Human Illness (human + illness)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Valuing the Multiple Impacts of Pesticide Use in the UK: A Contingent Ranking Approach

Vivien Foster
The contingent ranking method was used to estimate the value of the human health and biodiversity impacts associated with pesticide applications, using a "green" consumer product as a payment vehicle. Specification testing showed that the standard conditional logit model provides a representation of these data preferable to the rank-ordered logit variant. The resulting estimates - which perform well in terms of standard validity tests - show that, on average, consumers are only willing to tolerate between six and eight cases of human illness to save an entire species of farmland birds. [source]

Characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence genes of Salmonella serovars collected at a commercial turkey processing plant

C.W. Nde
Abstract Aims:, To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, distribution of class 1 integrons, virulence genes and genes encoding resistance to tetracycline (tetA, tetC, tetD and tetE) and streptomycin (strA, strB and aadA1) in Salmonella recovered from turkeys. Methods and Results:, The antimicrobial susceptibility of 80 isolates was determined using National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. The distribution of resistance genes, class 1 integrons and virulence genes was determined using PCR. Resistances to tetracycline (763%) and streptomycin (40%) were common. Sixty-two (775%) isolates displayed resistance against one or more antimicrobials and 33 were multi-drug resistant. tetA was detected in 725% of the isolates, while tetC, tetD and tetE were not detected. The strA and strB genes were detected in 738% of the isolates. Two isolates possessed class 1 integrons of 1 kb in size, containing the aadA1 gene conferring resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. Fourteen of the virulence genes were detected in over 80% of the isolates. Conclusions:, This study shows that continuous use of tetracycline and streptomycin in poultry production selects for resistant strains. The Salmonella isolates recovered possess significant ability to cause human illness. Significance and Impact of the Study:, Information from this study can be employed in guiding future strategies for the use of antimicrobials in poultry production. [source]


Stephanie A. Brunelle
Karenia brevis (C. C. Davis) G. Hansen et Moestrup is a dinoflagellate responsible for red tides in the Gulf of Mexico. The signaling pathways regulating its cell cycle are of interest because they are the key to the formation of toxic blooms that cause mass marine animal die-offs and human illness. Karenia brevis displays phased cell division, in which cells enter S phase at precise times relative to the onset of light. Here, we demonstrate that a circadian rhythm underlies this behavior and that light quality affects the rate of cell-cycle progression: in blue light, K. brevis entered the S phase early relative to its behavior in white light of similar intensity, whereas in red light, K. brevis was not affected. A data base of 25,000 K. brevis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) revealed several sequences with similarity to cryptochrome blue-light receptors, but none related to known red-light receptors. We characterized the K. brevis cryptochrome (Kb CRY) and modeled its three-dimensional protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis of the photolyase/CRY gene family showed that Kb CRY is a member of the cryptochrome DASH (CRY DASH) clade. Western blotting with an antibody designed to bind a conserved peptide within Kb CRY identified a single band at ,55 kDa. Immunolocalization showed that Kb CRY, like CRY DASH in Arabidopsis, is localized to the chloroplast. This is the first blue-light receptor to be characterized in a dinoflagellate. As the Kb CRY appears to be the only blue-light receptor expressed, it is a likely candidate for circadian entrainment of the cell cycle. [source]

A Normativist Account of Language-Based Learning Disability1,2

J. Bruce Tomblin
Research on learning disabilities (LD) depends upon a conceptual framework that specifies what it should explain, what kinds of data are needed, and how these data are to be arranged in order to provide a meaningful explanation. An argument is made that LD are no different in this respect than any other form of human illness. In this article, a theory of LD based on weak normativism drawn from the philosophy of medicine is presented. This theory emphasizes that cultural values (norms) determine which aspects of human experience and function are instances of ill health. Thus, ill health is fundamentally normative. However, the experiences and behaviors themselves arise out of the natural world and therefore can be explained by a culturally neutral natural science. Data from a longitudinal study of specific language impairment are used to show that academic achievement is culturally evaluated, that low achievement is disvalued, and that therefore actions are taken to help the poor achiever. Spoken language abilities in kindergarten are associated with judgments of the adequacy of fourth grade academic achievement and are mediated by reading prior to fourth grade and also via a path that is independent of reading. It is argued that poor academic achievement may be viewed as a disvalued state consistent with an illness, whereas language and reading skills can be viewed as basic causal systems that can explain the child's learning performance. Properties of this causal system are value free, except that they can inherit disvalue by their association with poor achievement. It remains to be determined whether the notion of LD is to be equated with poor achievement and therefore serve as a type of illness or whether it is to be viewed as a particular cause of poor achievement and thus functions as a type of disease associated with poor achievement. The conceptual framework lays out the alternative meanings for LD and the choice between these alternatives will ultimately depend on how it is used in the LD research community. [source]

Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter analgesics in the treatment of common cold and flu

R. Eccles BSc PhD DSc
Summary Rationale:, Common cold and flu are the most common human illnesses, and over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics are widely used to treat the pain and fever symptoms. Despite the every day use of these analgesic there is little information available in the literature on the efficacy and safety of these medicines in treating colds and flu symptoms. The aim of this review was to determine the safety and efficacy of the analgesics, aspirin, paracetamol and aspirin for the treatment of colds and flu. Methods:, Electronic databases and a personal database were searched and the information retrieved together with information from relevant textbooks has been integrated in the review. Results:, The literature search established that there is relatively little information on the use of analgesics in treating colds and flu and that much of the safety and efficacy data must be related to other pain and fever models. The review establishes that aspirin, paracetamol and ibuprofen are safe in OTC doses and that there is no evidence for any difference between the medicines as regards efficacy and safety for treatment of colds and flu (except in certain cases such as the use of aspirin in feverish children). There is also no evidence that these medicines prolong the course of colds and flu by any effect on the immune system or by reducing fever. Conclusion:, Despite the lack of clinical data on the safety and efficacy of analgesics for the treatment of colds and flu symptoms a case can be made that these medicines are safe and effective for treatment of these common illnesses. [source]