Human Hemoglobin (human + hemoglobin)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Comparison of two glutaraldehyde immobilization techniques for solid-phase tryptic peptide mapping of human hemoglobin by capillary zone electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

Isabelle Migneault
Abstract Stabilization of proteolytic enzymes, especially by immobilization, is of considerable interest because of their potential applications in medicine and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. We report here a detailed comparison of two procedures for trypsin immobilization using the same homobifunctional agent, glutaraldehyde, for the purpose of peptide mapping. These methods include covalent coupling either to controlled pore glass (solid support) or via a cross-linking reaction (without any solid support). The immobilized trypsin preparations were characterized by the determination of immobilization efficiency, which ranged from 68 to > 95%, and measurement of apparent kinetic parameters toward a synthetic peptide-like substrate. Batch digestions of whole denaturated human normal adult hemoglobin (HbA) were performed to obtain peptide maps by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Migration time reproducibility of the CZE maps was excellent, with a mean relative standard deviation of 1.5%. Moreover, the two immobilized enzyme preparations showed excellent reproducibility for repeated digestions. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry was also used for peptide mass mapping of denaturated HbA digested using the two immobilized trypsin preparations. Even though the two immobilized trypsin preparations do not behave identically, similar sequence coverages of 57% and 61% (for the two HbA chains merged) were achieved for the support-based and cross-linked trypsin preparations, respectively. [source]

Differential adduction of proteins vs. deoxynucleosides by methyl methanesulfonate and 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea in vitro,

Fagen Zhang
The reactions of two model mutagenic and carcinogenic alkylating agents, N -methyl- N -nitrosourea (MNU) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), with proteins and deoxynucleosides in vitro, were investigated. The protein work used an approach involving trypsin digestion and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). This technique permitted identification of the specific location of protein adduction by both MNU and MMS with commercial apomyoglobin and human hemoglobin, under physiological conditions. MNU treatment resulted in predominantly carbamoylation adducts on the proteins, but in contrast only methylated protein adducts were found following treatment with MMS. Further analyses, using TurboSequest®, and the Scoring Algorithm for Spectral Analysis (SALSA), revealed that MNU carbamoylation was specific for modification of either the N-terminal valine or the free amino group in lysine residues of apomyglobin and human hemoglobin. However, MMS methylation modified the N-terminal valine and histidine residues of the proteins. Despite their clear differences in protein modifications, MNU and MMS formed qualitatively the same methylated deoxynucleoside adduct profiles with all four deoxynucleosides in vitro under physiological conditions. In light of their different biological potencies, where MMS is considered a ,super clastogen' while MNU is a ,super mutagen', these differences in reaction products with proteins vs. deoxynucleosides may indicate that these two model alkylating agents work via different mechanisms to produce their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A novel approach for identification and measurement of hemoglobin adducts with 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

Adriana Basile
The structural characterisation of the adducts formed by in vitro interaction of hemoglobin (Hb) with 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), the most reactive 1,3-butadiene (BD) metabolite, was obtained by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC/ES-MS) analysis of modified tryptic peptides of human hemoglobin chains. The reactive sites of human hemoglobin towards DEB and its hydroxylated derivatives (trihydroxybutyl (THB)-derivatives) were identified through the characterisation of alkylated tryptic peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). Based on this characterisation, a procedure was set up to measure the Hb-adducts of THB-derivatives by isotope dilution mass spectrometry with the use of a deuterated peptide standard. The results obtained here could permit optimisation of molecular dosimetry of BD-adducts, and extension of the analysis to the biological monitoring of occupational exposure to butadiene. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Structure of relaxed-state human hemoglobin: insight into ligand uptake, transport and release

Joy D. Jenkins
Hemoglobin was one of the first protein structures to be determined by X-ray crystallography and served as a basis for the two-state MWC model for the mechanism of allosteric proteins. Since then, there has been an ongoing debate about whether Hb allostery involves the unliganded tense T state and the liganded relaxed R state or whether it involves the T state and an ensemble of liganded relaxed states. In fact, the former model is inconsistent with many functional observations, as well as the recent discoveries of several relaxed-state Hb structures such as RR2, R3 and R2. One school of thought has suggested the R2 state to be the physiologically relevant relaxed end state, with the R state mediating the T,R2 transition. X-ray studies have been performed on human carbonmonoxy Hb at a resolution of 2.8,Å. The ensuing liganded quaternary structure is different from previously reported liganded Hb structures. The distal ,-heme pocket is the largest when compared with other liganded Hb structures, partly owing to rotation of ,His63(E7) out of the distal pocket, creating a ligand channel to the solvent. The structure also shows unusually smaller ,- and ,-clefts. Results from this study taken in conjunction with previous findings suggest that multiple liganded Hb states with different quaternary structures may be involved in ligand uptake, stabilization, transport and release. [source]

Purification of hemoglobin by tangential flow filtration with diafiltration

Jacob Elmer
Abstract A recent study by Palmer, Sun, and Harris (Biotechnol. Prog., 25:189,199, 2009) demonstrated that tangential flow filtration (TFF) can be used to produce HPLC-grade bovine and human hemoglobin (Hb). In this current study, we assessed the quality of bovine Hb (bHb) purified by introducing a 10 L batch-mode diafiltration step to the previously mentioned TFF Hb purification process. The bHb was purified from bovine red blood cells (RBCs) by filtering clarified RBC lysate through 50 nm (stage I) and 500 kDa (stage II) hollow fiber (HF) membranes. The filtrate was then passed through a 100 kDa (stage III) HF membrane with or without an additional 10 L diafiltration step to potentially remove additional small molecular weight impurities. Protein assays, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS of the purified bHb (stage III retentate) reveal that addition of a diafiltration step has no effect on bHb purity or yield; however, it does increase the methemoglobin level and oxygen affinity of purified bHb. Therefore, we conclude that no additional benefit is gained from diafiltration at stage III and a three stage TFF process is sufficient to produce HPLC-grade bHb. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]