Human Hosts (human + hosts)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The rhizosphere as a reservoir for opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria

Gabriele Berg
Summary During the last years, the number of human infections caused by opportunistic pathogens has increased dramatically. One natural reservoir of opportunistic pathogens is the rhizosphere, the zone around roots that is influenced by the plant. Due to a high content of nutrients, this habitat is a ,microbial hot-spot', where bacterial abundances including those with strong antagonistic traits are enhanced. Various bacterial genera, including Burkholderia, Enterobacter, Herbaspirillum, Ochrobactrum, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas, contain root-associated strains that can encounter bivalent interactions with both plant and human hosts. Mechanisms responsible for colonization of the rhizosphere and antagonistic activity against plant pathogens are similar to those responsible for colonization of human organs and tissues, and pathogenicity. Multiple resistances against antibiotics are not only found with clinical strains but also with strains isolated from the rhizosphere. High competition, the occurrence of diverse antibiotics in the rhizosphere, and enhanced horizontal gene transfer rates in this microenvironment appear to contribute to the high levels of natural resistances. While opportunistic bacteria from the rhizosphere have some properties in common, each of these emerging pathogens has its own features, which are discussed in detail for Burkholderia, Ochrobactrum and Stenotrophomonas. [source]

Isolation of cDNA clones encoding putative odourant binding proteins from the antennae of the malaria-transmitting mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

Harald Biessmann
Abstract One way of controlling disease transmission by blood-feeding mosquitoes is to reduce the frequency of insect,host interaction, thus reducing the probability of parasite transmission and re-infection. A better understanding of the olfactory processes responsible for allowing mosquitoes to identify human hosts is required in order to develop methods that will interfere with host seeking. We have therefore initiated a molecular approach to isolate and characterize the genes and their products that are involved in the olfactory recognition pathway of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, which is the main malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa. We report here the isolation and preliminary characterization of several cDNAs from male and female A. gambiae antennal libraries that encode putative odourant binding proteins. Their conceptual translation products show extensive sequence similarity to known insect odourant binding proteins (OBPs)/pheromone binding proteins (PBPs), especially to those of D. melanogaster. The A. gambiae OBPs described here are expressed in the antennae of both genders, and some of the A. gambiae OBP genes are well conserved in other disease-transmitting mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. [source]

Trichophyton Mentagrophytes Perforates Hair of Adult Corpses in the Gaseous Period,

Renato Evando M. Filho M.S
Abstract:, Despite the substantial literature on mycology, there are still limited reports of the interaction between fungi and human hosts in the postmortem period. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro perforation test using Trichophyton mentagrophytes on hair from adult corpses in the postmortem period (gaseous period). The protocol was carried out with positive (prepubescent children's hair) and negative controls (healthy adult hair) as well. One strain of Trichophyton rubrum was also used as a negative perforation control. Perforations were found in all the hair samples from corpses and prepubescent children after 12,14 days exposure to T. mentagrophytes and were absent in the hair samples of healthy adults. Furthermore, hair perforation was not observed with T. rubrum. Our preliminary findings suggest the use of T. mentagrophytes as a potential marker of the death interval in forensic science. [source]

Influence of the spatial distribution of human hosts and large size containers on the dispersal of the mosquito Aedes aegypti within the first gonotrophic cycle

It is generally accepted that Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) has a short dispersal capacity, and that displacement can be influenced by the availability of oviposition sites in the surroundings of emergence or release sites. In the present article, we observed the influence of spatial heterogeneity of large containers and human hosts on the cumulative flight direction of Ae. aegypti females during the first gonotrophic cycle, testing the hypothesis that they aggregate in resource-rich areas, i.e. where there are higher concentrations of large containers and/or humans per habitation. We analysed data from pupal surveys and mark-release-recapture experiments (non-blood-fed females were released) carried out in two dengue endemic neighbourhoods of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Tubiacanga (a suburb, with a human density of 337 inhabitants/ha) and Favela do Amorim (a slum, with a human density of 901 inhabitants/ha). In both areas, host-seeking females of three different release cohorts showed an overall non-uniform and extensive dispersal from their release point within 1,2 days post-release. At 4,5 days post-release, when many of the released females would be expected to be gravid, in Tubiacanga most mosquitoes were collected in areas with a relatively higher density of containers/premise, independently of the density of residents/house, whereas in Favela do Amorim, almost half of the captured mosquitoes were collected in relatively resource-poorer areas. Although Ae. aegypti dispersal patterns varied between sites, overall the distances travelled from the release point and the cumulative flight directions were correlated with the density of containers and hosts, more markedly in Tubiacanga than in Favela do Amorim. [source]

Could insecticide-treated cattle reduce Afrotropical malaria transmission?

Effects of deltamethrin-treated Zebu on Anopheles arabiensis behaviour, survival in Ethiopia
Abstract.,Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most widespread vector of malaria in the Afrotropical Region. Because An. arabiensis feeds readily on cattle as well as humans, the insecticide-treatment of cattle , as employed to control tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) and ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) , might simultaneously affect the malaria vectorial capacity of this mosquito. Therefore, we conducted field experiments in southern Ethiopia to establish whether Zebu cattle (Bos indicus L.) treated with a pour-on pyrethroid formulation of 1% deltamethrin, widely used to control ticks and tsetse, would be effective against An. arabiensis or cause the female mosquitoes to feed more frequently on humans, due to behavioural avoidance of insecticide-treated cattle. Contact bioassays (3 min exposure) showed that the insecticide remained effective for about 1 month (kill rate > 50%) against mosquitoes feeding on the flanks of treated cattle. A novel behavioural assay demonstrated that An. arabiensis readily fed on insecticide-treated cattle and were not deflected to human hosts in the presence of treated cattle. DNA-fingerprinting of bloodmeals revealed that An. arabiensis naturally feeds most frequently on older animals, consistent with the established practice of applying insecticide only to older cattle, while allowing younger untreated animals to gain immunity against infections transmitted by ticks. These encouraging results were tempered by finding that > 90% of An. arabiensis, An. pharoensis and An. tenebrosus females feed on the legs of cattle, farthest from the site of pour-on application along the animal's back and where the treatment may be least residual due to weathering. Observations of mosquitoes feeding naturally on insecticide-treated cattle showed that the majority of wild female anophelines alighted on the host animal for less than 1 min to feed, with significantly shorter mean duration of feeding bouts on insecticide-treated animals, and the effective life of the insecticide was only 1 week. Thus the monthly application of deltamethrin to cattle, typically used to control tsetse and ticks, is unlikely to be effective against An. arabiensis populations or their vectorial capacity. Even so, it seems likely that far greater impact on anopheline mosquitoes could be achieved by applying insecticide selectively to the legs of cattle. [source]

Recombination, repair and replication in the pathogenic Neisseriae: the 3 R,s of molecular genetics of two human-specific bacterial pathogens

Kimberly A. Kline
Summary Most of the detailed mechanisms that have been established for the molecular biological processes that mediate recombination, repair and replication of DNA have come from studies of the Escherichia coli paradigm. The human specific pathogens, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis, are Gram-negative bacteria that have some molecular processes that are similar to E. coli and others that appear to be divergent. We propose that the pathogenic Neisseriae have evolved a specialized collection of molecular mechanisms to adapt to life limited to human hosts. In this MicroReview, we explore what is known about the basic processes of DNA repair, DNA recombination (genetic exchange and pilin variation) and DNA replication in these human specific pathogens. [source]

Comparison of immune responses in mice infected with different strains of Strongyloides venezuelensis

SUMMARY In human hosts and in murine models, the immune response to Strongyloides spp. is Th2 type. In addition, the profile of the host immune response follows various symptoms induced by Strongyloides spp. In the present study, we demonstrated that the L2 and L49 strains of Strongyloides venezuelensis obtained from Bolomys lasiurus and Nectomys squamipes induced significant and similar increases in eosinophil/mononuclear cell counts in the blood, peritoneal cavity fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid when compared with uninfected mice. However, in the first 3 days of infection, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-, levels were higher in the lungs of mice infected with the L2 strain, which also presented greater production of IgG and IgG1 than did mice infected with the L49 strain. The higher antibody and cytokine levels induced by the L2 strain correlated with a decrease in the number of female parasites recovered in the faeces of mice on post-infection day 7. The results demonstrate that the L2 strain was a more potent stimulant of the humoral immune response, which can result in more efficient antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, a mechanism involved in eosinophil activation and parasite elimination. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the molecular differences among parasites. [source]