Human Hepatoma Cells (human + hepatoma_cell)

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Terms modified by Human Hepatoma Cells

  • human hepatoma cell line

  • Selected Abstracts


    Geranylgeraniol, an Intermediate Product in Mevalonate Pathway, Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma Cells: Death Receptor-independent Activation of Caspase-8 with Down-regulation of Bcl-xL Expression

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2001
    Yoshio Takeda
    Geranylgeraniol (GGOH), an intermediate of mevalonate metabolism, is known to induce apoptosis in various lines of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to clarify the signaling pathways of apoptosis induced by GGOH in human hepatoma cells. HuH-7 human hepatoma cells were incubated in the absence or presence of GGOH. Activation of caspase-8/-9/-3 in HuH-7 cells was found after 8 h treatment with GGOH, at which tune DNA fragmentation and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (,,m) occurred. HuH-7 cells do not express Bcl-2; however, down-regulation of Bcl-xL expression preceded activation of the caspase cascade in GGOH-treated HuH-7 cells, while Bax expression was not changed by GGOH treatment. Addition of caspase inhibitors restored the decreased cell viability of HuH-7 cells by GGOH, including ,,m, to the baseline level, which indicated that caspase triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways in GGOH-treated HuH-7 cells. Similarly, GGOH-mediated apoptosis of HuH-7 cells was clearly prevented by coadministration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which led to restoration of the level of Bcl-xL expression. Activation of caspase-8/-9/-3, as well as ,,m, by GGOH treatment was suppressed by addition of UDCA. Our results indicate that activation of the caspase cascade initiating from caspase-8, which could be accelerated by down-regulation of Bcl-xL expression, plays a key role in an apoptotic process induced by GGOH in human hepatoma cells. [source]


    Hepatitis C virus induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and modulates the DNA repair enzyme NEIL1

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Sampa Pal
    Abstract Background and Aims:, Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced chronic inflammation may induce oxidative stress which could compromise the repair of damaged DNA, rendering cells more susceptible to spontaneous or mutagen-induced alterations, the underlying cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the current study we examined the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from HCV infection and evaluated its effect on the host DNA damage and repair machinery. Methods:, HCV infected human hepatoma cells were analyzed to determine (i) ROS, (ii) 8-oxoG and (iii) DNA glycosylases NEIL1, NEIL2, OGG1. Liver biopsies were analyzed for NEIL1. Results:, Human hepatoma cells infected with HCV JFH-1 showed 30,60-fold increases in ROS levels compared to uninfected cells. Levels of the oxidatively modified guanosine base 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were significantly increased sixfold in the HCV-infected cells. Because DNA glycosylases are the enzymes that remove oxidized nucleotides, their expression in HCV-infected cells was analyzed. NEIL1 but not OGG1 or NEIL2 gene expression was impaired in HCV-infected cells. In accordance, we found reduced glycosylase (NEIL1-specific) activity in HCV-infected cells. The antioxidant N-acetyl cystein (NAC) efficiently reversed the NEIL1 repression by inhibiting ROS induction by HCV. NEIL1 expression was also partly restored when virus-infected cells were treated with interferon (IFN). HCV core and to a lesser extent NS3-4a and NS5A induced ROS, and downregulated NEIL1 expression. Liver biopsy specimens showed significant impairment of NEIL1 levels in HCV-infected patients with advanced liver disease compared to patients with no disease. Conclusion:, Collectively, the data indicate that HCV induction of ROS and perturbation of NEIL1 expression may be mechanistically involved in progression of liver disease and suggest that antioxidant and antiviral therapies can reverse these deleterious effects of HCV in part by restoring function of the DNA repair enzyme/s. [source]


    Suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibits hepatitis B virus replication in human hepatoma cell: the antiviral role of nitric oxide

    JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS, Issue 7 2008
    W.-W. Chang
    Summary., The role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication was investigated in this study. After transient transfection with HBV plasmid, p38 MAPK, but not JNK or ERK1/2, was significantly phosphorylated in human hepatoma cell Huh7. Interestingly, HBV proteins and RNA synthesis were significantly inhibited by a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580, in a dose-dependent manner. Intracellular core-associated DNA, extracellular virion-associated DNA and covalently closed circular DNA were also significantly inhibited by SB203580. Further results showed the antiviral role of nitric oxide (NO) on the suppression of HBV replication and downregulation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, these results suggested that suppression of phosphorylation of p38 MAPK by inhibitor or NO could inhibit intracellular HBV replication. [source]


    Indications for cell stress in response to adenoviral and baculoviral gene transfer observed by proteome profiling of human cancer cells

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 11 2010
    Christopher Gerner
    Abstract Gene transfer to cultured cells is an important tool for functional studies in many areas of biomedical research and vector systems derived from adenoviruses and baculoviruses are frequently used for this purpose. In order to characterize how viral gene transfer vectors affect the functional state of transduced cells, we applied 2-D PAGE allowing quantitative determination of protein amounts and synthesis rates of metabolically labeled cells and shotgun proteomics. Using HepG2 human hepatoma cells we show that both vector types can achieve efficient expression of green fluorescent protein, which accounted for about 0.1% of total cellular protein synthesis 72,h after transduction. No evidence in contrast was found for expression of proteins from the viral backbones. With respect to the host cell response, both vectors induced a general increase in protein synthesis of about 50%, which was independent of green fluorescent protein expression. 2-D PAGE autoradiographs identified a 3.6-fold increase of ,-actin synthesis in adenovirus transduced cells. In addition shotgun proteomics of cytoplasmic and nuclear extract fractions identified a slight induction of several proteins related to inflammatory activation, cell survival and chromatin function by both virus types. These data demonstrate that commonly used gene transfer vectors induce a response reminiscent of stress activation in host cells, which needs to be taken into account when performing functional assays with transduced cells. [source]


    Biodegradable Dextran Nanogels for RNA Interference: Focusing on Endosomal Escape and Intracellular siRNA Delivery

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 9 2009
    Koen Raemdonck
    Abstract The successful therapeutic application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) largely relies on the development of safe and effective delivery systems that are able to guide the siRNA therapeutics to the cytoplasm of the target cell. In this report, biodegradable cationic dextran nanogels are engineered by inverse emulsion photopolymerization and their potential as siRNA carriers is evaluated. The nanogels are able to entrap siRNA with a high loading capacity, based on electrostatic interaction. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis reveal that large amounts of siRNA-loaded nanogels can be internalized by HuH-7 human hepatoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. Following their cellular uptake, it is found that the nanogels are mainly trafficked towards the endolysosomes. The influence of two different strategies to enhance endosomal escape on the extent of gene silencing is investigated. It is found that both the application of photochemical internalization (PCI) and the use of an influenza-derived fusogenic peptide (diINF-7) can significantly improve the silencing efficiency of siRNA-loaded nanogels. Furthermore, it is shown that an efficient gene silencing requires the degradation of the nanogels. As the degradation kinetics of the nanogels can easily be tailored, these particles show potential for intracellular controlled release of short interfering RNA. [source]


    Dextran Microgels for Time-Controlled Delivery of siRNA,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 7 2008
    Koen Raemdonck
    Abstract To apply siRNA as a therapeutic agent, appropriate attention should be paid to the optimization of the siRNA gene silencing effect, both in terms of magnitude and duration. Intracellular time-controlled siRNA delivery could aid in tailoring the kinetics of siRNA gene knockdown. However, materials with easily tunable siRNA release properties have not been subjected to thorough investigation thus far. This report describes cationic biodegradable dextran microgels which can be loaded with siRNA posterior to gel formation. Even though the siRNAs are incorporated in the hydrogel network based on electrostatic interaction, still a time-controlled release can be achieved by varying the initial network density of the microgels. To demonstrate the biological functionality of the siRNA loaded gels, we studied their cellular internalization and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene silencing potential in HUH7 human hepatoma cells. [source]


    Hepatocyte NAD(P)H oxidases as an endogenous source of reactive oxygen species during hepatitis C virus infection,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Nabora Soledad Reyes de Mochel
    Oxidative stress has been identified as a key mechanism of hepatitis C virus (HCV),induced pathogenesis. Studies have suggested that HCV increases the generation of hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite close to the cell nucleus, inflicting DNA damage, but the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that HCV increases the generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide close to the hepatocyte nucleus and that this source of ROS is reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase 4 (Nox4). Huh7 human hepatoma cells and telomerase-reconstituted primary human hepatocytes, transfected or infected with virus-producing HCV strains of genotypes 2a and 1b, were examined for messenger RNA (mRNA), protein, and subcellular localization of Nox proteins along with the human liver. We found that genotype 2a HCV induced persistent elevations of Nox1 and Nox4 mRNA and proteins in Huh7 cells. HCV genotype 1b likewise elevated the levels of Nox1 and Nox4 in telomerase-reconstituted primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, Nox1 and Nox4 proteins were increased in HCV-infected human liver versus uninfected liver samples. Unlike Nox1, Nox4 was prominent in the nuclear compartment of these cells as well as the human liver, particularly in the presence of HCV. HCV-induced ROS and nuclear nitrotyrosine could be decreased with small interfering RNAs to Nox1 and Nox4. Finally, HCV increased the level of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF,1). TGF,1 could elevate Nox4 expression in the presence of infectious HCV, and HCV increased Nox4 at least in part through TGF,1. Conclusion: HCV induced a persistent elevation of Nox1 and Nox4 and increased nuclear localization of Nox4 in hepatocytes in vitro and in the human liver. Hepatocyte Nox proteins are likely to act as a persistent, endogenous source of ROS during HCV-induced pathogenesis. Hepatology 2010 [source]


    Impaired expression and function of toll-like receptor 7 in hepatitis C virus infection in human hepatoma cells,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Serena Chang
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) interferes with interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune defenses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonists robustly inhibit HCV infection. We hypothesize that HCV infection may interfere with the expression and/or function of TLR7, a sensor of single-stranded RNA. We identified reduced TLR7 RNA and protein levels in hepatoma cells expressing HCV (full-length, BB7-subgenomic, and JFH-1 clone) compared with control HCV-nave cells. The biological relevance of this finding was confirmed by the observation of decreased TLR7 RNA in livers of HCV-infected patients compared with controls. HCV clearance, by IFN-, treatment or restrictive culture conditions, restored the decreased TLR7 expression. Treatment with RNA polymerase inhibitors revealed a shorter TLR7 half-life in HCV-replicating cells compared with controls. Downstream of TLR7, an increased baseline IRF7 nuclear translocation was observed in HCV-positive cells compared with controls. Stimulation with the TLR7 ligand R837 resulted in significant IRF7 nuclear translocation in control cells. In contrast, HCV-replicating cells showed attenuated TLR7 ligand-induced IRF7 activation. Conclusion: Reduced TLR7 expression, due to RNA instability, directly correlates with HCV replication and alters TLR7-induced IRF7-mediated cell activation. These results suggest a role for TLR7 in HCV-mediated evasion of host immune surveillance. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]


    Scavenger receptor class B type I is a key host factor for hepatitis C virus infection required for an entry step closely linked to CD81,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2007
    Mirjam B. Zeisel
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic hepatitis worldwide. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) has been shown to bind HCV envelope glycoprotein E2, participate in entry of HCV pseudotype particles, and modulate HCV infection. However, the functional role of SR-BI for productive HCV infection remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of SR-BI as an entry factor for infection of human hepatoma cells using cell culture,derived HCV (HCVcc). Anti,SR-BI antibodies directed against epitopes of the human SR-BI extracellular loop specifically inhibited HCVcc infection in a dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of SR-BI expression by SR-BI,specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) markedly reduced the susceptibility of human hepatoma cells to HCVcc infection. Kinetic studies demonstrated that SR-BI acts predominately after binding of HCV at an entry step occurring at a similar time point as CD81,HCV interaction. Although the addition of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) enhanced the efficiency of HCVcc infection, anti,SR-BI antibodies and SR-BI,specific siRNA efficiently inhibited HCV infection independent of lipoprotein. Conclusion: Our data suggest that SR-BI (i) represents a key host factor for HCV entry, (ii) is implicated in the same HCV entry pathway as CD81, and (iii) targets an entry step closely linked to HCV,CD81 interaction. (HEPATOLOGY 2007.) [source]


    Lipoxin A4 inhibited hepatocyte growth factor-induced invasion of human hepatoma cells

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 9 2009
    Xiao-Yan Zhou
    Aim:, Inflammation is a critical component of tumor progression. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has been approved for potent anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it was reported that LXA4 repressed the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is essential for invasion. However, there are few reports dealing with its effects on cancer. To explore whether LXA4 regulate invasion, the effects of LXA4 and its receptor agonist BML-111 on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced invasion of hepatoma cells and the possible mechanisms were researched. Methods:, Lipoxin A4 receptor (ALX) expression in HepG2 cells were measured through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Cytotoxicity of LXA4 and BML-111 to HepG2 cells was detected by MTT and (3H)-TdR incorporation assay. Cell migration and invasion assays were performed using a Boyden chemotaxis chamber. COX-2 expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Moreover, the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, I,B, and nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) p65 were observed via western blot, and NF-,B transcriptional activity was tested by transfections and luciferase activities assay. Results:, ALX expression was detected in HepG2 cells, and suitable concentrations of LXA4 and BML-111 had no cytotoxicity to cells. LXA4 and BML-111 inhibited HGF-induced migration and invasion; downregulated COX-2, MMP-2 and -9; restrained HGF-induced I,B, degradation, NF-,B translocation and the transcriptional activity of NF-,B in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, exogenous PGE2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of LXA4 also BML-111 on HGF-induced invasion and migration partially. Conclusion:, LXA4 inhibited HGF-induced invasion of HepG2 cells through NF-,B/COX-2 signaling pathway partially. [source]


    Silencing MAT2A gene by RNA interference inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells

    HEPATOLOGY RESEARCH, Issue 5 2007
    Quanyan Liu
    Aims:, A switch in gene expression from MAT1A to MAT2A was found in liver cancer, suggesting that MAT2A plays an important role in facilitating cancer growth. MAT2A is an interesting target for antineoplastic therapy. The molecular mechanisms of silencing MAT2A by RNA interference inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells was studied. Methods:, We investigated the effects of MAT2A on S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) production, cell growth and apoptotic cell death in hepatoma cell lines (Bel-7402, HepG2, and Hep3B) using an RNA interference approach. Results:, The treatment of three hepatoma cell lines with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting to the MAT2A gene resulted in reducing the MAT II activity, facilitating SAM production, increasing SAM : SAH ratio, inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell apoptosis in hepatoma cells. In addition, silencing MAT2A gene resulted in the stimulation of MAT1A mRNA production, which was blocked by 3-deazaadenosine and l -ethionine, but not d -ethionine, suggesting that such effect was specific and mediated by upregulation of SAM level and SAM : S-adenosylethionine (SAH) ratio. Conclusion:, Silencing MAT2A by sequence-specific small interfering RNA caused a switch of MAT gene expression from MAT2A to MAT1A, which led the content of SAM to change to a higher steady-state level that resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and the induction of apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells. These results also suggested that MAT2A may hold potential as a new target for liver cancer gene therapy. [source]


    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 secreted by hepatic myofibroblasts promotes migration and invasion of human hepatoma cells

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 5 2010
    Maylis Dagouassat
    Abstract The aim of our study was to investigate whether myofibroblasts and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 may play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression. We observed that hepatic myofibroblast LI90 cells express MCP-1/CCL2 mRNA and secrete this chemokine. Moreover, myofibroblast LI90 cell-conditioned medium (LI90-CM) induces human hepatoma Huh7 cell migration and invasion. These effects are strongly reduced when a MCP-1/CCL2-depleted LI90-CM was used. We showed that MCP-1/CCL2 induces Huh7 cell migration and invasion through its G-protein,coupled receptor CCR2 and, to a lesser extent, through CCR1 only at high MCP-1/CCL2 concentrations. MCP-1/CCL2's chemotactic activities rely on tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion components and depend on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, we observed that Huh7 cell migration and invasion induced by the chemokine are strongly inhibited by heparin, by ,-D-xyloside treatment of cells and by anti-syndecan-1 and -4 antibodies. Finally, we developed a 3-dimensional coculture model of myofibroblast LI90 and Huh7 cells and demonstrated that MCP-1/CCL2 and its membrane partners, CCR1 and CCR2, may be involved in the formation of mixed hepatoma-myofibroblast spheroids. In conclusion, our data show that human liver myofibroblasts act on hepatoma cells in a paracrine manner to increase their invasiveness and suggest that myofibroblast-derived MCP-1/CCL2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. [source]


    Hepatitis C virus induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and modulates the DNA repair enzyme NEIL1

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Sampa Pal
    Abstract Background and Aims:, Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced chronic inflammation may induce oxidative stress which could compromise the repair of damaged DNA, rendering cells more susceptible to spontaneous or mutagen-induced alterations, the underlying cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the current study we examined the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from HCV infection and evaluated its effect on the host DNA damage and repair machinery. Methods:, HCV infected human hepatoma cells were analyzed to determine (i) ROS, (ii) 8-oxoG and (iii) DNA glycosylases NEIL1, NEIL2, OGG1. Liver biopsies were analyzed for NEIL1. Results:, Human hepatoma cells infected with HCV JFH-1 showed 30,60-fold increases in ROS levels compared to uninfected cells. Levels of the oxidatively modified guanosine base 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were significantly increased sixfold in the HCV-infected cells. Because DNA glycosylases are the enzymes that remove oxidized nucleotides, their expression in HCV-infected cells was analyzed. NEIL1 but not OGG1 or NEIL2 gene expression was impaired in HCV-infected cells. In accordance, we found reduced glycosylase (NEIL1-specific) activity in HCV-infected cells. The antioxidant N-acetyl cystein (NAC) efficiently reversed the NEIL1 repression by inhibiting ROS induction by HCV. NEIL1 expression was also partly restored when virus-infected cells were treated with interferon (IFN). HCV core and to a lesser extent NS3-4a and NS5A induced ROS, and downregulated NEIL1 expression. Liver biopsy specimens showed significant impairment of NEIL1 levels in HCV-infected patients with advanced liver disease compared to patients with no disease. Conclusion:, Collectively, the data indicate that HCV induction of ROS and perturbation of NEIL1 expression may be mechanistically involved in progression of liver disease and suggest that antioxidant and antiviral therapies can reverse these deleterious effects of HCV in part by restoring function of the DNA repair enzyme/s. [source]


    Role of ISGF3 in modulating the anti-hepatitis B virus activity of interferon-alpha in vitro

    JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 11 2008
    Quan Zhang
    Abstract Background and Aim:, Although interferon-, (IFN-,) is an effective treatment for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, its precise mechanism of action has not been identified. In this study, we investigated the role of signal transduction pathways in the activation of anti-HBV responses mediated by IFN-,. Methods:, Using an oligo microarray, we found that four genes in the IFN-, signal pathway were markedly upregulated by IFN-, in human hepatoma cells regardless of whether they had been transfected with a plasmid containing the HBV genome: signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9, also called ISGF3, or P48), IFN-,-inducible protein 15 (IFI-15) and IFN-,-inducible protein 6,16 (IFI-6-16). We also investigated the role of IFN-stimulated gene factor3 (ISGF3) complex in IFN-,-mediated anti-HBV responses in human hepatoma cells by measuring the mRNA of the three genes within ISGF3 (STAT1, STAT2 and IRF-9) using semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and expression of the three proteins by western blot, and the mRNA and protein of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Results:, STAT1, STAT2, IRF-9 and PKR mRNA as well as protein levels were upregulated by IFN-, treatment. When cells were pretreated with genistein, STAT1, STAT2 and IRF-9 mRNA levels remained unchanged after IFN-, stimulation, but PKR mRNA levels decreased, and the expression of the STAT1, P-STAT2, IRF-9 and PKR proteins decreased. Levels of HBV DNA decreased in the supernatants of cells treated with IFN-,, while ISGF3 levels increased. The quantity of HBV DNA remained unchanged by pretreating with genistein. Conclusions:, These observations suggested that the Janus tyrosine kinase,STAT (JAK-STAT) pathway may play a major role in mediating the effects of IFN-, against HBV, and that ISGF3 might be a key factor. [source]


    Cytokines alter the expression and activity of the multidrug resistance transporters in human hepatoma cell lines; analysis using RT-PCR and cDNA microarrays

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 11 2003
    Gigi Lee
    Abstract Pro-inflammatory cytokines suppress the hepatic expression of the multidrug resistance transporters in rodents, indicating potential usefulness in chemotherapy. Our objective was to investigate their impact in human hepatoma cells. HuH 7 and HepG2 cells were treated with IL-1,, IL-6, or TNF-, for 0,72 h. Expression and activity of MDR1 and the MRP (MRP1, 2, 3, and 6) transporters were examined by RT-PCR, efflux assays, and microarrays. Significant reductions in the MDR1-mediated efflux of Rhodamine 123 and MDR1 mRNA levels were observed in HuH 7 cells treated with IL-6, TNF-,, or IL-1, and in TNF-,,treated HepG2 cells. However, cytokine-treated HuH7 cells also demonstrated 1.6- to 2.6-fold greater efflux of the MRP substrate, 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) and higher MRP3 mRNA levels (p,<,0.05). IL-1, and IL-6 treatments increased MRP activity and MRP1 mRNA levels in HepG2 cells (p,<,0.05). Microarrays studies performed in IL-6 and TNF-,,treated HepG2 cells detected similar changes in the expression of the MDR1 and MRP transporters, but this did not reach significance. However, the microarrays confirmed cytokine-mediated induction of several acute phase proteins. Our data suggests that although cytokine-mediated suppression of PGP may alter drug resistance in malignant cells, these cytokines may also impose an induction in other multidrug resistance genes. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:2152,2163, 2003 [source]


    Cover Picture , Mol.

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 9 2009
    Nutr.
    Regular issues provide a wide range of research and review articles covering all aspects of Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Selected topics of issue 9 are: Efficacy of isoflavones in relieving vasomotor menopausal symptoms , a systematic review. Aromatic hydroxylation is a major metabolic pathway of the mycotoxin zearalenone in vitro HOP BITTER ACIDS EFFICIENTLY BLOCK INFLAMMATION INDEPENDENT OF GR,, PPAR, OR PPAR, EGCG inhibits protein synthesis, lipogenesis and cell cycle progression through activation of AMPK in p53 positive and negative human hepatoma cells [source]


    EGCG inhibits protein synthesis, lipogenesis, and cell cycle progression through activation of AMPK in p53 positive and negative human hepatoma cells

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 9 2009
    Chi-Hung Huang
    Abstract In the previous studies, (,)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to have anticarcinogenic effects via modulation in protein expression of p53. Using p53 positive Hep G2 and p53 negative Hep 3B cells, we found that treatment of EGCG resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation, which suggests that the interaction of EGCG with p53 may not fully explain its inhibitory effect on proliferation. Caloric restriction (CR) reduces the incidence and progression of spontaneous and induced tumors in laboratory rodents. EGCG has multiple beneficial activities similar to those associated with CR. One key enzyme thought to be activated during CR is AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy levels. Here, we showed that EGCG activated AMPK in both p53 positive and negative human hepatoma cells. The activation of AMPK suppressed downstream substrates, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) and a general decrease in mRNA translation. Moreover, EGCG activated AMPK decreases the activity and/or expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Interestingly, the decision between apoptosis and growth arrest following AMPK activation is greatly influenced by p53 status. In p53 positive Hep G2 cells, EGCG blocked the progression of cell cycle at G1 phase by inducing p53 expression and further up-regulating p21 expression. However, EGCG inducted apoptosis in p53 negative Hep 3B cells. Based on these results, we have demonstrated that EGCG has a potential to be a chemoprevention and anti-lipogenesis agent for human hepatoma cells. [source]


    Potential of deoxynivalenol to induce transcription factors in human hepatoma cells

    MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 4 2009
    Carina Nielsen
    Abstract To assess the hepatotoxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON), human hepatoma cells (Hep-G2) were used as an in vitro model. After exposing Hep-G2 cells to low (1 ,M) and high dose (10 ,M), gene expression profiles were analysed by microarray. More than 5% of genes were up-regulated, most of them being involved in transcriptional regulation. By real-time RT-PCR, elevated expression of transcription factors, commonly induced by activation of MAPK-pathway, was demonstrated for Hep-G2 cells on mRNA and protein level. Further studies, involving U937 human monocytes, showed that effects of DON treatment on mRNA and protein level were concentration-dependent and cell-specific. An inverse relation was noticed for the level of DON induced expression of transcription factors (JUN, FOS, EGR1 and ATF3) and the susceptibility of the cell lines towards the mycotoxin. This is the first report giving evidence that on a molecular level the mild hepatotoxic effects of DON are probably caused by the induction of transcription factors which are known to be associated with injury-induced liver regeneration processes. With ATF3, a novel downstream target gene was identified in DON-related cell signalling suggesting a potential linkage between molecular action and biological effects like reduction of glycogen storage in liver tissue. [source]


    Differential responsiveness of human hepatoma cells versus normal hepatocytes to TRAIL in combination with either histone deacetylase inhibitors or conventional cytostatics

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2008
    Johanna Dzieran
    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising candidate for the treatment of cancer because it elicits cell death in many tumor cells while sparing most normal cells. Liver cancer, however, is largely resistant to TRAIL and, thus, requires sensitization for TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. Sensitization may be achieved by cotreatment with chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we comparatively investigated the treatment efficacy of TRAIL in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) versus TRAIL in combination with conventional cytostatics in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and in the childhood hepatoblastoma cell line Huh6. We found that TRAIL resistance could be overcome by cotreatment with the HDI vorinostat, sodium butyrate and MS-275, but not by cotreatment with the cytostatics carboplatin and etoposide. However, TRAIL combination treatment bears the risk of sensitizing otherwise TRAIL-resistant normal cells. We thus explored a potential cytotoxic effect of combined HDI/TRAIL treatment in normal hepatocytes: TRAIL in conjunction with HDI did not impose any cytotoxicity on the non-malignant cells. In searching for the determinants of HDI-mediated TRAIL sensitization in hepatoma cells, we observed that HDI treatment did not increase cell-surface expression of proapoptotic TRAIL receptors. Instead, HDI treatment enhanced TRAIL-induced cleavage of Bid. In conclusion, our data suggest that HDI are potent sensitizers to TRAIL in hepatoma cells and that the combination of HDI and TRAIL is selectively active in hepatoma cells without affecting normal hepatocytes, indicating that the combination of HDI and TRAIL may be an effective approach for the treatment of advanced liver cancer. (Cancer Sci 2008; 99: 1685,1692) [source]


    Geranylgeraniol, an Intermediate Product in Mevalonate Pathway, Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Human Hepatoma Cells: Death Receptor-independent Activation of Caspase-8 with Down-regulation of Bcl-xL Expression

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 9 2001
    Yoshio Takeda
    Geranylgeraniol (GGOH), an intermediate of mevalonate metabolism, is known to induce apoptosis in various lines of cancer cells. The present study was undertaken to clarify the signaling pathways of apoptosis induced by GGOH in human hepatoma cells. HuH-7 human hepatoma cells were incubated in the absence or presence of GGOH. Activation of caspase-8/-9/-3 in HuH-7 cells was found after 8 h treatment with GGOH, at which tune DNA fragmentation and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (,,m) occurred. HuH-7 cells do not express Bcl-2; however, down-regulation of Bcl-xL expression preceded activation of the caspase cascade in GGOH-treated HuH-7 cells, while Bax expression was not changed by GGOH treatment. Addition of caspase inhibitors restored the decreased cell viability of HuH-7 cells by GGOH, including ,,m, to the baseline level, which indicated that caspase triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways in GGOH-treated HuH-7 cells. Similarly, GGOH-mediated apoptosis of HuH-7 cells was clearly prevented by coadministration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), which led to restoration of the level of Bcl-xL expression. Activation of caspase-8/-9/-3, as well as ,,m, by GGOH treatment was suppressed by addition of UDCA. Our results indicate that activation of the caspase cascade initiating from caspase-8, which could be accelerated by down-regulation of Bcl-xL expression, plays a key role in an apoptotic process induced by GGOH in human hepatoma cells. [source]


    Investigation of the effects of peppermint oil and valerian on rat liver and cultured human liver cells

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 10 2003
    Liem T Vo
    Summary 1.,The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of peppermint oil and valerian on rat liver and cultured human hepatoma cells. 2.,Rats received a single oral dose of peppermint oil (8.3,830 L/kg) or valerian (0.31,18.6 g/kg), or daily oral doses of 83 L/kg peppermint oil or 3.1 g/kg valerian for 28 days. After 24 h, rats were anaesthetized and measurements made of bile flow, liver function and in vivo sinusoidal area. Livers were then removed for histology. 3.,Bile flow was unaffected by any treatment, except acute high-dose peppermint oil (830 L/kg; 70% increase in flow). No change in liver enzyme activity was found, except for a 45% increase in alkaline phosphatase after chronic peppermint oil. No change in sinusoidal area in vivo or in histology was found following any treatment, although pretreatment with carbon tetrachloride reduced sinusoidal bed area and produced histological damage. Incubation of human hepatoma cells with 0.5 L/mL (but not 0.05 L/mL) peppermint oil or 20 mg/mL (but not 2 mg/mL) valerian resulted in increased cell death. 4.,In conclusion, the present study demonstrated in vitro toxicity of high doses of valerian and peppermint oil in cultured human hepatoma cells and, at doses 2,3 orders of magnitude greater than those recommended for human use, an increase in rat bile flow after acute peppermint oil and an increase in alkaline phosphatase after chronic peppermint oil. [source]