Human Hair (human + hair)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Human Hair

  • human hair follicle

  • Selected Abstracts


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2010
    Scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry have been used to examine the extent and possible mechanisms by which the metal content of human hair is altered by exposure to aqueous environments. The results, using both modern hair and samples from 500-year-old hair associated with glacier-entombed remains, show that the metal content has been altered sufficiently so that the interpretation of the metal signature in terms of diet or disease is problematic. While endogenous information is difficult to glean from these data, interesting observations have been made of possible early stages of mineral authigenic deposition. The chemistry of the outer hair surface was found to be consistent with deposition of Fe and Al silicates, as well as other mineral phases. The ancient hair was analysed at the root region and included a comparison of the internal versus external composition to assist in identifying the diagenetic processes. [source]

    Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Determination of Eumelanin in Human Hair

    Marina Zoccola
    Eumelanins are brown-black pigments present in the hair and in the epidermis which are acknowledged as protection factors against cell damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. The quantity of eumelanin present in hair has recently been put forward as a means of identifying subjects with a higher risk of skin tumours. For epidemiological studies, chromatographic methods of determining pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA; the principal marker of eumelanin) are long, laborious and unsuitable for screening large populations. We suggest near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an alternative method of analysing eumelanin in hair samples. PCTA was determined on 93 samples of hair by means of oxidizing with hydrogen peroxide in a basic environment followed by chromatographic separation. The same 93 samples were then subjected to NIR spectrophotometric analysis. The spectra were obtained in reflectance mode on hair samples which had not undergone any preliminary treatment, but had simply been pressed and placed on the measuring window of the spectrophotometer. The PTCA values obtained by means of HPLC were correlated with the near infrared spectrum of the respective samples. A correlation between the PTCA values obtained by means of HPLC and the PTCA values obtained from an analysis of the spectra was obtained using the principal component regression (PCR) algorithm. The correlation obtained has a coefficient of regression (R2) of 0.89 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 13.8 for a mean value of 108.6 ng PTCA/mg hair. Some considerations about the accuracy of the obtained correlation and the main sources of error are made and some validation results are shown. [source]

    Degeneration of Nuclei and Mitochondria in Human Hairs

    Charles A. Linch B.S.
    Abstract:, It is generally accepted that nuclei degrade in developing hair shafts but the point at which such occurs has not been investigated. The fate of mitochondria in the keratinizing hair shaft has been less clear. This study uses transmission electron microscopy to investigate when nuclei and mitochondria are no longer visible in the developing hair shaft. Serial sections were obtained from anagen head hairs absent follicles in order to determine the sequence of degradation of nuclei and mitochondria in the hair shaft by starting at the root bulb and proceeding toward the hair tip. It was demonstrated that nuclei and mitochondria become invisible in the keratinizing hair shaft at about the same time. This was found to occur fairly early in the process at the level of the hair shaft where the hair cuticle becomes permanent. [source]

    Changes in structure and geometric properties of human hair by aging

    S. Nagase
    J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 637,648 (November/December 2009) Synopsis To clarify hair changes by aging, the effect of age on hair properties was investigated from macro- to microscopic viewpoints. Sensory hair luster tests were performed on 230 Japanese females from 10 to 70 year of age, revealing that hair luster decreases with age. The age dependence of the hair diameter and the ellipticity of the hair cross section could not explain luster reduction by aging. It has been determined that an irregular increase in fiber curvature occurs with age and is a cause of luster reduction with aging. A detailed structural analysis by synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray diffraction revealed that the inhomogeneity in the lateral distribution of the hair microstructure increased with age and relates to the irregular increase in curvature. Such an increase in curvature is one of the important factors that leads to a poor alignment of hairs and luster reduction, and is related to the appearance of aging hair. [source]

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the application of a cationic conditioner to ,clean' hair

    A. Harvey
    In this study the applicability of the surface-sensitive Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique to hair analysis and associated aqueous processing is evaluated. ToF-SIMS analysis of ,as received' human hair indicates the presence of silicones, anionic surfactants, and cationic conditioners, from previous treatments, on the fiber surface. Cleaning of the hair with SLS or SLES results in adsorption of the surfactants onto the fiber surface. In particular, the more non-polar surfactant components have greater substantivity for the fiber surface, as indicated by the relative increase in their ToF-SIMS intensity. Application of the Incroquat Behenyl 18-MEA conditioner to both ,virgin' and bleached hair results in the adsorption of the cationic C18, C20, C22, and C21 surfactant components onto the hair surface. The ToF-SIMS data indicate higher levels of conditioner on the bleached hair relative to the undamaged hair. [source]

    Diffusion and distribution of element-labelled surfactants in human hair

    F.-J. Wortmann
    Synopsis To directly follow the diffusion process of cosmetically relevant agents into human hair, a specific methodological approach is presented and elucidated for selected surfactants. For this, practically relevant anionic and cationic surfactants were synthesized with a chlorine atom at the end of their alkyl chain. The property changes of the surfactants through the modification are corresponding to an extension of the alkyl chain by about two methylene groups, thus representing a moderate increase of hydrophobicity. After the application of a modified surfactant to hair, it can be localized and quantified through its chlorine atom in cross-sections by scanning electron microscopy combined with micro X-ray fluorescence analysis. The determination of the diffusion coefficient D is realized through the application of the Matano-equation to element intensity profiles. Values for D vary within the chosen range of pH and temperature between 10,14 and 10,16 m2 s,1. The diffusion coefficients for the anionic surfactants increase with decreasing pH and increasing temperature, The temperature dependence follows in all cases the Arrhenius relationship with activation energies EA of 50,100 kJ mol,1, which decrease with pH. The pH-related effects, with comparable values for D and EA, are opposite for the cationic surfactant. These observations are consistently interpreted on the basis of ionic and hydrophobic interactions in hair. Résumé Afin de suivre directement le processus de diffusion d'agents cosmétiques pertinents dans le cheveu humain, une approche méthodologique spécifique est présentée et approfondie pour des tensio actifs sélectionnés. En pratique, des tensio actifs pertinents, anioniques et cationiques ont été synthétisés en introduisant un atome de Chlore à l'extrémité de leur chaîne alkyle. Les changements de propriétés de ces tensio actifs, via cette modification, correspondent à un allongement de la chaîne alkyle d'environ deux groupes méthylène, représentant ainsi une augmentation modérée de leur caractère hydrophobe. Suite à l'application sur le cheveu d'un tensio actif modifié, il peut être localisé et quantifié par l'atome de Chlore dans des coupes transverses par microscopie électronique à balayage couplée à l'analyse par micro Fluorescence X. La détermination du coefficient de diffusion D est effectuée par l'application de l'équation de Matano aux profils de l'intensité de l'élément. Les valeurs de D varient, selon l'échelle de pH et de température, entre 10,14 et 10,16 m2 s,1. Les coefficients de diffusion pour les tensio actifs anioniques augmentent avec des pH décroissants et des températures croissantes. La dépendance vis à vis de la température suit, dans tous les cas, la relation d'Arrhenius avec des énergies d'activation EA de 50 à 100 kJ mol,1, qui décroît avec le pH. Les effets liés au pH, avec des valeurs comparables de D et EA, sont opposés pour le tensio actif cationique. Ces observations sont constamment interprétées par les interactions de types ioniques et hydrophobes dans le cheveu. [source]

    The non-linear viscoelastic behaviour of human hair at moderate extensions

    Synopsis We report the results of experiments carried out on the stress relaxation of slightly stretched human hair. The results show that human hair is viscoelastic, and that when quickly extended to a moderate degree (0.5,6.5%) and held, the force generated will fall to half its original value in about 15 h. However, the relaxation process is also dependent on extension, so that iso-chronous (constant time) data is non-Hookean. We show that the iso-chronous stress/strain behaviour departs from linearity at about 1% extension and the modulus progressively decreases thereafter according to a power-law relationship with strain. Résumé Nous présentons ici les résultats d'expériences réalisées afin d'étudier la relaxation de la contrainte appliquée sur un cheveu humain légèrement étiré. Les résultats obtenus montrent que le cheveu humain est viscoélastique, et que lorsque'il est étiré rapidement, et de façon modérée (0,5,6,5%), la force nécessaire pour le maintenir étiré diminue de moitié en 15 heures. La relaxation dépend également du degré d'extension, de sorte que les données isochrones (à temps constant) ne suivent pas la loi de Hooke. Nous avons démontré que le comportement isochrone contrainte/cisaillement dévie du comportement linéaire lorsque le cheveu est étiré de 1% environ et que le module décroît ensuite progressivement en suivant une loi de puissance avec le cisaillement. [source]

    Validity of methyl mercury hair analysis: mercury monitoring in human scalp/nude mouse model

    Grazyna Zareba
    Abstract Objective. The grafting of human scalp hair was used as a new application of this method to explore methyl mercury incorporation into human hair and to validate this model for mercury monitoring in hair. Methods. Human scalp grafts were transplanted to athymic BALB/c nude mice. The animals were exposed to methyl mercury either as a single dose i.p. or continuously for 4 months, using ALZET osmotic pumps. The mercury concentration in hair was determined using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry by segmental (2 mm) analysis of a single strand, and tissue concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption analysis. Results. Human scalp hair grown in nude mice showed long-term persistence of human features including the expression of histocompatibility antigens (KAB 3, W 6/32, SF 1-1.1.1) and normal hair morphometry. The disposition of methyl mercury in nude mice followed a one-compartment model with a whole body elimination half-life of 6.7 days (elimination constant, k = 0.1/day). Autoradiographic studies revealed that methyl mercury was rapidly incorporated into areas of the hair follicle undergoing active keratinization. Methyl mercury concentrations in human hair transplanted onto nude mice were two orders of magnitude higher than in blood and attained a mean hair: blood ratio of 217 : 1, similar to ratios reported only in human studies. Conclusions. This study demonstrated that human hair grown on nude mice can record the level of exposure to methyl mercury and can serve as a valuable research tool to study mercury incorporation into human hair. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Polarized Raman microspectroscopy on intact human hair

    K. R. Ackermann
    Abstract Polarization-resolved Raman microspectroscopy with near-infrared laser excitation was applied to intact human hair in order to non-invasively investigate the conformation and orientation of the polypeptide chains. By varying the orientation of the hair shaft relative to the polarization directions of the laser/analyzer, a set of four polarized Raman spectra is obtained; this allows to simultaneously determine both the secondary structure of hair proteins and the orientation of the polypeptide strands relative to the axis of the hair shaft. For the amide I band, results from a quantitative analysis of the polarized Raman spectra are compared with theoretically expected values for fibers with uniaxial symmetry. Based on the polarization behavior of the amide I band and further vibrational bands, a partial ordering of ,-helical polypeptide strands parallel to the hair shaft can be concluded. We suggest that this microspectroscopic approach may be used for human hair diagnostics by detecting structural or orientational alterations of keratins. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Anionic grafting polymerization of propylene sulfide onto human hair in water

    Hisatoyo Morinaga
    Abstract Natural human hair was modified by the graft polymerization of propylene sulfide in an aqueous medium. The amount of the polymer grafted onto the reduced hair was 0.15,0.19 g on 1.0 g of hair. The grafted polymer was isolated by the hydrolysis of the hair in the polymer-grafted hair under basic conditions and was confirmed to be poly(propylene sulfide) by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The number-average molecular weights of the isolated polymers from the grafted products were 10,000,12,000. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 3778,3786, 2006 [source]

    Nanomechanics of single keratin fibres: A Raman study of the ,-helix ,,-sheet transition and the effect of water

    Raphaël Paquin
    Abstract The use of micro-Raman spectroscopy, through chemical-bond, nano-scale probes, allows the changes in conformations (,-helix ,,-sheet), chain orientation, breakage of disulfide bonds (20%) and the increase of intra- and inter-chain distances during the application of stress to be distinguished. The combination of micro-Raman spectroscopy and a Universal Fibre Tester allows a quantitative measurement of the extension of chemical bonds in the peptide chain during loading. The nano-structural transformations of keratin during strain of human hair in a dry environment (40,60% relative humidity) and saturated with water have been studied. Water permits the sliding of the chains and decreases the bond energy of the hair. Spectral analyses and 2D correlation are two coherent and independent methods to follow the structural nano-mechanical (Raman) and micro-mechanical (strain/stress) analyses, and confirm the validity of the experimental results, tools and principles used, as well as the agreement with the structural model of keratin fibres described by Chapman and Hearle. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparison of Structural and Chemical Properties of Black and Red Human Hair Melanosomes,

    Yan Liu
    ABSTRACT Melanosomes in black and red human hair are isolated and characterized by various chemical and physical techniques. Different yields of 4-amino-hydroxyphenolanaline by HI hydrolysis (a marker for pheomelanin) and pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid by KMnO4/H+ oxidation (a marker for eumelanin) indicate that the melanosomes in black hair are eumelanosomes, whereas those in red hair are mainly pheomelanosomes. Atomic force microscopy reveals that eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes have ellipsoidal and spherical shapes, respectively. Eumelanosomes maintain structural integrity upon extraction from the keratin matrix, whereas pheomelanosomes tend to fall apart. The black-hair eumelanosomes have an average of 14.6 ± 0.5% amino acids content, which is attributed to the internal proteins entrapped in the melanosomes granules. The red-hair melanosomes contain more than 44% of amino acid content even after extensive proteolytic digestion. This high content of amino acids and the poorly reserved integrity of red-hair melanosomes suggest that some proteins are possibly covalently bonded with the melanin constituents in addition to those that are entrapped inside the melanin species. Soluene solubilization assay indicates the absorbance of melanin per gram of sample, adjusted for the amino acid content, is a factor of 2.9 greater for the black-hair melanosomes than the red-hair melanosomes. Metal analysis reveals significant amounts of diverse heavy metal ions bound to the two types of melanosomes. The amount of Cu(II) and Zn(II) are similar but Fe(III) content is four times higher in the red-hair melanosomes. 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and infrared spectra are presented and are shown to be powerful techniques for discerning differences in the amino acid contents, the 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid:5,6-dihydroxyindole ratio, and the degree of cross-linking in the pigment. Excellent agreement is observed between these spectral results and the chemical degradation data. [source]

    A study of dye molecule diffusion in human hair using positron lifetime spectroscopy

    M. N. Chandrashekara
    Abstract The diffusion behavior of a commercial permanent liquid hair dye in human hair has been investigated using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and gravimetric sorption method. The o-Ps lifetime parameters ,3 and I3 decrease rapidly during the first 60 minutes of sorption time. This is understood in terms of dye molecules filling the free volume cavities in hair. The sorption results suggest that the dye molecule diffusion is essentially a Fickian process. In the latter part of the sorption, where positron parameters remain almost constant, mass increase might be due to surface adhesion. These two stages of sorption are well separated by the positron technique. The study shows that the free volume theory and positron technique, widely used in polymer research, may expediently be used to understand hair properties, more importantly diffusion of dye molecules. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Stable isotope analysis of modern human hair collected from Asia (China, India, Mongolia, and Pakistan)

    A.H. Thompson
    Abstract We report isotopic data (,2H, ,18O n = 196; ,13C, ,15N n = 142; ,34S n = 85) from human hair and drinking water (,2H, ,18O n = 67) collected across China, India, Mongolia, and Pakistan. Hair isotope ratios reflected the large environmental isotopic gradients and dietary differences. Geographic information was recorded in H and O and to a lesser extent, S isotopes. H and O data were entered into a recently developed model describing the relationship between the H and O isotope composition of human hair and drinking water in modern USA and pre-globalized populations. This has anthropological and forensic applications including reconstructing environment and diet in modern and ancient human hair. However, it has not been applied to a modern population outside of the USA, where we expect different diet. Relationships between H and O isotope ratios in drinking water and hair of modern human populations in Asia were different to both modern USA and pre-globalized populations. However, the Asian dataset was closer to the modern USA than to pre-globalized populations. Model parameters suggested slightly higher consumption of locally producedfoods in our sampled population than modern USA residents, but lower than pre-globalized populations. The degree of in vivo amino acid synthesis was comparable to both the modern USA and pre-globalized populations. C isotope ratios reflected the predominantly C3 -based regional agriculture and C4 consumption in northernChina. C, N, and S isotope ratios supported marine food consumption in some coastal locales. N isotope ratios suggested a relatively low consumption of animal-derived products compared to western populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Erratum: Sensitive analysis of anti-HIV drugs, efavirenz, lopinavir and ritonavir, in human hair by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Yong Huang
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Nitrogen balance and ,15N: why you're not what you eat during pregnancy

    Benjamin T. Fuller
    Carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) stable isotope ratios were longitudinally measured in human hair that reflected the period from pre-conception to delivery in 10 pregnant women. There was no significant change in the ,13C results, but all subjects showed a decrease in ,15N values (,0.3 to ,1.1,) during gestation. The mechanisms causing this decrease in hair ,15N have not been fully elucidated. However, since the ,15N values of dietary nitrogen and urea nitrogen are significantly lower compared to maternal tissues, it is hypothesized that the increased utilization of dietary and urea nitrogen for tissue synthesis during pregnancy resulted in a reduction of the steady state diet to a body trophic level effect by approximately 0.5,1,. An inverse correlation (R2,=,0.67) between hair ,15N and weight gain was also found, suggesting that positive nitrogen balance results in a reduction of ,15N values independent of diet. These results indicate that ,15N measurements have the ability to monitor not only dietary inputs, but also the nitrogen balance of an organism. A potential application of this technique is the detection of fertility patterns in modern and ancient species that have tissues that linearly record stable isotope ratios through time. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 3 2010
    Scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry have been used to examine the extent and possible mechanisms by which the metal content of human hair is altered by exposure to aqueous environments. The results, using both modern hair and samples from 500-year-old hair associated with glacier-entombed remains, show that the metal content has been altered sufficiently so that the interpretation of the metal signature in terms of diet or disease is problematic. While endogenous information is difficult to glean from these data, interesting observations have been made of possible early stages of mineral authigenic deposition. The chemistry of the outer hair surface was found to be consistent with deposition of Fe and Al silicates, as well as other mineral phases. The ancient hair was analysed at the root region and included a comparison of the internal versus external composition to assist in identifying the diagenetic processes. [source]

    Heterogeneous nucleation of three-dimensional protein nanocrystals

    Dilyana G. Georgieva
    Nucleation is the rate-limiting step in protein crystallization. Introducing heterogeneous substrates may in some cases lower the energy barrier for nucleation and thereby facilitate crystal growth. To date, the mechanism of heterogeneous protein nucleation remains poorly understood. In this study, the nucleating properties of fragments of human hair in crystallization experiments have been investigated. The four proteins that were tested, lysozyme, glucose isomerase, a polysaccharide-specific Fab fragment and potato serine protease inhibitor, nucleated preferentially on the hair surface. Macrocrystals and showers of tiny crystals of a few hundred nanometres thickness were obtained also under conditions that did not produce crystals in the absence of the nucleating agent. Cryo-electron diffraction showed that the nanocrystals diffracted to at least 4,Å resolution. The mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation was studied using confocal fluorescent microscopy which demonstrated that the protein is concentrated on the nucleating surface. A substantial accumulation of protein was observed on the sharp edges of the hair's cuticles, explaining the strong nucleating activity of the surface. [source]

    Determination of cholesterol in human hair using gas chromatography,mass spectrometry

    Hye Kyung Ryu
    Abstract This work describes a sensitive method for determining cholesterol in human hair using GC-MS. In this study, we used a very small amount of hair, only 1 mg, to quantify cholesterol. We also can achieve more effective purification and a good recovery over 92% with solid-phase extraction using an Oasis HLB cartridge. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy values were less than 7.08%. Cholesterol was determined to be in the range of 355,1693 µg/g in healthy human hair. We tested the concentration correlation between the serum and hair to examine the feasibility of using the hair cholesterol level as an index of the serum cholesterol level. The correlation between the serum cholesterol was 0.86 (r -value) in patients with hypercholesterolemia. This finding indicates that, in the clinical field, hair could replace serum in cholesterol level measurement. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]