Human Herpesvirus (human + herpesviru)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Predominant human herpesvirus 6 variant A infant infections in an HIV-1 endemic region of Sub-Saharan Africa

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Matthew Bates
Abstract Human herpesvirus 6, HHV-6, commonly infects children, causing febrile illness and can cause more severe pathology, especially in an immune compromised setting. There are virulence distinctions between variants HHV-6A and B, with evidence for increased severity and neurotropism for HHV-6A. While HHV-6B is the predominant infant infection in USA, Europe and Japan, HHV-6A appears rare. Here HHV-6 prevalence, loads and variant genotypes, in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic infants were investigated from an African region with endemic HIV-1/AIDS. DNA was extracted from blood or sera from asymptomatic infants at 6 and 18 months age in a population-based micronutrient study, and from symptomatic infants hospitalised for febrile disease. DNA was screened by qualitative and quantitative real-time PCR, then genotyped by sequencing at variable loci, U46 (gN) and U47 (gO). HIV-1 serostatus of infants and mothers were also determined. HHV-6 DNA prevalence rose from 15% to 22% (80/371) by 18 months. At 6 months, infants born to HIV-1 positive mothers had lower HHV-6 prevalence (11%, 6/53), but higher HCMV prevalence (25%, 17/67). HHV-6 positive febrile hospitalized infants had higher HIV-1, 57% (4/7), compared to asymptomatic infants, 3% (2/74). HHV-6A was detected exclusively in 86% (48/56) of asymptomatic HHV-6 positive samples genotyped. Co-infections with both strain variants were linked with higher viral loads and found in 13% (7/56) asymptomatic infants and 43% (3/7) HIV-1 positive febrile infants. Overall, the results show HHV-6A as the predominant variant significantly associated with viremic infant-infections in this African population, distinct from other global cohorts, suggesting emergent infections elsewhere. J. Med. Virol. 81:779,789, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


High diversity of HHV-8 molecular subtypes in the Amazon region of Brazil: Evidence of an ancient human infection,

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 10 2007
Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
Abstract The present study describes the molecular epidemiology of Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) among four Indian tribes (Kararao, Arara Laranjal, Tiriyo, and Zo'e) of the Amazon region of Brazil and a group of HIV-1-infected subjects from the urban population of Belem, Para. Infection was characterized by the presence of antibodies using ELISA (measuring antibodies to ORF59, ORF65, K8.1A, K8.1B, and ORF73), and molecular assays (gene amplification of the regions ORF26 and the variable region VR1). Antibodies to HHV-8 were detected in 66 samples of the 221 Brazilian Amerindians, namely, 6 (25%) in the Kararao, 18 (19.6%) in the Arara Laranjal, 24 (42.9%) in the Tiriyo, and 18 (36.7%) in the Zo'e. Among the 477 HIV-1-infected subjects, antibodies to HHV-8 were present in 74 (15.5%) persons. The ORF26 region was amplified in seven samples, one of the Arara Laranjal, one of the Tiriyo, two of the Zo'e, and three of the HIV-1-infected group. Subtyping of HHV-8 described a high multiplicity of molecular subtypes, including C (Zo'e), E (Tiriyo), and B (HIV-1 infected). Serological results confirm the high prevalence of HHV-8 among Amerindians and the presence of three subtypes in the Amazon region of Brazil, including a unique subtype, which favors the idea of HHV-8 as an ancient human infection within this particular geographical region. J. Med. Virol. 79:1537,1544, 2007. © Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Correlations between synthetic peptide-based enzyme immunoassays and immunofluorescence assay for detection of human herpesvirus 8 antibodies in different Argentine populations

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 6 2006
Celeste Pérez
Abstract Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) antibody tests vary in sensitivity and specificity, depending on the population tested and on the type of assay. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of two peptide enzyme immunoassays using a multiple antigenic peptide (PK8.1-MAP) or a chimeric peptide (PK8.1-orf65) as the antigens and determined the HHV-8 seroprevalence in different Argentine polulations using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as reference. For analysis, when either or both of the peptide EIAs were positive, the specimen was considered positive (PEIA). We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of PEIA to be 97% using Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients and healthy individuals as positive and negative controls respectively. Then, we expanded the control groups to include IFA positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and IFA negative blood donors. The sensitivity decreased to 83% but specificity remained high at 98%. Concordance between PEIA and IFA was 77% for 1/40 IFA titers and increased to 90% for titers ,1/160. Seroprevalences for HHV-8 performed in the HIV positive MSM were (IFA 73.1%; PEIA55.2%); heterosexuals (52.5%, 22.2%), which includes injecting drug users (IDU) (54.0%, 32.4%) and non-IDU (51.6%, 16.1%). The inclusion of non-KS HHV-8 IFA positive individuals to the positive controls may be a substantial improvement towards the realistic assessment of assay sensitivity. These peptide EIAs can be used for trends in populations with high probablity of being HHV-8 infected and negative results should be confirmed by IFA. IFA test is still the most suitable test for populations with low probabilities of being infected. J. Med. Virol. 78:806,813, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Human herpesvirus 7-associated meningitis and optic neuritis in a patient after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Tetsushi Yoshikawa
Abstract A 9-year-old boy who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation began to vomit from day 10 after transplantation. In addition to vomiting, the patient had a fever (from day 26) and severe headache (from day 34). His cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (day 41) demonstrated pleocytosis with an absence of leukemic cells. Although the patient's symptoms were resolved with further supportive care, abrupt onset of bilateral decreased vision occurred at day 54. He was diagnosed with bilateral optic neuritis, due to the presence of disc edema and redness. Concomitant with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis, the human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) antibody titer increased significantly in this patient. Although neither HHV-6 nor cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected in CSF collected at day 41, HHV-7 DNA was detected in the sample. Viral DNA was not detected in CSF collected at day 93. J. Med. Virol. 70:440,443, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Human herpesvirus 6 infection in adult living related liver transplant recipients

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2008
Masahiro Ohashi
To analyze human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection in adult living related liver transplantation, we performed a virological analysis, including viral isolation, serological assay, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, of serially collected blood samples from 67 recipients. In addition, cytokine levels were measured to determine their role in viral reactivation. HHV-6 was isolated from only 4 recipients (6.0%), and viral DNA was detected in 15 (22.4%) of the 67 recipients. A significant increase in HHV-6 immunoglobulin G antibody titers was observed in 19 (28.4%) of the 67 recipients. Finally, 26 recipients (38.8%) had HHV-6 reactivation 2-6 weeks after transplantation. HHV-6 associated clinical features were analyzed in the 17 recipients presenting with either viremia or DNAemia. Two recipients with viremia and 3 recipients with DNAemia had unexplained fever at the time of viral infection. An increase in aminotransferase levels was observed in 2 recipients with viremia and 3 recipients with DNAemia. Recipients with liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection as the underlying disease were more likely to have HHV-6 infection (P = 0.025). Mortality at the last follow-up in recipients with HHV-6 reactivation was significantly higher than in those without viral reactivation (P = 0.0118). Plasma interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the recipients with HHV-6 viremia than in the recipients without viremia at 4 weeks post-transplant (P = 0.0411). Moreover, tumor necrosis factor , levels were also higher in recipients with HHV-6 viremia (P < 0.0001) or reactivation (P = 0.0011) than in recipients without viremia or reactivation 4 weeks post-transplant. Liver Transpl, 2007. © 2007 AASLD. [source]


The impact of human herpesvirus-6 and -7 infection on the outcome of liver transplantation

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2002
Raymund R. Razonable
Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and -7 are novel members of the ,-herpesvirus family that maintain latency in the human host after primary infection. Reactivation from latency and/or increased degree of viral replication occurs during periods of immune dysfunction. The clinical effect of HHV-6 and HHV-7 reactivation in recipients of liver transplants is now being recognized. Clinical illnesses such as fever, rash, pneumonitis, encephalitis, hepatitis, and myelosuppression have been described in a number of anecdotal reports. Moreover, a growing body of evidence suggests that the more important effect of HHV-6 and HHV-7 reactivation on the outcomes of liver transplantation may be mediated indirectly by their interactions with the other ,-herpesvirus,cytomegalovirus (CMV). Coinfection among these three ,-herpesviruses in clinical syndromes that were classically ascribed to be solely caused by CMV has been shown and has raised substantial interest in the potential role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 as copathogens in the direct and indirect illnesses caused by CMV. This article reviews the current scientific data on the role and the magnitude of impact of HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection on the outcomes of liver transplantation. [source]


Viral infections in the mouth

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 2002
CG Teo
Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) are commonly encountered in the HIV-infected patient. A unique feature of OHL is non-cytolytic high level of replication of Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) in the glossal epithelium. The expression of viral-encoded anti-apoptotic proteins concomitant to replicative proteins probably underlies this phenomenon. The question of whether OHL arises from activation of EBV latent in the tongue, or from superinfection by endogenous EBV shed via non-glossal sites or by exogenous EBV remains unresolved. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is now seen as necessary but not sufficient cause of KS. Expression of HHV8-encoded oncogenic proteins in endothelial cells probably explains the aberrant proliferation of these cells in KS lesions. Studies into why KS is so commonly observed at the palate in HIV-infected patients may provide important clues to its pathogenesis. [source]


Human herpesvirus 8: Is it time for routine surveillance in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients to prevent the development of Kaposi's sarcoma?

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2003
Article first published online: 18 JAN 200
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8-associated polyclonal body cavity effusions that mimic primary effusion lymphomas

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 7 2006
Valeria Ascoli
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Carbamazepine-induced drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome in a 14-year-old Japanese boy

EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2008
Yuka Suzuki
Summary Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a life-threatening idiosyncratic drug reaction, and an early accurate diagnosis is essential for its treatment. We describe a 14-year-old boy with localization-related epilepsy, who developed severe adverse cutaneous and systemic reactions after 3 weeks of carbamazepine administration. During the course of the clinical symptoms, reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was proven by detection of the HHV-6 genome in serum and elevation of HHV-6 immunoglobulin G (IgG). He fulfilled the newly established criteria for DIHS. Among eight identified medications that can precipitate DIHS, four are antiepileptic drugs. Establishing a treatment strategy for DIHS is warranted to improve its outcome. Therefore, it is important to raise awareness of DIHS among epileptologists. [source]


Substantial regional differences in human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa: Insights on the origin of the "Kaposi's sarcoma belt",,

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 10 2010
Sheila C. Dollard
Abstract Equatorial Africa has among the highest incidences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the world, thus earning the name "KS Belt." This was the case even before the HIV epidemic. To date, there is no clear evidence that HHV-8 seroprevalence is higher in this region but interpretation of the available literature is tempered by differences in serologic assays used across studies. We examined representatively sampled ambulatory adults in Uganda, which is in the "KS Belt," and in Zimbabwe and South Africa which are outside the Belt, for HHV-8 antibodies. All serologic assays were uniformly performed in the same reference laboratory by the same personnel. In the base-case serologic algorithm, seropositivity was defined by reactivity in an immunofluorescence assay or in 2 enzyme immunoassays. A total of 2,375 participants were examined. In Uganda, HHV-8 seroprevalence was high early in adulthood (35.5% by age 21) without significant change thereafter. In contrast, HHV-8 seroprevalence early in adulthood was lower in Zimbabwe and South Africa (13.7 and 10.8%, respectively) but increased with age. After age adjustment, Ugandans had 3.24-fold greater odds of being HHV-8 infected than South Africans (p < 0.001) and 2.22-fold greater odds than Zimbabweans (p < 0.001). Inferences were unchanged using all other serologic algorithms evaluated. In conclusion, HHV-8 infection is substantially more common in Uganda than in Zimbabwe and South Africa. These findings help to explain the high KS incidence in the "KS Belt" and underscore the importance of a uniform approach to HHV-8 antibody testing. [source]


The non-Hodgkin lymphomas: A review of the epidemiologic literature

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue S12 2007
Dominik D. Alexander
Abstract The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of B-cell and T-cell neoplasms that arise primarily in the lymph nodes. NHL incidence rates in the US doubled between about 1970 and 1990, and stabilized during the 1990s. NHL accounts for ,3.4% of cancer deaths in the US. Although some of the observed patterns in NHL have been related to HIV/AIDS, these conditions cannot fully explain the magnitude of the changes; neither do changes in classification systems nor improved diagnostic capabilities. Studies of occupational and environmental exposures (e.g., pesticides, solvents) have produced no consistent pattern of significant positive associations. Inverse associations with ultraviolet radiation exposure and alcohol and fish intake, and positive associations with meat and saturated fat intake have been reported in several studies; additional studies are needed to confirm or refute these associations. Family history of NHL or other hematolymphoproliferative cancers and personal history of several autoimmune disorders are associated with increased risk of NHL, but are not likely to account for a large proportion of cases. HIV and other infectious agents, such as human herpesvirus 8 and Epstein,Barr, appear to be associated with differing types of NHL, such as some B-cell lymphomas. Future epidemiologic studies should evaluate associations by NHL type, enhance exposure information collected, and elucidate factors that may identify susceptible (or resistant) subpopulations because of genetic, immunologic or other characteristics. The extent to which the etiology of NHL types may differ is important to resolve in ongoing and future studies. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


HHV-6 infection , not only tertian fever

JOURNAL DER DEUTSCHEN DERMATOLOGISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT, Issue 3 2009
Isabella Fried
Summary The primary infection with the human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 usually occurs before the age of two (95%) and clinically either presents as tertian fever followed by exanthem subitum (10%) or even more often as febrile disease without an exanthem. In adults an active HHV-6 infection can present as febrile illness. A 19-year-old immunocompetent patient presented with high fever, exanthem, swelling of the lymph nodes and pancytopenia and was serologically diagnosed as active HHV-6 infection with anti- HHV-6-IgM- and -IgG antibodies. Since the antibodies were already detectable on day 5 of disease, with persistence of high IgG and undetectable IgM after 4 weeks, a reactivation seemed most likely. There was no evidence for an underlying immunosuppressive disease or reactivation induced by viral co-infection. Fulminant hepatitis or meningoencephalitis are the most frequent complications in immunocompetent individuals and have to be recognized at an early stage. [source]


Patterns of antibodies against latent and lytic antigens of human herpesvirus 8 in an endemic population and patients with Kaposi's sarcoma in Mozambique

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 9 2010
Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
Abstract The patterns of antibodies against latent and lytic antigens of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) were assessed using immunofluorescence assays of samples from 155 persons seropositive for HHV-8 seen at public health centers and 24 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) from Mozambique. Of the 155 persons without KS, 48 (31%) had antibodies against latent antigens only, 29 (18.7%) had antibodies against lytic antigens only, and 78 (50.3%) had antibodies against both types of antigen. The HHV-8 antibody titer tended to increase with age until age 40, after which it began to decrease. High titers of antibodies against latent and lytic antigens of HHV-8 were detected mostly in persons co-infected with HIV, and these increased titers could have a predictive value. All patients with KS except four patients who were seronegative for HHV-8 had elevated titers of HHV-8 antibodies, predominantly against latent antigens. The data suggest the potential for an increase in the development of KS in this endemic area for HHV-8. J. Med. Virol. 82:1576,1581, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Predominant human herpesvirus 6 variant A infant infections in an HIV-1 endemic region of Sub-Saharan Africa

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 5 2009
Matthew Bates
Abstract Human herpesvirus 6, HHV-6, commonly infects children, causing febrile illness and can cause more severe pathology, especially in an immune compromised setting. There are virulence distinctions between variants HHV-6A and B, with evidence for increased severity and neurotropism for HHV-6A. While HHV-6B is the predominant infant infection in USA, Europe and Japan, HHV-6A appears rare. Here HHV-6 prevalence, loads and variant genotypes, in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic infants were investigated from an African region with endemic HIV-1/AIDS. DNA was extracted from blood or sera from asymptomatic infants at 6 and 18 months age in a population-based micronutrient study, and from symptomatic infants hospitalised for febrile disease. DNA was screened by qualitative and quantitative real-time PCR, then genotyped by sequencing at variable loci, U46 (gN) and U47 (gO). HIV-1 serostatus of infants and mothers were also determined. HHV-6 DNA prevalence rose from 15% to 22% (80/371) by 18 months. At 6 months, infants born to HIV-1 positive mothers had lower HHV-6 prevalence (11%, 6/53), but higher HCMV prevalence (25%, 17/67). HHV-6 positive febrile hospitalized infants had higher HIV-1, 57% (4/7), compared to asymptomatic infants, 3% (2/74). HHV-6A was detected exclusively in 86% (48/56) of asymptomatic HHV-6 positive samples genotyped. Co-infections with both strain variants were linked with higher viral loads and found in 13% (7/56) asymptomatic infants and 43% (3/7) HIV-1 positive febrile infants. Overall, the results show HHV-6A as the predominant variant significantly associated with viremic infant-infections in this African population, distinct from other global cohorts, suggesting emergent infections elsewhere. J. Med. Virol. 81:779,789, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


HHV8 a subtype is associated with rapidly evolving classic Kaposi's sarcoma

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 12 2008
Roberta Mancuso
Abstract The link between human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has been proven, but many important aspects including risk factors, genetic predisposition to tumor development, transmission of KSHV, and the pathogenic potential of different genotypes remain to be elucidated. Possible associations between clinical parameters and antibody levels, viral load fluctuations, and viral genotype were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, an in-house developed IFA assay, and sequence analysis of ORF K1-VR1 in blood, serum and saliva of 38 subjects with classic KS (cKS). KSHV lytic antibodies were significantly increased in stage IV compared to stage I and II patients (p,=,0.006 and p,=,0.041, respectively). KSHV blood, serum, and saliva viral load was comparable in all stages. The highest viral loads were detected in saliva, and they decreased in stages III,IV compared to stages I,II patients. Higher concentrations of lytic antibodies and higher viral loads were observed in fast progressing cKS patients, in whom KSHV detection from blood was also more frequent. Type A KSHV strain was almost exclusively present in rapid progressors (12/17 cases), while C type was mainly present in slow progressing patients (6/7 cases). Finally, detection of type A KSHV strain associated with higher blood viral loads. KSHV lytic antibody levels and viral load can be used to monitor clinical evolution of cKS. Infection supported by KSHV A subtype is associated with more rapid progressive disease. Careful monitoring and aggressive therapeutic protocols should be considered in patients with KSHV A-supported infection. J. Med. Virol. 80:2153,2160, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Time course characteristics of human herpesvirus 6 specific cellular immune response and natural killer cell activity in patients with exanthema subitum

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 6 2006
Takuji Kumagai
Abstract The time-course of cell-mediated immunity in exanthema subitum is not well documented. The lymphoproliferative response to purified human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) antigen and to phytohemagglutinin was measured and natural killer (NK) cell activities determined in three consecutive specimens obtained biweekly from 18 young children and infants with exanthema subitum. Virus isolation and PCR detection of virus DNA and determination of neutralization antibody to HHV-6 and -7 were also carried out. The magnitude of the HHV-6 specific lymphoproliferative response varied; however, in most cases the time course kinetics revealed a low response in the acute phase with a subsequent gradual increase. In contrast, NK cell activities were high in the acute phase and declined gradually during convalescence. The lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin did not show a consistent trend in kinetics of time; however, dynamic changes in activity were observed in patients during the acute and convalescent periods. The results suggest that NK cells play a major role in resolving acute phase infection while specific lymphocyte activity develops later. The cause of the delayed development of HHV-6 specific lymphoproliferative response is unknown. The lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin ratios implied that HHV-6 infection has some impact on host T-cell immunity during the course of exanthema subitum. J. Med. Virol. 78:792,799, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Correlations between synthetic peptide-based enzyme immunoassays and immunofluorescence assay for detection of human herpesvirus 8 antibodies in different Argentine populations

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 6 2006
Celeste Pérez
Abstract Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) antibody tests vary in sensitivity and specificity, depending on the population tested and on the type of assay. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of two peptide enzyme immunoassays using a multiple antigenic peptide (PK8.1-MAP) or a chimeric peptide (PK8.1-orf65) as the antigens and determined the HHV-8 seroprevalence in different Argentine polulations using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as reference. For analysis, when either or both of the peptide EIAs were positive, the specimen was considered positive (PEIA). We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of PEIA to be 97% using Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients and healthy individuals as positive and negative controls respectively. Then, we expanded the control groups to include IFA positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and IFA negative blood donors. The sensitivity decreased to 83% but specificity remained high at 98%. Concordance between PEIA and IFA was 77% for 1/40 IFA titers and increased to 90% for titers ,1/160. Seroprevalences for HHV-8 performed in the HIV positive MSM were (IFA 73.1%; PEIA55.2%); heterosexuals (52.5%, 22.2%), which includes injecting drug users (IDU) (54.0%, 32.4%) and non-IDU (51.6%, 16.1%). The inclusion of non-KS HHV-8 IFA positive individuals to the positive controls may be a substantial improvement towards the realistic assessment of assay sensitivity. These peptide EIAs can be used for trends in populations with high probablity of being HHV-8 infected and negative results should be confirmed by IFA. IFA test is still the most suitable test for populations with low probabilities of being infected. J. Med. Virol. 78:806,813, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Association of viral factors with non-familial breast cancer in Taiwan by comparison with non-cancerous, fibroadenoma, and thyroid tumor tissues,

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 2 2005
Ju-Hsin Tsai
Abstract To study the etiologic factors of non-familial breast cancer, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridization were used to detect six viruses including human papillomavirus (HPV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein,Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, and human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 DNA in 69 patients with breast cancer and 60 specimens from non-cancerous or other individuals with thyroid tumors or fibroadenoma (non-breast cancer controls). Two specimens from patients with a familial history of breast cancer and five breast cancer specimens with negative results for ,-globin, which was used as internal control, were excluded from this study. Eight (12.9%) HSV-1, 28 (45.2%) EBV, 47 (75.8%) CMV, 8 (12.9%) HPV, and 28 (45.2%) HHV-8 positive samples out of the 62 breast cancer specimens were detected; no HSV-2 DNA was detected in any group. Among the viral gene-positive breast cancer samples, 12 (23.1%) were positive for 1 virus, 16 (30.8%) were positive for 2 viruses, 21 (40.4%) were positive for 3 viruses, and 3 (5.8%) were positive for 4 viruses. Among the viral gene-positive specimens of the control groups, only one virus, CMV, was found in the non-cancerous and thyroid tumor specimens, while multiple viruses were found in the fibroadenoma specimens. The viruses associated with breast cancer were HHV-8,>,EBV (P,<,0.01). The viruses associated with fibroadenoma were HSV-1 and HHV-8,>,EBV (P,<,0.01). The presence of more than one virus was found predominantly in breast cancer and exclusively found in fibroadenoma. CMV was the only virus associated with thyroid tumors. J. Med. Virol. 75:276,281, 2005. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Human herpesvirus-8 infection in pregnancy and labor: Lack of evidence of vertical transmission

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Loredana Sarmati
Abstract To investigate whether vertical transmission of the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) may occur during pregnancy or at delivery, we enrolled 295 women recruited attending the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a University Teaching of Rome Tor Vergata, S. Eugenio Hospital. The study population was divided in two groups: 245 pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for genetic screening at 16,18 weeks gestation (group 1) and 50 women at the childbirth (group 2). Maternal blood was obtained from all women. Amniotic fluid (group 1) and cord blood (group 2) were obtained at midtrimester and at delivery, respectively. The presence of anti-HHV-8 antibodies in serum samples was investigated by an immunfluorescence assay. All amniotic fluids, maternal blood, and cord blood samples from HHV-8 seropositive women were tested for the presence of HHV-8 DNA sequences by the polymerase chain reaction. Thirty women, 27 of the group 1 and three of the group 2, were found to have anti-HHV-8 antibodies. Two neonates of the three seropositive mothers of the group 2 had anti-HHV-8 antibodies in cord blood. HHV-8 DNA sequences were detected in the blood of one woman of the group 2. None of the amniotic fluid and cord blood samples had detectable HHV-8 DNA sequences. This study suggests that vertical transmission of HHV-8 is unlikely or, at least, very rare. J. Med. Virol. 72:462,466, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Human herpesvirus 7-associated meningitis and optic neuritis in a patient after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Tetsushi Yoshikawa
Abstract A 9-year-old boy who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation began to vomit from day 10 after transplantation. In addition to vomiting, the patient had a fever (from day 26) and severe headache (from day 34). His cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (day 41) demonstrated pleocytosis with an absence of leukemic cells. Although the patient's symptoms were resolved with further supportive care, abrupt onset of bilateral decreased vision occurred at day 54. He was diagnosed with bilateral optic neuritis, due to the presence of disc edema and redness. Concomitant with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis, the human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) antibody titer increased significantly in this patient. Although neither HHV-6 nor cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected in CSF collected at day 41, HHV-7 DNA was detected in the sample. Viral DNA was not detected in CSF collected at day 93. J. Med. Virol. 70:440,443, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Interaction of human herpesvirus 6 with human CD34 positive cells

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Hiroki Isomura
Abstract We reported previously that human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) suppresses hematopoietic colony formation of erythroid (BFU-E), granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), and megakaryocyte (CFU-Meg) lineages in vitro. Here we describe the interaction between HHV-6 and human CD34+ cells, which are a major source of hematopoietic progenitor cells. CD34+ cells were immunomagnetically isolated from cord blood mononuclear cells using anti-CD34+ antibodies coated onto either DynabeadsÔ or MACS beads. The CD34+ population selected with Dynabeads showed a broad range of fluorescence. The population selected with MACS beads showed a narrow range of fluorescence. After infection with HHV-6, two transcripts of the immediate early genes were detected with both cell populations. HHV-6 suppressed colony formation of BFU-E, CFU-GM, and CFU-Meg. HHV-6 suppressed cell growth after 3 to 7 days culture in the presence of thrombopoietin (TPO). More differentiated CD34+ cells were more susceptible to the effects of HHV-6. These data indicate that the targets for hematopoietic suppression by HHV-6 are the differentiated cells. J. Med. Virol. 70:444,450, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


HHV-6 A- or B-specific P41 antigens do not reveal virus variant-specific IgG or IgM responses in human serum

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Yunhe Xu
Abstract The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown, but there are indications of a role of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), especially variant A, in the pathogenesis. Higher serum antibody reactivity against an HHV-6 early protein, p41, has been found in MS cases than in controls. The antigen, however, was purified from infected cells with a monoclonal antibody also reactive with a protein (p38) likely to be of cellular origin. To avoid serological crossreactivity with the cellular protein, recombinant p41 proteins from HHV-6A strain GS and HHV-6B strain Z29 were expressed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins (p41-GST), and used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). p41 variant specific monoclonal antibodies reacted strongly with the respective recombinant proteins. Serum IgM and IgG reactivities with the recombinant p41 antigens were analysed in patients with manifest MS, patients with optic neuritis, patients with other neurological diseases, and in one group of healthy controls. All sera were HHV-6 IgG seropositive by immunofluorescence. The serum IgM or IgG reactivities against the recombinant p41 antigens did not differ significantly between the groups, and the reactivities against the variant A and B antigens were identical. In many samples, the reactivity was very low. The results indicate that p41 is not an optimal target for HHV-6 serology studies, and that the data obtained with the p41 antigen prepared from infected cells (possibly including also p38) should be interpreted with caution. J. Med. Virol. 66:394-399, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Treatment of classic Kaposi sarcoma with a nicotine dermal patch: a phase II clinical trial

JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 9 2008
JJ Goedert
Abstract Background, Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a malignancy of dermal endothelial cells that is caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) infection, is sensitive to perturbations of immunity. Nicotine might be effective against KS because of its immunologic and vascular effects and because smoking is associated with a low risk of KS. Objective and study design, We conducted a masked, randomized phase 2 clinical trial of transdermal nicotine and placebo patches to assess the safety and efficacy of nicotine against classic KS (cKS). Subjects and methods, Three cKS lesions, predominantly nodules, in each of 24 non-smoking patients were randomly assigned to 15 weeks continuous treatment with nicotine patch (escalated to 7 mg), identical masked placebo patch or no patch. Changes in lesion area and elevation from baseline through six follow-up visits, by direct measurement and by two independent readers using digital photographs of the lesions, were compared using non-parametric and regression methods. Changes in longitudinal levels of HHV8 antibodies and DNA in blood cells were similarly assessed. Results, There were no systemic or serious adverse events, and compliance was good. One patient resumed smoking and discontinued patches, and two patients withdrew at week 12 for unrelated indications. Six (29%) of the remaining 21 suspended use of patches to relieve local skin irritation; four of these six completed the trial at reduced dose. Treatment assignment was not associated with significant or consistent changes in cKS lesion area or elevation, HHV8 viral load or antibodies. Conclusion, Transdermal nicotine and placebo patches caused no serious toxicities but had no demonstrable effect on nodular cKS lesions or HHV8 levels. [source]


Kaposi's sarcoma , still an enigma

JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY & VENEREOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
P Babál
ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual neoplasm that has proved to be an enigma in many ways since its original description in 1872. KS, a vascular tumour that is otherwise rare, is at present the most common neoplasm in patients with AIDS. The lesions contain spindle cells that share features with endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells and are in all likelihood primitive mesenchymal cells that can form vascular channels. These cells are monoclonal in origin indicating therefore that KS is a neoplasm. The presence of a novel type of human herpes virus, KS herpesvirus (KSHV) also called human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8) in KS lesions support a viral ethiology. KS may be mistaken in the skin for an inflammatory or other lesion, thus skin biopsy is important for correct diagnosis, with the use of immunohistochemistry or molecular biology if needed. Radiation or interferon alpha dominate in the therapeutic approaches. [source]


Human herpesvirus 6 infection in adult living related liver transplant recipients

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2008
Masahiro Ohashi
To analyze human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection in adult living related liver transplantation, we performed a virological analysis, including viral isolation, serological assay, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, of serially collected blood samples from 67 recipients. In addition, cytokine levels were measured to determine their role in viral reactivation. HHV-6 was isolated from only 4 recipients (6.0%), and viral DNA was detected in 15 (22.4%) of the 67 recipients. A significant increase in HHV-6 immunoglobulin G antibody titers was observed in 19 (28.4%) of the 67 recipients. Finally, 26 recipients (38.8%) had HHV-6 reactivation 2-6 weeks after transplantation. HHV-6 associated clinical features were analyzed in the 17 recipients presenting with either viremia or DNAemia. Two recipients with viremia and 3 recipients with DNAemia had unexplained fever at the time of viral infection. An increase in aminotransferase levels was observed in 2 recipients with viremia and 3 recipients with DNAemia. Recipients with liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection as the underlying disease were more likely to have HHV-6 infection (P = 0.025). Mortality at the last follow-up in recipients with HHV-6 reactivation was significantly higher than in those without viral reactivation (P = 0.0118). Plasma interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the recipients with HHV-6 viremia than in the recipients without viremia at 4 weeks post-transplant (P = 0.0411). Moreover, tumor necrosis factor , levels were also higher in recipients with HHV-6 viremia (P < 0.0001) or reactivation (P = 0.0011) than in recipients without viremia or reactivation 4 weeks post-transplant. Liver Transpl, 2007. © 2007 AASLD. [source]


Herpesviruses in periodontal pocket and gingival tissue specimens

MOLECULAR ORAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
A. Contreras
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus type 1 (EBV-1) are frequently detected in crevicular fluid of deep periodontal pockets, but little or no information is available on occurence of herpesviruses in gingival tissue. This investigation studied the presence of herpesviruses in periodontal pockets and the corresponding gingival tissues from 11 periodontally healthy and 14 periodontitis sites. A nested-polymerase chain reaction was employed to identify the presence of HCMV, EBV-1, EBV-2, herpes simplex virus, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8 in each test sample. In healthy periodontal sites, HCMV was detected in 1 (9%) and EBV-1 in 2 (18%) pocket samples, and HCMV was detected in 2 (18%) and EBV-1 in 3 (27%) gingival tissue samples. In periodontitis lesions, HCMV was detected in 9 (64%) pocket samples and in 12 (86%) gingival tissue samples, and EBV-1 was detected in 6 (43%) pocket samples and in 11 (79%) gingival tissue samples. HHV-6 and HHV-8 were detected exclusively in gingival tissue samples. The present findings confirm the frequent presence of HCMV and EBV-1 in periodontitis lesions and suggest using gingival tissue specimens for detecting periodontal HHV-6, HHV-7 and HHV-8. [source]


Classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 infection in Xinjiang, China

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 11 2001
Payzula Dilnur
We report 17 cases of the classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma in Xinjiang, which is located in the north-western area of China surrounded by Mongolia in the east, Russia in the north and Kazakhstan in the west. Fifteen of the patients were of the Uygur people. All patients were male and did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Most of the lesions were found in the lower and/or upper extremities, with 16 patients showing multiple lesions. Immunohistochemical examination of the lesions revealed that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen was expressed in the nuclei of spindle-shaped tumor cells. HHV-8 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in all seven cases examined. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that DNA sequences of the HHV-8-encoded K1 gene in the seven Kaposi's sarcoma cases were classified as subtype C that was common in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and East Asian countries. In addition, using immunofluorescence we investigated the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in 73 Uygur patients with diseases other than Kaposi's sarcoma. Surprisingly, the serological study revealed that 34 of the patients (46.6%) were positive for antibodies against HHV-8, suggesting that HHV-8 infection is widespread in Xinjiang area. The occurrence of the classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma with a high seropositivity rate implies that Xinjiang is the most endemic area for HHV-8 infection in the world known to date. Considering that Xinjiang is located at the middle point of the Silk Road that used to extend from Rome to China, these data imply that the virus may have been in circulation in this area due to the migration of the people via the Silk Road. [source]


HHV-8 infection status of AIDS-unrelated and AIDS-associated multicentric Castleman's disease

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 9 2001
Tetsuji Suda
Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is a clinicopathologically defined entity characterized by systemic lymphadenopathy with unique pathomorphology such as angiosclerosis, blood vessel proliferation in and around follicles, and plasmacytosis. While its pathogenesis has remained unclarified for many years, identification of the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in at least some MCD cases has opened new perspectives in this field. Because previous reports have described many inconsistencies regarding HHV-8 positivity in MCD, we intended to clarify this issue by the introduction of more convincing methodologies. For this investigation, we introduced two antibodies produced in our laboratories that recognize a latent gene product ORF73 and a lytic gene product ORF59, together with two well-recognized methods, in situ hybridization for the detection of lytic phase transcript T1.1/nut -1, and genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighty-two cases of MCD were collected from Japan (n= 75) and France (n= 7). In three cases, the patients were suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed identical results: only three out of 82 cases were positively stained, and all the positive cases were found to be the patients with AIDS. Genomic PCR was done in 43 cases, and only one case produced positive results: the only AIDS case among the 43 cases studied by genomic PCR. Histopathologically, the HHV-8-positive cases showed the highest intensity of angiosclerosis and germinal center / perifollicular vascular proliferation, while plasmacytosis was not severe in the HHV-8-positive cases. Some of the HHV-8-negative MCD cases displayed similar histopathology, but at a far less intense level, except for the plasmacytosis. These results suggest that: (i) all three of the HHV-8-positive MCD patients in the present group are the patients with AIDS; and (ii) HHV-8-positive MCD patients develop typical but marked angiosclerosis and vascular proliferation that might be differentiated from HHV-8-negative MCD patients, who showed far less intense changes. [source]


Spontaneously regressed Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 infection in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient

PATHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, Issue 4 2000
Yasuko Kondo
Kaposi's sarcoma occurring in a 78-year-old woman, with the absence of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, was correctly diagnosed by immunohistochemistry using anti-human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) antibody (PA1-73N) for the first time. The patient suffered from chronic respiratory failure and was treated with a low dose of steroids for 2.5 years. After her medication dosage was increased for the exacerbation of the respiratory failure, multiple skin tumors in her feet and legs suddenly developed. Histopathologically, skin tumors were suspected as Kaposi's sarcoma at the first biopsy and reactive angiomatosis at the second biopsy. Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, however, revealed the presence of HHV8 DNA fragment and positive staining in the majority of spindle cells in the skin tumors. Serological examination confirmed the positivity of anti-HHV8 antibodies. HHV8 infection and steroid-induced immunosuppression, as well as environmental factors played a role in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma in this patient, because she was born in Okinawa, which is a well-known endemic area of Kaposi's sarcoma in Japan. As her general condition improved, the skin lesions regressed without any specific treatment, and disappeared completely 8 months later, in which regression may be associated with evidence of numerous CD8 cell infiltration in the second biopsy tissues. No recurrence was observed during the following 6 month follow up. [source]