Human Health Risk (human + health_risk)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

"Unknown Risks" of non-steroid topical medications for atopic dermatitis

Anne Marie McNeill PhD
Introduction, Tacrolimus ointment is a nonsteroid treatment for atopic dermatitis which is both effective and has a minimal side-effect profile. However, some clinicians may be reluctant to use tacrolimus ointment due to the "unknown risks", meaning those that have not been uncovered in human studies conducted thus far. Therefore, the available animal data regarding the "unknown risks" of topical tacrolimus therapy are reviewed, and a discussion of the interpretation of this available but limited data is presented. Animal studies, Some of the fear on the part of clinicians regarding the use of topical tacrolimus may come from the results of animal studies which showed an increase in lymphoma and UV-induced skin cancer after treatment with topical tacrolimus in animal models of carcinogenesis. However, rigorous assessment of these studies suggest that it is somewhat likely that these represent a species-specific response to tacrolimus in an animal already predisposed to tumor formation, and therefore may not be relevant in assessing the possibility of an increased human health risk. Conclusions, Animal and human studies suggest that topical tacrolimus is a safe alternative to topical steroids, with the major known adverse effect being a transient burning sensation, compared with the known adverse effects of topical steroids, including long-lasting ones. Therefore, in the opinion of the authors, currently available data, including animal studies, does not suggest that "unknown risks" of topical tacrolimus need be any more concerning than the known side-effects of the topical steroids. [source]

Detection of potentially enterotoxigenic food-related Bacillus cereus by PCR analysis

Elisabetta Bonerba
Summary This study provides data on the prevalence of potentially pathogenic Bacillus cereus in foods from catering kitchens by evaluating the occurrence of B. cereus and the presence of virulence-associated genes. B. cereus was detected in 72/250 (28.8%) food samples. Specifically, B. cereus was highlighted in 34/74 (45.9%) pastries, 16/40 (40%) rice samples, 4/38 (10.5%) potato meals, 6/54 (11.1%) mozzarella samples and 12/44 (27.3%) meat meals. PCRs aimed at the hbl (C, D, A, B), nhe (A, B, C), bceT and cytK genes demonstrated a widespread distribution of the toxin-encoding genes among B. cereus isolates. The results highlight the frequent failure of control measures in catering kitchens and the need for intensive and continuous monitoring in order to assess the human health risk, as proposed by Regulation (EC) no. 1441/2007 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. [source]

EXAFS study of local atomic order about iodine in thyroxine, rat, human and sheep thyroids

B. R. Orton
Radioactive 125I emits short-range Auger electrons and represents a human health risk when incorporated in thyroglobulin of the thyroid. Quantitative evaluation of this risk can only be realised if local atomic order about iodine in the thyroid is known. Here, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to probe the local structure about iodine in pure thyroid hormone, thyroxine. These data are consistent with a model where iodine is bound to a single iodinated carbon ring linked to an oxygen atom, similar to a previously published model for monoiodotyrosine, a major iodinated residue in thyroglobulin. Several structural models for the local environment of iodine from rat, human and sheep have been tested and these data are found to be compatible with a slightly modified environment with respect to that found for thyroxine. The best-fit models include the following three components: (i) iodine covalently bonded to a tyrosine ring, as found for thyroxine; (ii) iodine bonded quasi-covalently to a carbonyl ligand in partially filled (50%) sites; (iii) partially filled sites (50,40%) of carbonyl ligands, with oxygen at van der Waals distances from iodine. Advantages of using Fourier-filtered EXAFS for complex crystal structures are discussed. [source]

Bivalve Shellfish Quality in the USA: From the Hatchery to the Consumer

Daniel P. Cheney
Shellfish aquaculture has had a long tradition in Asia, Europe, and the western USA, but it is only within the past century that significant cultural and handling practices have been identified, developed, and introduced to improve and enhance shellfish food quality. Shellfish are now being marketed with an emphasis on product quality, product variety, reduced human health risk, and improved ease of preparation. Aquacultured bivalve shellfish products must now have the food quality characteristics of other high-quality seafood products and must meet accepted standards of taste, color, texture, and odor. This review summarizes current efforts within the shellfish industry to improve the food quality of aquacultured bivalve shellfish in the following focus areas: (i) genetic selection and controlled breeding; (ii) production tools; (iii) food safety protection and enhancement; and (iv) processing and creative marketing efforts, with major emphasis on the US shellfish aquaculture sector. [source]

A chemical dataset for evaluation of alternative approaches to skin-sensitization testing

G. Frank Gerberick
Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from skin sensitization is a common occupational and environmental health problem. In recent years, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) has emerged as a practical option for assessing the skin-sensitization potential of chemicals. In addition to accurate identification of skin sensitizers, the LLNA can also provide a reliable measure of relative sensitization potency, information that is pivotal in successful management of human health risks. However, even with the significant animal welfare benefits provided by the LLNA, there is interest still in the development of non-animal test methods for skin sensitization. Here, we provide a dataset of chemicals that have been tested in the LLNA and the activity of which correspond with what is known of their potential to cause skin sensitization in humans. It is anticipated that this will be of value to other investigators in the evaluation and calibration of novel approaches to skin-sensitization testing. The materials that comprise this dataset encompass both the chemical and biological diversity of known chemical allergens and provide also examples of negative controls. It is hoped that this dataset will accelerate the development, evaluation and eventual validation of new approaches to skin-sensitization testing. [source]

Zoonotic viral diseases and the frontier of early diagnosis, control and prevention

Abstract. Public awareness of the human health risks of zoonotic infections has grown in recent years. Currently, concern of H5N1 flu transmission from migratory bird populations has increased with foci of fatal human cases. This comes on the heels of other major zoonotic viral epidemics in the last decade. These include other acute emerging or re-emerging viral diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West-Nile virus, Ebola virus, monkeypox, as well as the more inapparent insidious slow viral and prion diseases. Virus infections with zoonotic potential can become serious killers once they are able to establish the necessary adaptations for efficient human-to-human transmission under circumstances sufficient to reach epidemic proportions. The monitoring and early diagnosis of these potential risks are overlapping frontiers of human and veterinary medicine. Here, current viral zoonotics and evolving threats are reviewed. [source]

Metabolomic analysis of host plant resistance to thrips in wild and cultivated tomatoes,

Mohammad Mirnezhad
Abstract Introduction , Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) are among the most serious crop pests worldwide. Control of thrips mainly depends on pesticides, excessive use of which leads to human health risks and environmental contamination. As an alternative, we study host plant resistance to thrips. Objective , To apply nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) metabolomics to study host plant resistance to thrips in wild and cultivated tomatoes. Methodology , Ten wild species and 10 cultivated tomato lines were compared. Five replicates of each species and lines were used for a thrips bioassay while another five replicates were used for the metabolomic analysis. The three most resistant and susceptible wild species, and cultivated lines, as identified by the thrips bioassay, were used for the metabolomics, performed by 1H NMR spectroscopy followed by principal component analysis. Results , Wild and cultivated tomatoes differed significantly in thrips resistance. Only wild tomatoes were thrips-resistant, among which Lycopersicon pennellii and L. hirsutum exhibited the lowest thrips damage. Their 1H NMR-based metabolomic profiles were significantly different from those of thrips-susceptible tomatoes. Thrips-resistant tomatoes contained acylsugars, which are known for their negative effect on herbivores. Conclusion , The identification of acylsugars as a resistance factor for thrips in tomato proves that NMR-based metabolomics an important tool to study plant defences, providing fundamental information for the development and realisation of herbivore resistance breeding programmes in agricultural crops. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]