Human Homologue (human + homologue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Osteoprotegerin Plasma Levels are Strongly Associated with Polymorphisms in Human Homologue of the Mouse Progressive Ankylosis (ANKH) Gene

ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 3 2007
Y. Vistoropsky
Summary Osteoprotegerin inhibits osteoclastogenesis and plays an important role in the control of bone resorption. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying regulation of OPG levels are currently not fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ANKH gene, which plays a central role in bone mineralization, contributes to the genetic regulation of OPG levels. A family-based association study used a sample of 159 ethnically homogeneous nuclear families, comprising 556 apparently healthy individuals. Statistical analyses included family aggregation analysis of OPG variation and four types of transmission disequilibrium tests. Each individual was genotyped for 11 SNPs in the ANKH gene. Four TDTs consistently showed a highly significant association between OPG levels and the intronic SNP rs875525 located between exons 6 and 7. The combined p-value for four tests to reject the null hypothesis of no association was 0.0003. Furthermore, haplotypes generated between rs875525 and two additional neighbouring SNPs (rs2291943 and rs2288474) also revealed a significant association with OPG plasma levels (p < 10,4 -10,3). ANKH genetic polymorphisms in the area between SNP rs2291943 and rs2288474 are strongly associated with OPG plasma levels. The molecular mechanism underlying this association is not obvious, and therefore these results should be regarded cautiously until they are confirmed in independent studies. [source]


Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain of the human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) protein

ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION F (ELECTRONIC), Issue 9 2009
Yu Wai Chen
Human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) plays dual roles in DNA repair as well as serving as a shuttle vehicle targeting polyubiquitinated proteins for degradation. Its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain interacts with the 19S proteasomal cap and provides the docking mechanism for protein delivery. Pyramidal crystals of the UbL domain of hHR23A were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the crystallizing agent. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2, resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.48, c = 63.57,. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the UbL domain of yeast Dsk2 as the search model. [source]


Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr004c and its human homologue are required for addition of the second mannose during glycosylphosphatidylinositol precursor assembly

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 5 2005
Anne-Lise Fabre
Addition of the second mannose is the only obvious step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) precursor assembly for which a responsible gene has not been discovered. A bioinformatics-based strategy identified the essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr004c protein as a candidate for the second GPI ,-mannosyltransferase (GPI-MT-II). S. cerevisiae cells depleted of Ybr004cp have weakened cell walls and abnormal morphology, are unable to incorporate [3H]inositol into proteins, and accumulate a GPI intermediate having a single mannose that is likely modified with ethanolamine phosphate. These data indicate that Ybr004cp-depleted yeast cells are defective in second mannose addition to GPIs, and suggest that Ybr004cp is GPI-MT-II or an essential subunit of that enzyme. Ybr004cp homologues are encoded in all sequenced eukaryotic genomes, and are predicted to have 8 transmembrane domains, but show no obvious resemblance to members of established glycosyltransferase families. The human Ybr004cp homologue can substitute for its S. cerevisiae counterpart in vivo. [source]


Calcium and magnesium competitively influence the growth of a PMR1 deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain

FEMS MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 2 2005
Rka Szigeti
Abstract PMR1, the Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase of the secretory pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first member of the secretory pathway Ca2+ ATPases (SPCA) to be characterized. In the past few years, pmr1, yeast have received more attention due to the recognition that the human homologue of this protein, hSPCA1 is defective in chronic benign pemphigus or Hailey,Hailey disease (HHD). Recent publications have described pmr1, S. cerevisiae as a useful model organism for studying the molecular pathology of HHD. Some observations indicated that the high Ca2+ sensitive phenotype of PMR1 defective yeast strains may be the most relevant in this respect. Here we show that the total cellular calcium response of a pmr1, S. cerevisiae upon extracellular Ca2+ challenge is decreased compared to the wild type strain similarly as observed in keratinocytes. Additionally, the novel magnesium sensitivity of PMR1 defective yeast is revealed, which appears to be a result of competition for uptake between Ca2+ and Mg2+ at the plasma membrane level. Our findings indicate that extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ competitively influence the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis of S. cerevisiae. These observations may further our understanding of HHD. [source]


hScrib, a human homologue of Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor, is a novel death substrate targeted by caspase during the process of apoptosis

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 7 2008
Kenbun Sone
hScrib, human homologue of Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor, was identified as a target of human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein for the ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Here, we report that hScrib is a novel death substrate targeted by caspase. Full-length hScrib was cleaved by caspase during death ligands-induced apoptosis, which generates a p170 C-terminal fragments in Hela cells. In vitro cleavage assay using recombinant caspases showed that hScrib is cleaved by the executioner caspases. DNA damage-induced apoptosis caused loss of expression of full-length hScrib, which was recovered by addition of capase-3 inhibitor in HaCat cells. TUNEL positive apoptotic cells, which were identified 4 h after UV irradiation in HaCat cells, showed loss of hScrib expression at the adherens junction. Mutational analysis identified the caspase-dependent cleavage site of hScrib at the position of Asp-504. Although MDCK cells transfected with GFP-fused wild-type hScrib showed loss of E-cadherin expression and shrinkage of cytoplasm by UV irradiation, cells transfected with hScrib with Ala substitution of Asp-504 showed resistance to caspase-dependent cleavage of hScrib and intact expression of E-cadherin. These results indicate that caspase-dependent cleavage of hScrib is a critical step for detachment of cell contact during the process of apoptosis. [source]


Functional interaction of general transcription initiation factor TFIIE with general chromatin factor SPT16/CDC68

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 4 2000
Seung-Woo Kang
Background Transcriptional initiation of class II genes is one of the major targets for the regulation of gene expression and is carried out by RNA polymerase II and many auxiliary factors, which include general transcription initiation factors (GTFs). TFIIE, one of the GTFs, functions at the later stage of transcription initiation. As recent studies indicated the possibility that TFIIE may have a role in chromatin transcriptional regulation, we isolated TFIIE-interacting factors which have chromatin-related functions. Results Using the yeast two-hybrid screening system, we isolated the C-terminal part of the human homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (y) Spt16p/Cdc68p, a general chromatin factor. The C-terminal part of human SPT16/CDC68 directly interacts with TFIIE, and ySpt16p/Cdc68p also interacts with yTFIIE (Tfa1p/Tfa2p), thus indicating the existence of an evolutionarily conserved interaction between TFIIE and SPT16/CDC68. Functional interaction of yTFIIE and ySpt16p/Cdc68p was examined using a conditional yTFIIE-, mutant strain. Over-expression of ySpt16p/Cdc68p suppressed the phenotype of cold sensitivity of the yTFIIE-,- cs mutant strain, and in vitro binding assays revealed that yTFIIE-,- cs mutant protein showed diminished binding affinity to ySpt16p/Cdc68p. Conclusions These observations indicate that general transcription initiation factor TFIIE functionally interacts with general chromatin factor SPT16/CDC68, a finding which provides new insight into the involvement of TFIIE in chromatin transcription. This may well lead to a breakthrough in relationships between the transcription initiation process and structural changes in chromatin. [source]


Alteration of enhancer of polycomb 1 at 10p11.2 is one of the genetic events leading to development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND CANCER, Issue 9 2009
Shingo Nakahata
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a malignant tumor caused by latent human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection. We previously identified a common breakpoint cluster region at 10p11.2 in acute-type ATLL by spectral karyotyping. Single nucleotide polymorphism array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of the breakpoint region in three ATLL-related cell lines and four patient samples revealed that the chromosomal breakpoints are localized within the enhancer of polycomb 1 (EPC1) gene locus in an ATLL-derived cell line (SO4) and in one patient with acute-type ATLL. EPC1 is a human homologue of the E(Pc) enhancer of polycomb gene of Drosophila. Inappropriate expression of the polycomb group gene family has been linked to the loss of normal gene silencing pathways, which can contribute to the loss of cell identity and malignant transformation in many kinds of cancers. In the case of the SO4 cell line, which carried a der(10)t(2;10)(p23;p11.2) translocation, EPC1 was fused with the additional sex combs-like 2 (ASXL2) gene at 2p23.3 (EPC1/ASXL2). In the case with an acute-type ATLL, who carried a der(10)del(10)(p11.2)del(10)(q22q24) translocation, a putative truncated EPC1 gene (EPC1tr) was identified. Overexpression of EPC1/ASXL2 enhanced cell growth in T-leukemia cells, and a GAL4-EPC1/ASXL2 fusion protein showed high transcriptional activity. Although a GAL4-EPC1tr fusion protein did not activate transcription, overexpression of EPC1tr accelerated cell growth in leukemia cells, suggesting that the EPC1 structural abnormalities in the SO4 cell line and in the patient with acute-type ATLL may contribute to leukemogenesis. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Gain of a region on 7p22.3, containing MAD1L1, is the most frequent event in small-cell lung cancer cell lines

GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND CANCER, Issue 1 2006
Bradley P. Coe
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive lung neoplasm, which accounts for 20% of yearly lung cancer cases. The lack of knowledge of the progenitor cell type for SCLC precludes the definition of a normal gene expression profile and has hampered the identification of gene expression changes, while the low resolution of conventional genomic screens such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and loss of heterozygosity analysis limit our ability to fine-map genetic alterations. The recent advent of whole genome tiling path array CGH enables profiling of segmental DNA copy number gains and losses at a resolution 100 times that of conventional methods. Here we report the analysis of 14 SCLC cell lines and six matched normal B-lymphocyte lines. We detected 7p22.3 copy number gain in 13 of the 14 SCLC lines and 0 of the 6 matched normal lines. In 4 of the 14 cell lines, this gain is present as a 350 kbp gene specific copy number gain centered at MAD1L1 (the human homologue of the yeast gene MAD1). Fluorescence in situ hybridization validated the array CGH finding. Intriguingly, MAD1L1 has been implicated to have tumor-suppressing functions. Our data suggest a more complex role for this gene, as MAD1L1 is the most frequent copy number gain in SCLC cell lines. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


t(10;11)-Acute leukemias with MLL-AF10 and MLL-ABI1 chimeric transcripts: Specific expression patterns of ABI1 gene in leukemia and solid tumor cell lines

GENES, CHROMOSOMES AND CANCER, Issue 1 2001
Noriko Shibuya
The recurrent translocation t(10;11) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The AF10 gene on chromosome 10 at band p12 and MLL at 11q23 fuse in the t(10;11)(p12;q23). Recently, we have identified ABI1 as a new partner gene for MLL in an AML patient with a t(10;11)(p11.2;q23). The ABI1 is a human homologue of the mouse Abl -interactor 1 (Abi1), encoding an Abl-binding protein. The ABI1 protein exhibits sequence similarity to homeotic genes, and contains several polyproline stretches and a src homology 3 (SH3) domain. To clarify the clinical features of t(10;11)-leukemias, we investigated 6 samples from acute leukemia patients with t(10;11) and MLL rearrangement and detected MLL-AF10 chimeric transcripts in 5 samples and MLL-ABI1 in one. The patient with MLL-ABI1 chimeric transcript is the second case described, thus confirming that the fusion of the MLL and ABI1 genes is a recurring abnormality. Both of the patients with MLL-ABI1 chimeric transcript are surviving, suggesting that these patients have a better prognosis than the patients with MLL-AF10. To investigate the roles of AF10 and ABI1 further, we examined the expression of these genes in various cell lines and fresh tumor samples using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method. Although AF10 was expressed in almost all cell lines similarly, the expression patterns of ABI1 were different between leukemia and solid tumor cell lines, suggesting the distinctive role of each isoform of ABI1 in these cell lines. We also determined the complete mouse Abi1 sequence and found that the sequence matched with human ABI1 better than the originally reported Abi1 sequence. Further functional analysis of the MLL-AF10 and MLL-ABI1 fusion proteins will provide new insights into the leukemogenesis of t(10;11)-AML. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Frontal operculum temporal difference signals and social motor response learning

HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 5 2009
Poornima Kumar
Abstract Substantial experimental evidence supports the theory that the dopaminergic system codes a phasic (short duration) signal predicting the delivery of primary reinforcers, such as water when thirsty, during Pavlovian learning. This signal is described by the temporal difference (TD) model. Recently, it has been suggested that the human dopaminergic system also codes more complex cognitive goal states, including those required for human social interaction. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 18 healthy subjects, we tested the hypothesis that TD signals would be present during a Pavlovian learning task, and during a social motor response learning task. Using an identical model, TD signals were present in both tasks, although in different brain regions. Specifically, signals were present in the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum, amygdala, and thalamus with Pavlovian learning, and the dorsal anterior cingulate and bilateral frontal operculum with social motor response learning. The frontal operculum is believed to be the human homologue of the monkey mirror neuron system, and there is evidence which links the region with inference about other peoples' intentions and goals. The results support the contention that the human dopaminergic system predicts both primary reinforcers, and more complex cognitive goal states, such as motor responses required for human social group interaction. Dysfunction of such a mechanism might be associated with abnormal affective responses and incorrect social predictions, as occur in psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 2009. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Identification and functional analysis of a human homologue of the monkey replication origin ors8

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2006
Mario Callejo
Abstract We previously isolated from African green monkey (CV-1) cells a replication origin, ors8, that is active at the onset of S-phase. Here, its homologous sequence (hors8, accession number: DQ230978) was amplified from human cells, using the monkey-ors8-specific primers. Sequence alignment between the monkey and the human fragment revealed a 92% identity. Nascent DNA abundance analysis, involving quantification by real-time PCR, indicated that hors8 is an active replication origin, as the abundance of nascent DNA from a genomic region containing it was 97-fold higher relative to a non-origin region in the same locus. Furthermore, the data showed that the hors8 fragment is capable of supporting the episomal replication of its plasmid, when cloned into pBlueScript (pBS), as assayed by the DpnI resistance assay after transfection of HeLa cells. A quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, using antibodies against Ku, Orc2, and Cdc6, showed that these DNA replication initiator proteins were associated in vivo with the human ors8 (hors8). Finally, nascent DNA abundance experiments from human cells synchronized at different phases of the cell cycle revealed that hors8 is a late-firing origin of DNA replication, having the highest activity 8 h after release from late G1. J. Cell. Biochem. 99: 1606,1615, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


The emerging role of ACE2 in physiology and disease,

THE JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
I Hamming
Abstract The renin,angiotensin,aldosterone system (RAAS) is a key regulator of systemic blood pressure and renal function and a key player in renal and cardiovascular disease. However, its (patho)physiological roles and its architecture are more complex than initially anticipated. Novel RAAS components that may add to our understanding have been discovered in recent years. In particular, the human homologue of ACE (ACE2) has added a higher level of complexity to the RAAS. In a short period of time, ACE2 has been cloned, purified, knocked-out, knocked-in; inhibitors have been developed; its 3D structure determined; and new functions have been identified. ACE2 is now implicated in cardiovascular and renal (patho)physiology, diabetes, pregnancy, lung disease and, remarkably, ACE2 serves as a receptor for SARS and NL63 coronaviruses. This review covers available information on the genetic, structural and functional properties of ACE2. Its role in a variety of (patho)physiological conditions and therapeutic options of modulation are discussed. Copyright 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain of the human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) protein

ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION F (ELECTRONIC), Issue 9 2009
Yu Wai Chen
Human homologue A of Rad23 (hHR23A) plays dual roles in DNA repair as well as serving as a shuttle vehicle targeting polyubiquitinated proteins for degradation. Its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain interacts with the 19S proteasomal cap and provides the docking mechanism for protein delivery. Pyramidal crystals of the UbL domain of hHR23A were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the crystallizing agent. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2, resolution and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.48, c = 63.57,. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the UbL domain of yeast Dsk2 as the search model. [source]


Molecular mechanism of kallikrein-related peptidase 8/neuropsin-induced hyperkeratosis in inflamed skin

BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
K. Shingaki
Summary Background, Hyperkeratosis and acanthosis occur in inflamed skin. Proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes are important processes during epidermal repair after inflammation. Neuropsin and its human homologue kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) have been reported to be involved in epidermal proliferation and differentiation, but the involved molecular mechanisms are obscure. Objectives, To explore the molecular mechanism of KLK8/neuropsin-induced hyperkeratosis and acanthosis in inflamed skin. Methods, The molecular mechanism involved in KLK8/neuropsin-induced hyperkeratosis and acanthosis in inflamed skin was investigated both in vivo and in vitro using neuropsin knockout mice and KLK8 knockdown human keratinocytes. Neuropsin-related genes were identified by differential gene display. The localization and functional relationship of the molecules affected downstream of KLK8/neuropsin in normal and inflamed skin were analysed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Results, Hyperkeratosis and acanthosis in sodium lauryl sulphate-stimulated skin were markedly inhibited in neuropsin knockout mice. Knockdown of KLK8/neuropsin increased transcription factor activator protein-2, (AP-2,) expression and decreased keratin 10 expression in human keratinocytes and mouse skin, respectively. AP-2, has been reported to inhibit epidermal proliferation and keratin 10 expression. Distributional analysis showed that KLK8/neuropsin was expressed in the stratum spinosum, AP-2, was expressed in the stratum basale and the lower part of the stratum spinosum, and keratin 10 was expressed throughout the stratum spinosum. Conclusions, The above findings suggest the following mechanism of events underlying KLK8/neuropsin-induced hyperkeratosis: (i) skin inflammation increases KLK8/neuropsin expression in the stratum spinosum; (ii) the released KLK8/neuropsin inhibits AP-2, expression in the cells of the stratum basale and stratum spinosum; (iii) the decrease in AP-2, results in cell proliferation in the stratum basale and cell differentiation in the stratum spinosum, with an increase in keratin 10 expression. [source]


Identification of the CAB2/hCOS16 Gene Required for the Repair of DNA Double-strand Breaks on a Core Amplified Region of the 17ql2 Locus in Breast and Gastric Cancers

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 11 2002
Masahiko Nezu
We previously reported that CAB1 and c -ERBB-2 genes were found to be located in a core amplified region of the 17q12 locus, which is frequently amplified in various cancers. During identification of this core region, CAB2, a human homologue of the yeast COS16 required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks was cloned. Autofluorescence analysis of cells transfected with its GFP fusion protein demonstrated that CAB2 translocates into vesicles, suggesting that overexpression of CAB2 may decrease intercellular Mn2+ by accumulating it in the vesicles, in the same way as yeast COS16. This is the first report identifying all of the genes on the core amplified region of the 17q12 locus in breast and gastric cancers. [source]


A novel nonsense mutation in the EYA1 gene associated with branchio-oto-renal/branchiootic syndrome in an Afrikaner kindred

CLINICAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2006
JC Clarke
Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the associations of hearing loss, branchial arch defects and renal anomalies. Branchiootic (BO) syndrome is a related disorder that presents without the highly variable characteristic renal anomalies of BOR syndrome. Dominant mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophila eyes absent gene (EYA1) are frequently the cause of both BOR and BO syndromes. We report a South African family of Afrikaner descent with affected individuals presenting with pre-auricular abnormalities and either hearing loss or bilateral absence of the kidneys. Genetic analysis of the pedigree detected a novel EYA1 heterozygous nonsense mutation in affected family members but not in unaffected family members or a random DNA panel. Through mutational analysis, we conclude that this particular mutation is the cause of BOR/BO syndrome in this family as a result of a truncation of the EYA1 protein that ablates the critical EYA homologous region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of BOR/BO syndrome reported in Africa or in those of the Afrikaner descent. [source]


Analysis of Sir2E in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum: Cellular localization, spatial expression and overexpression

DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 8 2008
Takahiro Katayama
It has been reported that Dictyostelium discoideum encodes four silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins (Sir2A,D) showing sequence similarity to human homologues of Sir2 (SIRT1,3). Further screening in a database revealed that D. discoideum encodes an additional Sir2 homologue (Sir2E). The amino acid sequence of Sir2E is not similar to those of SIRTs but is similar to those of proteins encoded by Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. Fluorescence of Sir2E-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was detected in the D. discoideum nucleus, indicating that Sir2E is a nuclear localizing protein. Reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction and whole-mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that D. discoideum expressed sir2E in amoebae in the growth phase and in prestalk cells in the developmental phase. D. discoideum overexpressing sir2E grew faster than the wild type. These results indicate that Sir2E plays important roles both in the growth phase and developmental phase of D. discoideum. [source]


The neurobiology and genetics of eating and weight regulation

JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 10 2008
J. Hebebrand
Over the past 15 years tremendous advances have been made in the elucidation of pathways relevant to eating behaviour and body weight regulation. It has become evident that these pathways are intricately interwoven with those underlying mood and anxiety regulation, motor activity, cognition, sleep, fertility and libido. In addition, advances have been made in determining genetic variation underlying inter-individual differences in body weight. To illustrate these novel findings we will focus on: 1) Monogenic and oligogenic obesity: The underlying genes were initially detected in animal models. Based on mutation screens of the human homologues functionally relevant mutations were detected in the genes coding for leptin, its receptors and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). The effect of such mutations is large. Leptin gene mutations lead to hyperphagia and subsequently obesity. Hyperphagia, albeit of a substantially reduced magnitude, has also been observed in obese children with mutations in the MC4R. 2) Polygenic obesity: The advent of genome wide association studies has led to the detection of single polygenes, among which FTO features prominently. Typically, a variant predisposing to obesity accounts for a body weight elevated by on average 200 to 1500 grams. Such polygenes act in concert to account for inter-individual differences in body weight. 3) Leptin has been shown to have profound implications for anorexia nervosa. Serum leptin levels in this eating disorders are annormaly low. The hypoleptinemia entails a down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis, which underlies the amenorrhea characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, the hypoleptinemia induces hyperactivity in a rat model of anorexia nervosa. In patients, leptin levels are inversely correlated with activity levels. [source]


Coupling of Canine Serotonin 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D Receptor Subtypes to the Formation of Inositol Phosphates by Dual Interactions with Endogenous Gi/o and Recombinant G,15 Proteins

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2000
Thierry Wurch
Abstract: Molecular cloning and expression of canine (ca) serotonin 5-HT1B and ca 5-HT1D receptor subtypes showed that besides the lower binding affinity of ketanserin for the ca 5-HT1D receptor, the ligand binding profiles were similar to their human homologues. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that a Gln189 residue in the second extracellular loop of the ca 5-HT1D receptor may partially account for the lower binding affinity of ketanserin. The coupling of ca 5-HT1B and ca 5-HT1D receptor subtypes to the phospholipase C pathway was analyzed by measuring stimulation of inositol phosphate formation in COS-7 cells. Zolmitriptan potently stimulated (EC50 = 4.9 nM) the inositol phosphate formation at ca 5-HT1D receptors in a fully pertussis toxin (PTX)-dependent manner, whereas only a weak PTX-resistant inositol phosphate response (26-29% at 10 ,M zolmitriptan) could be detected for the ca 5-HT1B receptor at a similar expression level. In contrast, both ca 5-HT1B and ca 5-HT1D receptor subtypes yielded a similar maximal magnitude of inositol phosphate formation (300-340% at 10 ,M zolmitriptan) upon co-expression with a mouse (m) G,15 protein. PTX treatment and co-expression with a ,-adrenergic receptor kinase C-terminal polypeptide partially (20-46%) abolished the m G,15 protein-dependent ca 5-HT1B and ca 5-HT1D receptor-mediated stimulation of inositol phosphate formation. This study suggests both 5-HT receptor subtypes can activate ,, subunits of endogenous Gi/o proteins besides their coupling to recombinant m G,15 protein. [source]