Human Identification (human + identification)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Variation as Evidence: Introduction to a Symposium on International Human Identification

JOURNAL OF FORENSIC SCIENCES, Issue 3 2008
Erin H. Kimmerle Ph.D.
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Understanding race and human variation: Why forensic anthropologists are good at identifying race

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Stephen Ousley
Abstract American forensicanthropologists uncritically accepted the biological race concept from classic physical anthropology and applied it to methods of human identification. Why and how the biological race concept might work in forensic anthropology was contemplated by Sauer (Soc Sci Med 34 1992 107,111), who hypothesized that American forensic anthropologists are good at what they do because of a concordance between social race and skeletal morphology in American whites and blacks. However, Sauer also stressed that this concordance did not validate the classic biological race concept of physical anthropology that there are a relatively small number of discrete types of human beings. Results from Howells (Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 67 1973 1,259; Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 79 1989 1,189; Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 82 1995 1,108) and others using craniometric and molecular data show strong geographic patterning of human variation despite overlap in their distributions. However, Williams et al. (Curr Anthropol 46 2005 340,346) concluded that skeletal morphology cannot be used to accurately classify individuals. Williams et al. cited additional support from Lewontin (Evol Biol 6 1972 381,398), who analyzed classic genetic markers. In this study, multivariate analyses of craniometric data support Sauer's hypothesis that there are morphological differences between American whites and blacks. We also confirm significant geographic patterning in human variation but also find differences among groups within continents. As a result, if biological races are defined by uniqueness, then there are a very large number of biological races that can be defined, contradicting the classic biological race concept of physical anthropology. Further, our results show that humans can be accurately classified into geographic origin using craniometrics even though there is overlap among groups. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


In this issue: Biotechnology Journal 11/2009

BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 11 2009
Article first published online: 13 NOV 200
Forensic identification on chips Choi and Seo et al., Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 1530,1541 Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis can be used for genetic fingerprinting of individuals as it is done for forensic human identification. However, the current state-of-the-art STR genotyping processes and instruments are labor intensive, expensive, time consuming, and lack portability. Micro-total-analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip platforms based on microfabrication technologies have the capability to miniaturize and integrate bioanalysis steps in a single format and have already been successfully applied for forensic STR typing. Researchers from Daejeon, Korea, highlight up-to-date work on advanced microdevices for high-throughput STR genotyping, and a portable integrated microsystem for on-site forensic DNA analysis. Surface plasmon resonance on chips Maynard et al., Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 1542,1558 Technologies based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have allowed rapid, label-free characterization of protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. SPR has become the gold standard in industrial and academic settings, in which the interaction between a pair of soluble binding partners is characterized in detail or a library of molecules is screened for binding against a single soluble protein. In spite of these successes, SPR is only beginning to be adapted to the needs of membrane-bound proteins which are promising targets for drug and biomarker development. This team of authors from Austin, Minneapolis and Rochester (all USA) describe current SPR instrumentation and the potential for SPR nanopore arrays to enable quantitative, high-throughput screening of G-protein coupled receptor ligands and applications in cellular biology. Nucleotide immobilization on chips Sethi et al., Biotechnol. J. 2009, 4, 1513,1529 The development of oligonucleotide-based microarrays (biochips) is of major interest in science and biotechnology industry and has applications in a wide range of research areas including genomics, proteomics, computational biology and pharmaceuticals. Especially microarrays have proven to be a unique method for time and cost efficient analysis of thousands of genes at one. Authors from Delhi and Lucknow, India discuss currently used chemical strategies for immobilization of oligonucleotides and put a special emphasis on post-synthetic immobilization on glass surfaces. Recent advances on these synthesis pathways are presented in detail. [source]


An integrated microdevice for high-performance short tandem repeat genotyping

BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 11 2009
Jong Young Choi
Abstract Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis provides genetic fingerprinting of individuals, and is considered as a powerful and indispensable technique for forensic human identification. However, the current state-of-the-art STR genotyping processes and instruments are labor intensive, expensive, time consuming, and lack portability. Micro-total-analysis systems or lab-on-a-chip platforms based on microfabrication technologies have the capability to miniaturize and integrate bioanalysis steps in a single format. Recent progress in microsystems has demonstrated their successful performance for the forensic STR typing with a reduced cost, high speed, and improved high throughput. The purpose of this review article is to highlight up-to-date work on advanced microdevices for high-throughput STR genotyping, and a portable integrated microsystem for on-site forensic DNA analysis. [source]