Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients (human + immunodeficiency_virus_patient)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Highly Purified 1000-cSt Silicone Oil for Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Facial Lipoatrophy: An Open Pilot Trial

Derek H. Jones MD
Background. Among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, facial lipoatrophy has become epidemic. Those affected are stigmatized, leading to psychological distress, social and career impediments, and impaired compliance to human immunodeficiency virus medications. Temporary treatment options are limited by excessive cost, necessity of frequent treatments, and lack of a natural look or feel beneath the skin. Affected patients require more persistent, affordable, safe, and effective treatment options. Objective. The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of highly purified 1000-cSt silicone oil injected by microdroplet serial puncture technique for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipoatrophy. Methods. Data on 77 patients with a complete correction were analyzed to determine the number of treatments, amount of silicone, and time required to reach complete correction, relative to initial severity. Results. The volume of silicone, number of treatments, and time required to reach a complete correction were directly related to initial severity of lipoatrophy (p < 0.0001). Supple, even facial contours were routinely restored, with all patients tolerating treatments well. No adverse events were noted. Conclusion. In this pilot trial, we have demonstrated that highly purified 1000-cSt silicone oil is a safe and effective treatment option for human immunodeficiency virus facial lipoatrophy. Longer-term safety and efficacy in human immunodeficiency virus patients remain to be proven. [source]

A T2 cytokine environment may not limit T1 responses in human immunodeficiency virus patients with a favourable response to antiretroviral therapy

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
Patricia Price
Summary Low-level production of interferon-, (IFN-,) marks human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced immunodeficiency and has been ascribed to a bias towards T2 cytokines. This was investigated in two cross-sectional studies of HIV patients who were immunodeficient when they began antiretroviral therapy (ART) and had stable increases in CD4 T-cell counts. Blood leucocytes were assessed unstimulated or after stimulation with cytomegalovirus (CMV), anti-CD3 or mitogen. IFN-, and interleukin (IL)-5 responses were initially assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot-forming cell assay (ELISPOT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We then adopted a sensitive reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR) system to assess IFN-,, IL-5, IL-4 and IL-4,2 (an inhibitory splice variant of IL-4) mRNA. The results were correlated with putative serological markers of a T1 [lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), CD26] or a T2 [CD30, immunoglobulin E (IgE)] cytokine environment. IL-5 production and IgE levels were elevated in patients. IgE levels did not correlate with IFN-,, but showed an inverse correlation with IL-5 released in culture (P = 005). The levels of IL-4, IFN-,, IL-5 and IL-4,2 mRNA were correlated after anti-CD3 stimulation, where IL-5 was the best predictor of IFN-, mRNA (P = 0006). Weak positive correlations were evident between CD30 and cytokine mRNA levels, whilst IgE correlated inversely with IL-4, IL-4,2, IL-5 and IFN-, mRNA levels. These analyses provide no evidence for an inverse relationship between T1 and T2 cytokine responses in HIV patients, but suggest that the elevation of IgE marks low cytokine responses. [source]

Acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of painful antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients: an open label study

Maurizio Osio
Abstract Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy causes morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients under dideoxynucleoside therapy, benefits only partially from medical therapy, and often leads to drug discontinuation. Proposed pathogeneses include a disorder of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, eventually related to a reduction of mitochondrial DNA content, and interference with nerve growth factor activity. Carnitine is a substrate of energy production reactions in mitochondria and is involved in many anabolic reactions. Acetyl carnitine treatment promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and has neuroprotective properties and a direct analgesic role related to glutamatergic and cholinergic modulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of painful antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in HIV patients. Twenty subjects affected by painful antiretroviral toxic neuropathy were treated with oral acetyl-l-carnitine at a dose of 2,000 mg/day for a 4-week period. Efficacy was evaluated by means of the modified Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire with each item rated on an 11-point intensity scale at weekly intervals and by electromyography at baseline and final visit. Mean pain intensity score was significantly reduced during the study, changing from 7.35 1.98 (mean SD) at baseline to 5.80 2.63 at week 4 (p = 0.0001). Electrophysiological parameters did not significantly change between baseline and week 4. In this study, acetyl-l-carnitine was effective and well tolerated in symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy associated with antiretroviral toxicity. On the contrary, no effect was noted on neurophysiological parameters. [source]

Versatile protein microarray based on carbohydrate-binding modules

Keren Ofir
Abstract Non-DNA microarrays, such as protein, peptide and small molecule microarrays, can potentially revolutionize the high-throughput screening tools currently used in basic and pharmaceutical research. However, fundamental obstacles remain that limit their rapid and widespread implementation as an alternative bioanalytical approach. These include the prerequisite for numerous proteins in active and purified form, ineffectual immobilization strategies and inadequate means for quality control of the considerable numbers of multiple reagents. This study describes a simple yet efficient strategy for the production of non-DNA microarrays, based on the tenacious affinity of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) for its three-dimensional substrate, i.e., cellulose. Various microarray formats are described, e.g., conventional and single-chain antibody microarrays and peptide microarrays for serodiagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus patients. CBM-based microarray technology overcomes many of the previous obstacles that have hindered fabrication of non-DNA microarrays and provides a technically simple but effective alternative to conventional microarray technology. [source]

Declined neural efficiency in cognitively stable human immunodeficiency virus patients,

Thomas Ernst PhD
Objective To determine whether brain activation changes in clinically and neurocognitively normal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),infected and in HIV-seronegative control (SN) participants over a 1-year period. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 32 SN and 31 HIV patients (all with stable combination antiretroviral treatment) at baseline and after 1 year. Each participant performed a set of visual attention tasks with increasing attentional load (from tracking two, three, or four balls). All HIV and SN participants had normal neuropsychological function at both examinations. Results Over 1 year, HIV patients showed no change in their neurocognitive status or in task performance during fMRI. However, HIV patients showed significant 1-year increases in fMRI signals in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices for the more difficult tasks, whereas SN control participants showed only decreases in brain activation in these regions. This resulted in significant interactions between HIV status and time of study in left insula, left parietal, left temporal, and several frontal regions (left and right middle frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate). Interpretation Because fMRI task performance remained unchanged in both groups, the HIV patients appeared to maintain performance by increasing usage of the attention network, whereas the control participants reduced usage of the attention network after 1 year. These findings suggest improved efficiency or a practice effect in the SN participants but declined efficiency of the neural substrate in HIV patients, possibly because of ongoing brain injury associated with the HIV infection, despite their apparent stable clinical course. Ann Neurol 2009;65:316,325 [source]