Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type (human + immunodeficiency_virus_type)

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Selected Abstracts

Study of binding stoichiometries of the human immunodeficiency virus type,1 reverse transcriptase by capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence polarization using aptamers as probes

Hao Fu
Abstract Binding stoichiometries between four DNA aptamers (RT12, RT26, RTlt49, and ODN93) and the reverse transcriptase (RT) of the type,1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) were studied using affinity CE (ACE) coupled with LIF polarization and fluorescence polarization (FP). The ACE/LIF study showed evidence of two binding stoichiometries between the HIV-1,RT protein and aptamers RT12, RT26, and ODN93, suggesting that these aptamers can bind to both the p66 and p51 subunits of the HIV-1,RT. Only one binding stoichiometry for aptamer RTlt49 was found. The affinity complexes were easily separated from the unbound aptamers; however, the different stoichiometries were not well resolved. A complementary technique, FP, was able to provide additional information about the binding and supporting evidence for the ACE/LIF results. The ACE/LIFP study also revealed that the FP values of the 1:1 complexes of the HIV-1,RT protein with aptamers RT12, RT26, and ODN93 were always much greater than those of the 1:2 complexes. This was initially surprising because the larger molecular size of the 1:2 complexes was expected to result in higher FP values than the corresponding 1:1 complexes. This phenomenon was probably a result of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the two fluorescent molecules bound to the HIV-1,RT protein. [source]

Role of macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1-associated dementia

The structure and function of neurons are changed not only during development of the central nervous system but also in certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) -associated dementia. Immunological activation and altered production of neurotoxins and neurotrophins by brain macrophages are thought to play an important role in neuronal structure and function. This review describes the clinical and pathological features of both Alzheimer's disease and HIV-1-associated dementia and tries to interpret the role of the macrophage and astrocytes therein. The consequences of activation of macrophages by amyloid-, in Alzheimer's disease and HIV infection of macrophages in HIV-1-associated dementia and the similarities between these diseases will be discussed. Although the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease and HIV-1-associated dementia differs, Alzheimer's disease is a cortical dementia and HIV-1-associated dementia is a subcortical dementia, the process of macrophage activation and the resulting pathways leading to neurotoxicity seem very similar. In both Alzheimer's disease and HIV-1-associated dementia, interaction of macrophages and astrocytes appear to play an important role. [source]

Modifications in the human T,cell proteome induced by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein expression

Mayte Coiras
Abstract The effects of the human immunodeficiency virus type,1 (HIV-1) Tat protein on cellular gene expression were analysed using a Jurkat cell line that was stably transfected with tat,gene in a doxycycline-repressible expression system. Expressed Tat protein (aa,1,101) was proved to present basically a nuclear localisation, and to be fully functional to induce HIV,LTR transactivation. Tat expression also resulted in protection from Tunicamycin-induced apoptosis as determined by DNA staining and TUNEL assays. We applied proteomics methods to investigate changes in differential protein expression in the transfected Jurkat-Tat cells. Protein identification was performed using 2-D DIGE followed by MS analysis. We identified the down-regulation of several cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, ,-tubulin, annexin,II, as well as gelsolin, cofilin and the Rac/Rho-GDI complex. Down-expression of these proteins could be involved in the survival of long-term reservoirs of HIV-infected CD4+ T,cells responsible for continuous viral production. In conclusion, in addition to its role in viral mRNA elongation, the proteomic approach has provided insight into the way that Tat modifies host cell gene expression. [source]

Refractory human papillomavirus-associated oral warts treated topically with 1,3% cidofovir solutions in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients

R. Husak
No abstract is available for this article. [source]