amikacin. Eighteen (90%) isolates were sensitive to tobramycin, 11 (55%) to ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin, and seven (35%) to azithromycin and clarithromycin. Molecular methods are useful for the identification and for the detection of Nocardia species that have not so far been reported in human infections. [source]

Clostridium difficile in food,innocent bystander or serious threat?

J. S. Weese
Abstract Clostridium difficile is a critically important cause of disease in humans, particularly in hospitalized individuals. Three major factors have raised concern about the potential for this pathogen to be a cause of foodborne disease: the increasing recognition of community-associated C. difficile infection, recent studies identifying C. difficile in food animals and food, and similarities in C. difficile isolates from animals, food and humans. It is clear that C. difficile can be commonly found in food animals and food in many regions, and that strains important in human infections, such as ribotype 027/NAP1/toxinotype III and ribotype 078/toxinotype V, are often present. However, it is currently unclear whether ingestion of contaminated food can result in colonization or infection. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the role of C. difficile in community-associated diarrhoea: its source when it is a food contaminant, the infective dose, and the association between ingestion of contaminated food and disease. The significant role of this pathogen in human disease and its potential emergence as an important community-associated pathogen indicate that careful evaluation of different sources of exposure, including food, is required, but determination of the potential role of food in C. difficile infection may be difficult. [source]

Alternaria infections: laboratory diagnosis and relevant clinical features

F. J. Pastor
Abstract The genus Alternaria contains several species of melanized hyphomycetes that cause opportunistic human infections. The published literature contains 210 reported cases of human alternarioses between 1933 and the present day. The most frequent clinical manifestations are cutaneous and subcutaneous infections (74.3%), followed by oculomycosis (9.5%), invasive and non-invasive rhinosinusitis (8.1%) and onychomycosis (8.1%). Immunosuppression is frequently associated with cutaneous and subcutaneous infections and rhinosinusitis. The most important risk factors for cutaneous and subcutaneous infections are solid organ transplantation and Cushing's syndrome, and those for rhinosinusitis are bone marrow transplants. Having been exposed to soil and garbage is common in all cases of oculomycosis, with corticotherapy being a risk factor in 50% of these cases. Previous contact with soil and/or trauma to the nails is associated with most cases of onychomycosis. In general, alternariosis shows a good response to conventional antifungal drugs. On some occasions, steroid suppression or reduction is sufficient to resolve an infection. Itraconazole is the antifungal drug used most frequently to successfully treat onychomycosis and cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. Posaconazole and voriconazole are promising therapeutic options, with the latter being especially so for oculomycosis. [source]

Perspectives and opportunities for novel antiviral treatments targeting virus fitness

M. Clementi
Abstract Increasing data indicate that reduction of virus fitness may be beneficial for the host in persistent human infections caused by RNA viruses, and that virus fitness can be targeted in clinical practice. Analysis of virus fitness determinants in rapidly evolving RNA viruses has revealed that virus extinction may be obtained in vitro by forcing virus populations through a lethal mutagenesis process, thus abolishing virus replication by violation of the error threshold. It will be important in the future to evaluate the use of novel compounds designed specifically to modulate virus fitness in vivo, and to optimise diagnostic virology methods to enable a reliable large-scale evaluation of this approach. [source]

Microbiological and clinical features of Corynebacterium urealyticum: urinary tract stones and genomics as the Rosetta Stone

F. Soriano
Abstract Corynebacterium urealyticum, formerly known as coryneform CDC group D2, was first recognized to be involved in human infections 30 years ago. It is a slow-growing, lipophilic, asaccharolytic and usually multidrug-resistant organism with potent urease activity. Its cell wall peptidoglycan, menaquinone, mycolic and cellular fatty acid composition is consistent with that of the genus Corynebacterium. DNA,DNA hybridization studies and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis have been used to determine the degree of relatedness of C. urealyticum to other corynebacterial species. The genome of the type strain consists of a circular chromosome with a size of 2 369 219 bp and a mean G + C content of 64.2%, and analysis of its genome explains the bacterium's lifestyle. C. urealyticum is a common skin colonizer of hospitalized elderly individuals who are receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. It is an opportunistic pathogen causing mainly acute cystitis, pyelonephritis, encrusted cystitis, and encrusted pyelitis. More infrequently, it causes other infections, but mainly in patients with urological diseases. Infections are more common in males than in females, and treatment requires administration of antibiotics active against the organism in vitro, mainly glycopeptides, as well as surgical intervention, the latter mostly in cases of chronic infection. Mortality directly associated with infection by this organism is not frequent, but encrusted pyelitis in kidney-recipient patients may cause graft loss. The outcome of infection by this organism is reasonably good if the microbiological diagnosis is made and patients are treated appropriately. [source]