Human Immunodeficiency Virus (human + immunodeficiency_virus)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

  • human immunodeficiency virus immunodeficiency syndrome
  • human immunodeficiency virus infection
  • human immunodeficiency virus patient
  • human immunodeficiency virus testing
  • human immunodeficiency virus type

  • Selected Abstracts

    Hepatic inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in hepatitis C virus,human immunodeficiency virus co-infection

    S. A. Gonzalez
    Summary., Although epidemiologic studies have documented that hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients have accelerated fibrogenesis, especially those with CD4+ cell counts <200 cells/mm3, the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether severe immunodeficiency in co-infection is associated with changes in intrahepatic inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels. We measured interferon (IFN)-,, tumour necrosis factor-,, transforming growth factor (TGF)-,1, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNA levels by real-time PCR performed on liver samples from HCV mono-infected (n = 19) and HCV/HIV co-infected (n = 24) patients. Co-infected patients had decreased intrahepatic mRNA levels of IFN-, (P = 0.09), IL-4 (P = 0.05) and IL-12p35 (P = 0.04) compared with mono-infected patients, while IL-10 was increased (P = 0.07). In co-infected patients, IFN-, mRNA levels increased linearly with increasing peripheral CD4+ cell counts by 1.23 times relative to the calibrator for every 100 CD4+ cells/mm3 increase (P = 0.02). No other cytokines were significantly associated with CD4+ cell counts. In conclusion, HIV-induced lymphopenia may result in hepatic inflammatory cytokine suppression in HCV/HIV co-infection. Intrahepatic IFN-, levels are significantly reduced in patients with advanced immunodeficiency. Further studies are needed to assess whether decreased IFN-, secretion by HCV-specific CD4+ cells may account for accelerated fibrogenesis in these patients. [source]

    Enfuvirtide: A safe and effective antiretroviral agent for human immunodeficiency virus,infected patients shortly after liver transplantation

    Elina Teicher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an enfuvirtide-based antiretroviral (ARV) regimen on the management of immunosuppression and follow-up in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),coinfected liver transplant patients in comparison with a lopinavir/ritonavir-based ARV regimen. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine trough concentrations were determined at a steady state during 3 periods: after liver transplantation without ARV treatment (period 1), at the time of ARV reintroduction (period 2), and 2 to 3 months after liver transplantation (period 3). The findings for 22 HIV-coinfected patients were compared (18 with HCV and 4 with HBV); 11 patients were treated with enfuvirtide and were matched with 11 lopinavir/ritonavir,exposed patients. During period 1, tacrolimus and cyclosporine A doses were 8 and 600 mg/day, respectively, and the trough concentrations were within the therapeutic range in both groups. In period 2, the addition of lopinavir/ritonavir to the immunosuppressant regimen enabled a reduction in the dose of immunosuppressants required to maintain trough concentrations within the therapeutic range (to 0.3 mg/day for tacrolimus and 75 mg/day for cyclosporine). Immunosuppressant doses were not modified by the reintroduction of enfuvirtide, there being no change in the mean trough concentrations over the 3 periods. CD4 cell counts remained at about 200 cells/mm. The HIV RNA viral load remained undetectable. Both groups displayed signs of mild cytolysis and cholestasis due to the recurrence of HCV, whereas no renal insufficiency was observed. Enfuvirtide is an attractive alternative to standard ARV therapy, facilitating the management of drug-drug interactions shortly after liver transplantation. Moreover, the lack of liver toxicity renders this drug valuable in the event of a severe HCV recurrence. Liver Transpl 15:1330,1335, 2009. 2009 AASLD. [source]

    Human leukocyte antigen,associated sequence polymorphisms in hepatitis C virus reveal reproducible immune responses and constraints on viral evolution,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Joerg Timm
    CD8+ T cell responses play a key role in governing the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and viral evolution enabling escape from these responses may contribute to the inability to resolve infection. To more comprehensively examine the extent of CD8 escape and adaptation of HCV to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted immune pressures on a population level, we sequenced all non-structural proteins in a cohort of 70 chronic HCV genotype 1a-infected subjects (28 subjects with HCV monoinfection and 42 with HCV/human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] coinfection). Linking of sequence polymorphisms with HLA allele expression revealed numerous HLA-associated polymorphisms across the HCV proteome. Multiple associations resided within relatively conserved regions, highlighting attractive targets for vaccination. Additional mutations provided evidence of HLA-driven fixation of sequence polymorphisms, suggesting potential loss of some CD8 targets from the population. In a subgroup analysis of mono- and co-infected subjects some associations lost significance partly due to reduced power of the utilized statistics. A phylogenetic analysis of the data revealed the substantial influence of founder effects upon viral evolution and HLA associations, cautioning against simple statistical approaches to examine the influence of host genetics upon sequence evolution of highly variable pathogens. Conclusion: These data provide insight into the frequency and reproducibility of viral escape from CD8+ T cell responses in human HCV infection, and clarify the combined influence of multiple forces shaping the sequence diversity of HCV and other highly variable pathogens. (HEPATOLOGY 2007.) [source]

    Review article: adherence to medication for chronic hepatitis C , building on the model of human immunodeficiency virus antiretroviral adherence research

    J. J. WEISS
    Summary Background, Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with pegylated interferon/ribavirin achieves sustained virological response in up to 56% of HCV mono-infected patients and 40% of HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected patients. The relationship of patient adherence to outcome warrants study. Aim, To review comprehensively research on patient-missed doses to HCV treatment and discuss applicable research from adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy. Methods, Publications were identified by PubMed searches using the keywords: adherence, compliance, hepatitis C virus, interferon and ribavirin. Results, The term ,non-adherence' differs in how it is used in the HCV from the HIV literature. In HCV, ,non-adherence' refers primarily to dose reductions by the clinician and early treatment discontinuation. In contrast, in HIV, ,non-adherence' refers primarily to patient-missed doses. Few data have been published on the rates of missed dose adherence to pegylated interferon/ribavirin and its relationship to virological response. Conclusions, As HCV treatment becomes more complex with new classes of agents, adherence will be increasingly important to treatment success as resistance mutations may develop with suboptimal dosing of HCV enzyme inhibitors. HIV adherence research can be applied to that on HCV to establish accurate methods to assess adherence, investigate determinants of non-adherence and develop strategies to optimize adherence. [source]

    Orbital sarcoma in HIV positive patient: A diagnostic dilemma

    D.N.B., Nalini Gupta M.D.
    Abstract Diagnosis of a high-grade sarcoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may not pose any difficulty; however, further sub-typing is sometimes difficult. The clinical data, investigations, and finer points on cytomorphology may help for proper categorization of the tumor, however, we encountered a case of orbital sarcoma in an Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patient, in which further sub-typing was difficult even on histopathology and immunohistochemistry was helpful. The diagnostic difficulties on FNA cytology smears as well as histopathology are highlighted. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A preliminary investigation of dental disease in children with HIV infection

    M. Gelbier
    Objective. To establish the levels of dental caries and gingivitis in a group of HIV-positive children. Study group. The study group comprised 35 children with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus attending The Great Ormond Street Hospital For Children. Outcome measures. Outcome measures included the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth and surfaces in both the primary and permanent dentitions; plaque and gingivitis scores. Results. The children included 18 boys and 17 girls. They were aged from 6 months to 18 years, with 17 aged 5 years or less and 15 aged 6 years or older. Twenty-four of the 35 children had some caries experience. The mean dmft was 44 and for those with permanent teeth the mean DMFT was 07. Mean plaque and gingivitis scores were 167 and 51 for plaque and gingivitis adjacent to primary teeth and 80 and 57 for that related to permanent teeth. Conclusions. There is a significant treatment need for children with HIV. [source]

    Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Older Men Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Clinical Factors and Value of the Six-Minute Walk Distance

    Krisann K. Oursler MD
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors related to cardiorespiratory fitness in older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and to explore the utility of 6-minute walk distance (6-MWD) in measuring fitness. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in clinic-based cohort. SETTING: Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three HIV-infected men, median age 57 (range 50,82), without recent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,related illness and receiving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. MEASUREMENTS: Peak oxygen utilization (VO2peak) according to treadmill graded exercise testing, 6-MWD, grip strength, quadriceps maximum voluntary isometric contraction, cross-sectional area, muscle quality, and muscle adiposity. RESULTS: There was a moderate correlation between VO2peak (mean SD; 18.4 5.6 mL/kg per minute) and 6-MWD (514 91 m) (r=0.60, P<.001). VO2peak was lower in subjects with hypertension (16%, P<.01) and moderate anemia (hemoglobin 10,13 gm/dL; 15%, P=.09) than in subjects without these conditions. CD4 cell count (median 356 cells/mL, range 20,1,401) and HIV-1 viral load (84% nondetectable) were not related to VO2peak. Among muscle parameters, only grip strength was an independent predictor of VO2peak. Estimation of VO2peak using linear regression, including age, 6-MWD, grip strength, and hypertension as independent variables, explained 61% of the variance in VO2peak. CONCLUSION: Non-AIDS-related comorbidity predicts cardiorespiratory fitness in older HIV-infected men receiving ARV therapy. The 6-MWD is a valuable measure of fitness in this patient population, but a larger study with diverse subjects is needed. [source]

    Changing Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in the Population Aged 50 and Older

    Sindy M. Paul MD
    OBJECTIVES: To alert persons in the public and private healthcare professions to the increasing trends in higher proportions of persons aged 50 and older who are newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and who are living with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). DESIGN: Data from the period 1992 through 2004 from the HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS) were analyzed. SETTING: New Jersey is the eleventh-most-populous state, with the highest density of persons per square mile. It also has the fifth-highest number of AIDS cases. PARTICIPANTS: All persons residing in New Jersey and reported to HARS with HIV infection or who are considered to have AIDS. MEASUREMENTS: Trends in persons aged 50 and older were compared with those in the population younger than 50 during 1992 through 2004 for the numbers of persons living with HIV/AIDS and the number of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection. RESULTS: The proportion of all persons aged 50 and older living with HIV/AIDS in 2004 was significantly greater than the comparable proportion of persons in 1992. Proportionally, more persons were newly diagnosed with HIV who were aged 50 and older according to sex and for each of the three major race or ethnicity groups (white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic) than were persons younger than 50. Each of these increases was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: HIV/AIDS social marketing campaigns should include images and issues related to older persons in educational and prevention efforts. New methods that reach older populations should be considered. Physicians and other healthcare providers should be made aware of their role in prevention and education about HIV. Testing of older populations with risk factors should be encouraged. [source]

    When intimate partner violence against women and HIV collide:Challenges for healthcare assessment and intervention

    FAAN, Kimberly Adams Tufts DNP, WHNP-BC
    Abstract Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues that impact the overall health of women. IPV, including sexual assault, remains a persistent public health concern that has proven to be both difficult and significantly dangerous to prevent and treat. Based on data from UNAIDS more than 14.5 million women were living with HIV by the end of 2005. IPV and HIV are often interrelated. Exposure to IPV has been associated with an increased risk for contracting HIV and women who are living with HIV may be more likely to become victims of IPV. Implications: comprehensive care and services have to be offered in the context of where women seek health care. Screening and effective intervention for IPV are essential components of HIV-related services including prevention programming, voluntary counseling and testing, and treatment. Including IPV-related services into the context of HIV-related services delivers the message that violence is not a taboo topic in the health-care setting. [source]

    Risk factors for oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV-infected adults of Brazil

    Mariela Dutra Gontijo Moura
    Background:, Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) may be an indicator of the progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-induced immuno-depression, and the evaluation of risk factors leading to OHL is important in the management of these HIV-infected patients. However, there are few studies that analyze risk factors leading to OHL in the Brazilian population. The aim of this case,control study is to present data about prevalence rates and risk factors leading to OHL in a sample of HIV-infected adults in Brazil. Methods:, This case,control study included 111 HIV-infected patients treated at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. In the initial examinations with dentists, variables were collected from all patients. Diagnosis of OHL was performed in accordance with the International Classification System and cytological features. The Fisher and the chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis. The proportional prevalence and odds ratio were estimated. Results:, Outcome presented a positive, statistically significant association among the presence of OHL and viral load of 3000 copies/,l or greater (P = 0.0001; odds ratio (OR) = 5.8), presence of oral candidiasis (P = 0.0000; OR = 11.1), previous use of fluconazole (P = 0.0000; OR = 24.6), and use of systemic acyclovir (P = 0.032; OR = 4.3). Antiretroviral medication presented a negative, statistically significant association with the presence of OHL (P = 0.002; OR = 8.4). Conclusions:, Prevalence of OHL was 28.8%. Viral load, oral candidiasis, previous use of fluconazole, and systemic acyclovir were determined to be risk factors for OHL. Antiretroviral medication proved to be protective against the development of OHL. [source]

    Perianal Bowen Disease in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Kathleen A. Carroll M.D.
    A majority of these cancers have been reported in adult patients; few reports are available regarding anogenital HPV-associated carcinomas developing in children. We report a case of perianal Bowen disease in an HIV-positive child. An 8-year-old HIV-positive boy with a history of perianal verrucous lesions presented to a clinic in Lesotho because his caregiver noted his lesions were changing in color, texture, and extent. Histologic sections revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ. Several cases of anogenital condyloma in HIV-positive children have been reported, but very few cases of HPV-associated cancer. Children with vertically transmitted HIV may be uniquely susceptible to persistent infection with strains of HPV acquired perinatally. While the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has resulted in immune restoration, decreased opportunistic infection, and increased life expectancy for children and adults with HIV, it has not affected the incidence of HPV-related cancers in these patients. The increased life expectancy of children with HIV may actually put them at risk for developing an HPV-related anogenital cancer. [source]

    Gene therapy for HIV/AIDS: the potential for a new therapeutic regimen

    Greg Fanning
    Abstract Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AIDS is a disease that, compared with the not so distant past, is now better held in check by current antiretroviral drugs. However, it remains a disease not solved. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) generally uses two non-nucleoside and one nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor or two non-nucleoside RT and one protease inhibitor. HAART is far more effective than the mono- or duo-therapy of the past, which used compounds like the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor AZT or two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, even with the relatively potent drug cocktails that comprise HAART, there are the issues of (i) HIV escape mutants, (ii) an apparent need to take the drugs in an ongoing manner, and (iii) the drugs' side effects that are often severe. This review speaks to the potential addition to these potent regimens of another regimen, namely the genetic modification of target hematopoietic cells. Such a new treatment paradigm is conceptually attractive as it may yield the constant intracellular expression of an anti-HIV gene that acts to inhibit HIV replication and pathogenicity. A body of preclinical work exists showing the inhibition of HIV replication and decreased HIV pathogenicity by anti-HIV genetic agents. This preclinical work used hematopoietic cell lines and primary cells as the target tissue. More recently, several clinical trials have sought to test this concept in vivo. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Research Priorities for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sexually Transmitted Infections Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention in Emergency Departments: Consensus-based Recommendations

    Jason S. Haukoos MD
    Abstract This article describes the results of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention in the emergency department (ED) component of the 2009 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference entitled "Public Health in the ED: Surveillance, Screening, and Intervention." The objectives were to use experts to define knowledge gaps and priority research questions related to the performance of HIV and STI surveillance, screening, and intervention in the ED. A four-step nominal group technique was applied using national and international experts in HIV and STI prevention. Using electronic mail, an in-person meeting, and a Web-based survey, specific knowledge gaps and research questions were identified and prioritized. Through two rounds of nomination and refinement, followed by two rounds of election, consensus was achieved for 11 knowledge gaps and 14 research questions related to HIV and STI prevention in EDs. The overarching themes of the research priority questions were related to effectiveness, sustainability, and integration. While the knowledge gaps appear disparate from one another, they are related to the research priority questions identified. Using a consensus approach, we developed a set of priorities for future research related to HIV and STI prevention in the ED. These priorities have the potential to improve future clinical and health services research and extramural funding in this important public health sector. [source]

    Effectiveness of Increasing Emergency Department Patients' Self-perceived Risk for Being Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Through Audio Computer Self-interview,based Feedback About Reported HIV Risk Behaviors

    Roland C. Merchant MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Prior research has demonstrated that emergency department (ED) patient acceptance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening is partially dependent on patients' self-perceived risk of infection. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI)-based feedback. The intervention aimed to increase patient's self-perceived risk of being HIV infected by providing immediate feedback on their risk behaviors. Methods:, This 1-year, randomized, controlled trial at a U.S. ED enrolled a random sample of 18- to 64-year-old subcritically ill or injured adult patients who were not known to be HIV infected. All participants completed an anonymous, ACASI-based questionnaire about their HIV risk behaviors related to injection drug use and sex, as well as their self-perceived risk for being HIV infected. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two study groups: an intervention group in which participants received immediate ACASI-based feedback in response to each of their reported risk behaviors or a no-intervention group without feedback. Participants were asked to indicate their level of HIV risk on a five-point scale before and after they answered the questions. Change in level of self-perceived HIV risk was calculated and compared by study group using Pearson's chi-square test. An HIV risk behavior score that summarized reported HIV risk behavior was devised. Because HIV risk behaviors differ by sex, scores were calculated separately for each sex. Linear regression models that adjusted for study group and same subject covariance were employed to determine if higher HIV risk behavior scores were associated with an increase in self-perceived HIV risk. Results:, Of the 566 trial participants, the median age was 29 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 22,43 years), 62.2% were females, and 66.9% had been tested previously for HIV. After answering the reported HIV risk behavior questions, 12.6% of participants had an increase, 79.9% had no change, and 7.5% had a decrease in self-perceived HIV risk. Of the 46.6% of participants who initially indicated that they were not at risk for HIV, 11.4% had an increase in self-perceived HIV risk after answering the reported HIV risk behavior questions. Change in self-perceived HIV risk did not differ by study group (p = 0.77). There were no differences in reported HIV risk scores between the intervention and no-intervention groups for females (p = 0.78) or males (p = 0.86). In the linear regression models, a greater increase in self-perceived HIV risk was associated with higher reported HIV risk behavior scores for females (, = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15, 1.04) but not for males (, = 1.00, 95% CI = ,0.13 to 2.14). Conclusions:, Some ED patients can be moved, although modestly, to recognize their risk for being HIV infected by asking about their HIV risk behaviors. However, ACASI-based feedback messages about HIV risk behaviors do not increase subjects' self-perceived HIV risk. Female ED patients appear to increase their self-perceived HIV risk more than males when queried about their HIV risk behaviors. [source]

    Nomenclature and Definitions for Emergency Department Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing: Report from the 2007 Conference of the National Emergency Department HIV Testing Consortium

    Michael S. Lyons MD
    Abstract Early diagnosis of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through diagnostic testing and screening is a critical priority for individual and public health. Emergency departments (EDs) have an important role in this effort. As EDs gain experience in HIV testing, it is increasingly apparent that implementing testing is conceptually and operationally complex. A wide variety of HIV testing practice and research models have emerged, each reflecting adaptations to site-specific factors and the needs of local populations. The diversity and complexity inherent in nascent ED HIV testing practice and research are associated with the risk that findings will not be described according to a common lexicon. This article presents a comprehensive set of terms and definitions that can be used to describe ED-based HIV testing programs, developed by consensus opinion from the inaugural meeting of the National ED HIV Testing Consortium. These definitions are designed to facilitate discussion, increase comparability of future reports, and potentially accelerate wider implementation of ED HIV testing. [source]

    Application of the Lewis Acid,Lewis Base Bifunctional Asymmetric Catalysts to Pharmaceutical Syntheses: Stereoselective Chiral Building Block Syntheses of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Protease Inhibitor and ,3 -Adrenergic Receptor Agonist.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 44 2003
    Hiroyuki Nogami
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus gag and pol-specific CD8 T cells in perinatal HIV infection

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 5 2001
    Thomas W. McCloskey
    Abstract Background: Binding of fluorochrome-conjugated MHC class I tetramers is a powerful means to detect antigen-specific CD8 T lymphocytes. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cellular immune response is essential in curtailing HIV disease progression but gaps persist in our understanding of HIV-specific cells during the disease course. In this study, we evaluated tetramer binding HIV-specific CD8 T cells in HIV-infected children. Methods: Fluorescently labeled tetramers for HIV gag and pol were utilized to quantify antigen-specific cells by flow cytometry using a whole blood labeling method in a cohort of 19 HLA-A2+ HIV- infected children (age range 1 month to 17 years). Results: Fourteen children had detectable gag (median 0.4%) and pol (median 0.1%) binding CD8 T cells, three children had gag binding cells only, and two had neither. Numbers of gag and pol binding cells correlated with each other and each correlated independently with total CD8 T cells and total CD4 T cells. Conclusions: HIV gag and pol-specific CD8 T cells are maintained during the chronic phase of HIV infection in children and CD4 lymphocytes appear to be important for sustaining their levels. Cytometry (Comm. Clin. Cytometry) 46:265,270, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Can hepatitis C virus prevalence be used as a measure of injection-related human immunodeficiency virus risk in populations of injecting drug users?

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
    An ecological analysis
    ABSTRACT Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outbreaks occur among injecting drug users (IDUs), but where HIV is low insight is required into the future risk of increased transmission. The relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV prevalence among IDUs is explored to determine whether HCV prevalence could indicate HIV risk. Methods Systematic review of IDU HIV/HCV prevalence data and regression analysis using weighted prevalence estimates and time,series data. Results HIV/HCV prevalence estimates were obtained for 343 regions. In regions other than South America/sub-Saharan Africa (SAm/SSA), mean IDU HIV prevalence is likely to be negligible if HCV prevalence is <30% (95% confidence interval 22,38%) but increases progressively with HCV prevalence thereafter [linearly (, = 0.39 and R2 = 0.67) or in proportion to cubed HCV prevalence (, = 0.40 and R2 = 0.67)]. In SAm/SSA, limited data suggest that mean HIV prevalence is proportional to HCV prevalence (, = 0.84, R2 = 0.99), but will be much greater than in non-SAm/SSA settings with no threshold HCV prevalence that corresponds to low HIV risk. At low HCV prevalences (<50%), time,series data suggest that any change in HIV prevalence over time is likely to be much smaller (<25%) than the change in HCV prevalence over the same time-period, but that this difference diminishes at higher HCV prevalences. Conclusions HCV prevalence could be an indicator of HIV risk among IDUs. In most settings, reducing HCV prevalence below a threshold (30%) would reduce substantially any HIV risk, and could provide a target for HIV prevention. [source]

    Genetic damage detected in CD-1 mouse pups exposed perinatally to 3,-azido-3,-deoxythymidine and dideoxyinosine via maternal dosing, nursing, and direct gavage

    Jack B. Bishop
    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women are administered nucleoside-analogue antiretrovirals to reduce maternal-infant viral transmission. The current protocol recommends treating newborns for 6 additional weeks postpartum. The treatment is effective, but the risk of drug-induced chromosomal damage in neonates remains undefined. We used a mouse model to investigate this concern. In a multigeneration reproductive toxicity study, female CD-1 mice received 3,-azido-3,-deoxythymidine (AZT) and dideoxyinosine (ddI) (50/250, 75/375, 150/750 mg/kg/day AZT/ddI) by gavage twice daily in equal fractions beginning prior to mating and continuing throughout gestation and lactation. Direct pup dosing (same regimen) began on postnatal day (PND) 4. Peripheral blood erythrocytes of male pups were screened for micronuclei, markers of chromosomal damage, on PNDs 1, 4, 8, and 21. Extraordinary increases in micronucleated cells were noted in pups for each treatment group at each sampling time; treated dams exhibited smaller yet significant increases in micronucleated erythrocytes. The frequencies of micronucleated cells in untreated pups were higher than in the untreated dams, and all pups had markedly elevated levels of circulating reticulocytes compared to dams. These observations suggest that fetal and neonatal mouse hematopoietic precursor cells have heightened sensitivity to genotoxic agents, perhaps due to rapid cell proliferation during the perinatal period of development. The amount of genetic damage observed in treated pups raises concern for the potential of similar damage in humans. Investigations of chromosomal integrity in exposed newborns and children are recommended. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 43:3,9, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus,associated obliterative portopathy underlies unexplained aminotransferase elevations under antiretrovirals,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Vincent O. Mallet
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Determining thymic output quantitatively: using models to interpret experimental T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) data

    Ruy M. Ribeiro
    Summary:, T cells develop in the thymus and then are exported to the periphery. As one ages, the lymphoid mass of the thymus decreases, and a concomitant decrease in the ability to produce new T cells results. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects CD4+ T cells and, hence, can also affect thymic function. Here we discuss experimental techniques and mathematical models that aim to quantify the rate of thymic export. We focus on a recent technique involving the quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). We discuss how proper interpretation of TREC data necessitates the critical development of appropriate mathematical models. We review the theory for interpretation of TREC data during aging, HIV infection, and anti-retroviral treatment. Also, we show how TRECs can be used to accurately quantify thymic output in the context of thymectomy experiments. We show that mathematical models are not only useful but absolutely necessary for these analyses. As such, they should be taken as just another tool in the immunologist's arsenal. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus,hepatitis C coinfection: swapping new problems for newer ones

    J. Sasadeusz
    Abstract Recent successes in HIV therapy have uncovered other health problems for HIV-infected individuals. Hepatitis C has become an especially significant problem, partly due to its faster progression in an immunocompromised setting. In addition, the higher viral loads in coinfected patients likely result in more efficient perinatal and perhaps even sexual transmission. Therapy has largely been neglected, despite data suggesting its efficacy in HIV,HCV coinfected patients. Studies of combination interferon and ribavirin studies are lacking, although underway. A major concern is the potential inactivation of certain thymidine analogues by ribavirin. Some antiretroviral therapies, such as ritonavir, indinavir and nevirapine, may enhance liver toxicity in coinfected patients and should be avoided if possible. The role of chronic low-grade liver function abnormalities remains uncertain and requires further investigation. (Intern Med J 2001; 31: 418,421) [source]

    Molecular characterization of the env gene of two CCR5/CXCR4-independent human immunodeficiency 2 primary isolates,

    Quirina Santos-Costa
    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) infection is characterized by a slower disease progression and lower transmission rates. The molecular features that could be assigned as directly involved in this in vivo phenotype remain essentially unknown, and the importance of HIV-2 as a model to understand pathogenicity of HIV infection has been frequently underestimated. The early events of the HIV replication cycle involve the interaction between viral envelope glycoproteins and cellular receptors: the CD4 molecule and a chemokine receptor, usually CCR5 or CXCR4. Despite the importance of these two chemokine receptors in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) entry into cells, we have previously shown that in some HIV-2 asymptomatic individuals, a viral population exists that is unable to use both CCR5 and CXCR4. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether possible regions in the env gene of these viruses might account for this phenotype. From the molecular characterization of these env genes we could not detect any correlation between V3 loop sequence and viral phenotype. In contrast, it reveals the existence of remarkable differences in the V1/V2 and C5 regions of the surface glycoprotein, including the loss of a putative glycosilation site. Moreover, in the transmembrane glycoprotein some unique sequence signatures could be detected in the central ectodomain and second heptad repeat (HR2). Some of the mutations affect well-conserved residues, and may affect the conformation and/or the dynamics of envelope glycoproteins complex, including the SU,TM association and the modulation of viral entry function. J. Med. Virol. 81:1869,1881, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus Co-infection and viral subtypes at an HIV testing center in Brazil

    G.A.S. Pereira
    Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing sites have been recognized recently as potential settings for hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening since both viruses share common routes of transmission. HIV and HCV prevalence, predictors, co-infection rates, and viral subtypes were studied in 592 attendants at an anonymous HIV Counseling and Testing Center in central Brazil. Anti-HIV-1 and -HCV antibodies were screened by ELISA, and Western blots were used to confirm HIV infection. Among HIV-seropositive samples, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested-PCR were used to subtype HIV-1 by the Heteroduplex Mobility Analysis (HMA) and HCV by the line probe assay (INNO-LiPA). HIV and HCV seroprevalence was 3.2% (95% CI 2.0,4.9) and 2.5% (95% CI 1.5,4.0), respectively. Intravenous drug use was the risk factor most strongly associated with both HIV and HCV infections, even in a population with few intravenous drug users (n,=,6); incarceration was also associated with HCV. HIV/AIDS-positive sexual partner and homosexual/bisexual behaviors were associated independently with HIV-1. The prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-positive persons was 42% (95% CI 20,66), higher than in HIV-negative persons (1.2%; 95% CI 0.5,2.5). HIV-1 subtype B was identified in the env and gag regions of the genome. HCV subtype 3a predominated among co-infected persons and one HCV subtype 1a was detected. Overall, a similar prevalence of HIV and HCV infections and a higher prevalence of HCV among HIV-positive persons were observed. Integrated HIV and HCV screening at HIV testing sites may represent a unique opportunity to provide diagnosis and prevention strategies at a single visit. J. Med. Virol. 78:719,723, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus serotyping on dried serum spots as a screening tool for the surveillance of the AIDS epidemic

    Francis Barin
    Abstract Many studies have demonstrated the utility of the dried blood spot (DBS) or dried plasma/serum spot (DSS) method for serological and molecular diagnosis of HIV infection. Here, we report on the description of a serotyping assay performed on DSS, and its application to a national surveillance program of HIV variants. We combined serotyping assays that we developed previously to discriminate between HIV-1 and HIV-2, between HIV-1 group O and HIV-1 group M, and between B and non-B subtypes of HIV-1 group M. The assays are based on antibody binding to either the immunodominant epitope of gp41 or the V3 domain of gp120 of these various types, groups and subtypes. Therefore, a unique enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format applied to serum eluted from DSS allowed the simultaneous discrimination between infections caused by HIV-1 B, HIV-1 non-B, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2. Together, this serotyping assay and an immunoassay for recent infection were used for a virological surveillance linked to the anonymous mandatory notification of HIV infection in France. The preliminary results of this virological surveillance allowed us to obtain estimates of the prevalence of the rare variants HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O. It also allowed identification of the two first cases of M/O dual infections reported outside the endemic group O region of the western part of equatorial Africa, and showed that non-B subtypes circulate widely in France, almost 50% of new HIV diagnoses in 2003 being due to these variants. J. Med. Virol. 78:S13,S18, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Is There a Genetic Basis for Health Disparities in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease?

    Cheryl Winkler PhD
    Abstract The highest global prevalence rates for human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome have been recorded in southern Africa; in the United States, individuals of African descent are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus infection. Human immunodeficiency virus,infected individuals with African ancestry are also estimated to have a 17-fold or greater risk for developing human immunodeficiency virus,associated nephropathy in comparison with their counterparts of non-African descent. Several recent studies have implicated genetic alleles that are more frequent in populations of African descent and increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the risk of human immunodeficiency virus,associated neuropathy (HIVAN). The supposition that persons of African descent are more susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus infection because of an underlying genetic predisposition is not supported by available evidence. However, strong, replicated data show that the increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus,associated nephropathy, as well as other major forms of kidney disease in individuals of African descent, is due in part to MYH9 (myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle) renal disease susceptibility alleles that are very frequent throughout sub-Saharan Africa but are infrequent or absent in non-Africans. Selection, drift, and demographic events shape the allelic architecture of the human genome: it is expected that these events will be reflected in geographic-specific differentiation in allele frequencies for a small subset of alleles that may be associated with either increased or reduced risk for complex and infectious diseases. Mt Sinai J Med 77:149,159, 2010. 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]

    Lack of HIV Seropositivity Among a Group of Rural Probationers: Explanatory Factors

    Carrie B. Oser PhD
    ABSTRACT:,Context: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in rural America has been described as an epidemic, and the HIV prevalence rate among criminal justice populations is higher than the general population. Thus, criminally involved populations in Southern rural areas are at elevated risk for contracting HIV because of drug and sexual practices; however, little is known about HIV/AIDS in the fastest growing criminal justice population,probationers. Purpose: To examine possible explanations for the lack of HIV seropositivity found in a purposive sample of rural probationers. Methods: Data were examined from 800 felony probationers from 30 counties in Kentucky's Appalachian region. Measures included HIV prevalence within the 30 counties, migration patterns, HIV knowledge, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Findings: These probationers had a high level of HIV knowledge, reported minimal injection drug use, practiced serial monogamy, and reported minimal engagement in transactional sex. However, these probationers also reported negligible condom use, and injection drug users shared needles and works. Conclusion: Findings suggest the importance of developing programs targeting safe sex practices in rural areas. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy and difficult intubation

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 11 2009
    G. J. Mar
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders: Mind the gap

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2010
    Justin C. McArthur MBBS
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) remain among the most common disorders in people infected with HIV, even in an era when potent antiretroviral therapy is widely deployed. This review discusses the clinical features of HANDs and the implications for more effective treatment. With the improved survival of individuals treated with antiretrovirals, comorbid conditions are increasingly salient, including particularly coinfection with hepatitis C and the effects of aging. This review attempts to answer why there appears to be a therapeutic gap between the salutary effects of antiretroviral regimens and normalization of neurological function. A second gap is found in the understanding of the pathophysiology of HANDs. This review addresses this and discusses the animal models that have helped to elucidate these mechanisms. Although triggered by productive HIV infection of brain macrophages, aberrant and sustained immune activation appears to play a major role in inducing HANDs, and may explain the often incomplete neurological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Novel therapies aimed at persistent central nervous system inflammation will be needed to close this gap. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:699,714 [source]

    Viral load determines the B-cell response in the cerebrospinal fluid during human immunodeficiency virus infection

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Sabine Cepok PhD
    Objective Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently associated with intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis, but little is known about the B-cell response in the CSF of these patients. In this study, we investigated the relation between virus load and the frequency and phenotype of B cells in the CSF of HIV-infected patients. Methods The distribution of T cells, B cells, short-lived plasmablasts, and long-lived plasma cells was analyzed by flow cytometry in CSF and peripheral blood of 33 patients with HIV infection compared with 12 patients with noninfectious CNS diseases. HIV RNA copy number in CSF and serum was quantified by kinetic polymerase chain reaction. Results B-cell and plasmablast levels were increased in the CSF of HIV-infected patients compared with patients with noninfectious CNS diseases. Whereas CSF B cells were found at similar frequency during early and late stages of HIV infection, plasmablasts were more prevalent in the CSF during early infection. Plasmablasts in the CSF correlated with intrathecal IgG synthesis and even stronger with HIV RNA copy numbers in CSF, in particular, in untreated, early HIV-infected individuals. Initiation of antiviral treatment in therapy-naive patients strongly decreased HIV copy numbers and plasmablasts in CSF. Interpretation Our findings demonstrate that HIV infection of the CNS triggers an early profound B-cell response, with plasmablasts serving as the main virus-related B-cell subset in the CSF. Ann Neurol 2007 [source]