Human Homolog (human + homolog)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Human homolog of NOTUM, overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma, is regulated transcriptionally by ,-catenin/TCF

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
Yuichi Torisu
The Drosophila Notum gene, which is regulated by the Wingless pathway, encodes a secreted hydrolase that modifies heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In comparative analysis of the gene expression profiles in primary human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and normal organs, we observed that the human ortholog of Drosophila Notum was overexpressed markedly in a subset of HCC, but expressed rarely in adult normal tissues. Immunoblotting confirmed the overexpression of NOTUM protein in 12 of 40 primary HCC cases (30%). High levels of NOTUM protein were significantly associated with intracellular (nuclear or cytoplasmic) accumulation of ,-catenin protein: all 10 HCC with high intracellular ,-catenin also had high NOTUM expression, whereas only 2 of 30 cases (6.7%) without intracellular ,-catenin had high NOTUM expression (P < 0.00001). NOTUM expression in HepG2 cells was downregulated significantly by induction of a dominant-negative mutant of TCF4, a ,-catenin partner. In vivo binding of the ,-catenin/TCF complex to the NOTUM promoter was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation in HepG2 and SW480 cells, where canonical Wnt signaling is activated constitutively. These findings provide evidence that NOTUM is a novel target of ,-catenin/TCF4 and is upregulated in Wnt/,-catenin signaling-activated HCC. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1139,1146) [source]

Further delineation of 9q22 deletion syndrome associated with basal cell nevus (Gorlin) syndrome: Report of two cases and review of the literature

Kayono Yamamoto
ABSTRACT Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS; Gorlin syndrome) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by a predisposition to neoplasms and developmental abnormalities. BCNS is caused by mutations in the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene-1, PTCH1, which is mapped on chromosome 9q22.3. Nonsense, frameshift, in-frame deletions, splice-site, and missense mutations have been found in the syndrome. Haploinsufficiency of PTCH1, which is caused by interstitial deletion of 9q22.3, is also responsible for the syndrome. To date, 19 cases with interstitial deletion of long arm of chromosome 9 involving the region of q22 have been reported. We describe two unrelated patients with some typical features of BCNS associated with deletion of 9q21.33-q31.1 and determined the boundary of the deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. The results showed that the size of deletions is between 15.33 and 16.04 Mb in patient 1 and between 18.08 and 18.54 Mb in patient 2. Although the size and breakpoints were different from those of previously reported cases, the clinical features are common to patients with 9q22 deletion associated with BCNS. Delineation of the 9q22 deletions and further consideration of the genes responsible for the characteristic manifestations may provide insight into this newly recognized deletion syndrome. [source]

Functional analysis in Drosophila indicates that the NBCCS/PTCH1 mutation G509V results in activation of smoothened through a dominant-negative mechanism

Gary R. Hime
Abstract Mutations in the human homolog of the patched gene are associated with the developmental (and cancer predisposition) condition Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), as well as with sporadic basal cell carcinomas. Most mutations that have been identified in the germline of NBCCS patients are truncating or frameshift mutations, with amino acid substitutions rarely found. We show that a missense mutation in the sterol-sensing domain G509V acts as a dominant negative when assayed in vivo in Drosophila. Ectopic expression of a Drosophila patched transgene, carrying the analogous mutation to G509V, causes ectopic activation of Hedgehog target genes and ectopic membrane stabilisation of Smoothened. The G509V transgene behaves in a manner similar, except in its subcellular distribution, to a C-terminal truncation that has been characterised previously as a dominant-negative protein. G509V exhibits vesicular localisation identical to the wild-type protein, but the C-terminal truncated Patched molecule is localised predominantly to the plasma membrane. This finding suggests that dominant-negative function can be conferred by interruption of different aspects of Patched protein behaviour. Another mutation at the same residue, G509R, did not exhibit dominant-negative activity, suggesting that simple removal of the glycine at 509 is not sufficient to impart dominant-negative function. Developmental Dynamics 229:780,790, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Characterization of tissue-specific LIM domain protein (FHL1C) which is an alternatively spliced isoform of a human LIM-only protein (FHL1)

Enders Kai On Ng
Abstract We have cloned and characterized another alternatively spliced isoform of the human four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 1 (FHL1), designated FHL1C. FHL1C contains a single zinc finger and two tandem repeats of LIM domains at the N-terminus followed by a putative RBP-J binding region at the C-terminus. FHL1C shares the same N-terminal two-and-a-half LIM domains with FHL1 but different C-terminal protein sequences. Due to the absence of the exon 4 in FHL1C, there is a frame-shift in the 3, coding region. Sequence analysis indicated that FHL1C is the human homolog of murine KyoT2. The Northern blot and RT-PCR results revealed that FHL1 is widely expressed in human tissues, including skeletal muscle and heart at a high level, albeit as a relatively low abundance transcript in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, and testis. In contrast, FHL1C is specifically expressed in testis, skeletal muscle, and heart at a relatively low level compared with FHL1. The expression of FHL1C transcripts was also seen in aorta, left atrium, left, and right ventricles of human heart at low level. Immunoblot analysis using affinity-purified anti-FHL1C antipeptide antibodies confirmed a 20 kDa protein of FHL1C in human skeletal muscle and heart. Unlike FHL1B, which is another FHL1 isoform recently reported by our group and localized predominantly in the nucleus [Lee et al., 1999], FHL1C is localized both in the nucleus and cytoplasm of mammalian cell. J. Cell. Biochem. 82: 1,10, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

E1A-F is overexpressed early in human colorectal neoplasia and associated with cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-7

William M. Boedefeld II
Abstract Studies suggest the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrilysin (MMP-7) increase in the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, however their interaction with other molecular markers is poorly understood. Results from cell line studies and mouse models suggest polyomavirus enhancer activator 3 (PEA3) may play a role in the activation of COX-2 and MMP-7 promoters. However, the role of E1A-F, the human homolog of murine PEA3, in colorectal cancer (CRC) development has not been elucidated. In this study, we used real-time reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure the levels of E1A-F, COX-2, and MMP-7 in matched normal mucosa, adenomas, and/or carcinomas from 128 patients. Our results demonstrate significant overexpression of E1A-F and MMP-7 in adenomas and E1A-F, COX-2, and MMP-7 in carcinomas. In carcinomas, E1A-F expression was significantly associated with both COX-2 and MMP-7 overexpression. These results suggest E1A-F is overexpressed in early stages of human CRC development and may be an important factor in the overexpression of COX-2 and MMP-7. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Identification, molecular cloning, and cellular distribution of the rat homolog of minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) in the rat testis,

Emmanuelle Com
Abstract As part of a program to decipher the rat testicular proteome, we studied spermatogonia and identified numerous proteins including the human homolog of the Minichromosome Maintenance Protein 7 (MCM7). MCM7 has been implicated in DNA replication in various species, but had not been detected in the testis. Here we describe the cellular distribution of MCM7 transcripts and protein, and their testicular ontogenetic expression. The full-length coding region of the rat MCM7 was also characterized. Northern blot analyses showed that MCM7 transcripts are more abundant in the testis than other organs and confirmed the presence of the 2.4 kb MCM7 transcript at all ages studied. Interestingly, two additional transcripts of 3.2 and 1.6 kb were found from 26 days post partum onwards, when spermatocytes and spermatids accumulate within the tubules. This was confirmed in isolated cell types: the three MCM7 transcripts were observed in meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells. The 3.2 kb isoform has an extended 5, untranslated region (UTR) and the 1.6 kb transcript is the result of alternative splicing of five exons. Western blot and immunohistochemistry experiments evidenced abundant MCM7 in proliferating gonocytes and Sertoli cells in the fetal testis. In the adult testis, an intense signal was observed in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes. We conclude that the Mcm7 is one example of genes that are differently transcribed and translated in somatic and spermatogenetic cells in mammals. Further work is required to determine the roles of MCM7 in spermatogonia and germ lineage. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Novel genetic markers in the 5,-flanking region of ANKH are associated with ankylosing spondylitis

Florence W. L. Tsui
Objective To use a candidate gene approach for the identification of genetic markers that are significantly linked to and associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods We searched for novel polymorphisms in the ANKH gene (human homolog of the murine progressive ankylosis gene) and genotyped 2 polymorphic sites, one in the 5,-noncoding region and the other in the promoter region of ANKH, using DNA from affected (n = 273) and unaffected (n = 112) individuals from 124 AS families. We used these ANKH and other nearby polymorphisms to perform linkage and family-based association analyses. Results We identified 2 novel polymorphic sites: one in the 5,-noncoding region of ANKH involving 1,2 copies of an 8-bp repeat (denoted as ANKH-OR), and the other in the promoter region involving different copy numbers of a triplet repeat (denoted as ANKH-TR). ANKH-OR and ANKH-TR were in complete linkage disequilibrium. Five markers (D5S1953, ANKH-TR, ANKH-OR, D5S1954, and D5S1963) were used for both the linkage and association analyses. Multipoint linkage analysis of 124 AS families showed a modest level of significance (nonparametric linkage score 2.15; P = 0.015) at the ANKH region. The contribution of ANKH to AS susceptibility (,s) was 1.9. A family-based association study on the same AS families revealed that both ANKH-OR allele 1 and ANKH-TR allele 7 were significantly associated with disease, assuming an additive model (for ANKH-OR allele 1, P = 0.03; for ANKH-TR allele 7, P = 0.04). Conclusion Our results indicate that ANKH-OR and ANKH-TR are novel genetic markers that are significantly associated with AS. [source]

Overproduction, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a novel human DNA-­repair enzyme that recognizes oxidative DNA damage

Viswanath Bandaru
DNA glycosylases repair oxidative DNA damage caused by free radicals. Recently, NEIL1, a human homolog of Escherichia coli DNA glycosylase endonuclease VIII, has been identified and shown to exhibit broad substrate specificity for a variety of types of pyrimidine-base damage. An active C-terminal deletion construct of NEIL1 was overexpressed in E. coli and crystallized. The unliganded NEIL1 crystallizes in space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 132.2, c = 51.1,Ĺ. Complete data sets were collected from native, selenomethionyl and iodinated NEIL1 to 2.1, 2.3 and 2.4,Ĺ, respectively. [source]

Wnt signaling stabilizes the DIXDC1 protein through decreased ubiquitin-dependent degradation

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2010
Lei Wang
(Cancer Sci 2010; 101: 700,706) Wnt signaling plays key roles in development, cell growth, differentiation, polarity formation, neural development, and carcinogenesis. DIX Domain Containing 1 (DIXDC1), a novel component of the Wnt pathway, was recently cloned. DIXDC1 is the human homolog of Ccd1, a positive regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway during zebrafish neural patterning. Little has been known about DIXDC1 gene expression regulation. In the present study, we showed that the DIXDC1 protein was induced upon Wnt-3a stimulation, whereas the DIXDC1 mRNA level was not significantly increased after Wnt-3a treatment. Positive DIXDC1 staining was detected in colon cancer cells and was colocalized with ,-catenin staining. However, the DIXDC1 mRNA expression decreased in human colon cancer cells compared to the matched normal colon epithelial cells. Our further investigation showed that the DIXDC1 protein was degraded through the proteasome pathway, and the activation of canonical Wnt signaling decreased the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of both the ectopic and endogenous DIXDC1 protein. In order to explore the possible mechanism of the ubiquitination of DIXDC1, we found that the phosphorylation of DIXDC1 was inhibited by Wnt-3a. Collectively, these results indicate that canonical Wnt/,-catenin pathway activation might upregulate DIXDC1 through a post-translational mechanism by inhibiting the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the DIXDC1 protein. [source]

Circulating cell wall components derived from gram-negative, not gram-positive, bacteria cause a profound induction of the gene-encoding Toll-like receptor 2 in the CNS

Nathalie Laflamme
The recent characterization of human homologs of Toll may be the missing link for the transduction events leading to nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) activity and proinflammatory gene transcription during innate immune response. Mammalian cells may express as many as 10 distinct Toll-like receptors (TLRs), although TLR2 is a key receptor for recognizing cell wall components of Gram-positive bacteria. The present study investigated the effects of circulating bacterial cell wall components on the expression of the gene-encoding TLR2 across the mouse brain. Surprisingly, while Gram-negative components caused a robust increase in TLR2 transcription within the cerebral tissue, peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), either alone or combined, failed to modulate the receptor transcript. Indeed, the mRNA levels for TLR2 in the choroid plexus and few other regions of the brain remained similar between vehicle-, LTA-, PGN-, and LTA/PGN-administered mice at all the times evaluated (i.e. 30 min to 24 h post-intraperitoneal injection). This contrasts with the profound de novo expression of TLR2 following a single systemic injection of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The signal was first detected in regions devoid of blood,brain barrier and few blood vessels and microcapillaries. A second wave of TLR2 expression was also detected from these structures to their surrounding parenchymal cells that stained for a microglial marker iba1. The rapid induction of I,B, (index of NF-,B activity) and up-regulation of the adaptor protein MyD88 suggest that LPS-induced TLR2 transcription may be dependent on the NF-,B pathway. These data provide the evidence that TLR2 is not only present in the brain, but its encoding gene is regulated by cell wall components derived from Gram-negative, not Gram-positive, bacteria. The robust wave of TLR2-expressing microglial cells may have a determinant impact on the innate immune response that occurs in the brain during systemic infection by Gram-negative, not Gram-positive, bacteria. [source]

Mouse mutants with neural tube closure defects and their role in understanding human neural tube defects,

Muriel J. Harris
Abstract BACKGROUND: The number of mouse mutants and strains with neural tube closure defects (NTDs) now exceeds 190, including 155 involving known genes, 33 with unidentified genes, and eight "multifactorial" strains. METHODS: The emerging patterns of mouse NTDs are considered in relation to the unknown genetics of the common human NTDs, anencephaly, and spina bifida aperta. RESULTS: Of the 150 mouse mutants that survive past midgestation, 20% have risk of either exencephaly and spina bifida aperta or both, parallel to the majority of human NTDs, whereas 70% have only exencephaly, 5% have only spina bifida, and 5% have craniorachischisis. The primary defect in most mouse NTDs is failure of neural fold elevation. Most null mutations (>90%) produce syndromes of multiple affected structures with high penetrance in homozygotes, whereas the "multifactorial" strains and several null-mutant heterozygotes and mutants with partial gene function (hypomorphs) have low-penetrance nonsyndromic NTDs, like the majority of human NTDs. The normal functions of the mutated genes are diverse, with clusters in pathways of actin function, apoptosis, and chromatin methylation and structure. The female excess observed in human anencephaly is found in all mouse exencephaly mutants for which gender has been studied. Maternal agents, including folate, methionine, inositol, or alternative commercial diets, have specific preventative effects in eight mutants and strains. CONCLUSIONS: If the human homologs of the mouse NTD mutants contribute to risk of common human NTDs, it seems likely to be in multifactorial combinations of hypomorphs and low-penetrance heterozygotes, as exemplified by mouse digenic mutants and the oligogenic SELH/Bc strain. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Frequent aberrant methylation of the promoter region of sterile , motif domain 14 in pulmonary adenocarcinoma

CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 11 2008
Weihong Sun
Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is known to be a major inactivation mechanism of tumor-suppressor and tumor-related genes. In order to identify novel hypermethylated genes in early stage lung adenocarcinoma, we carried out methylated CpG island amplification, modified suppression subtractive hybridization, and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction to identify aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the A/J mouse lung adenoma model, which histologically mimics the early stage of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Through methylated CpG island amplification, suppression subtractive hybridization, and differential screening, we detected five genes, three of which have human homologs. Two of them showed downregulation of their expression in human lung adenocarcinoma. Of these two genes, we selected sterile , motif domain 14 (SAMD14) and further analyzed its methylation status and expression level by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Most of the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines showed suppressed expression of SAMD14 together with hypermethylation at the promoter region, although an immortalized bronchial epithelium cell line (PL16B) did not show hypermethylation and did express SAMD14. The expression of SAMD14 in A549 was rescued by treatment with the demethylation agent 5-aza-2,-deoxycytidine. These data indicate that hypermethylation of the SAMD14 gene promoter region is associated with silencing of its expression. Hypermethylation at the CpG site of the SAMD14 promoter region was detected frequently in early invasive adenocarcinoma (8/24, 33.3%) but not in in situ adenocarcinoma (0/7, 0%) or normal lung tissue (0/31, 0%). Hypermethylation of the SAMD14 gene is a specific event in pulmonary adenocarcinogenesis and malignant progression. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 2177,2184) [source]