Human Growth (human + growth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Human Growth

  • human growth hormone

  • Selected Abstracts

    Human growth in the past: Studies from bones and teeth

    Alison GallowayArticle first published online: 31 MAY 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Growth patterns in adverse environments

    Noël Cameron
    The triple-logistic pattern of human growth in linear dimensions is probably one of the most recognizable models within human biology. The fact that postnatal somatic growth occurs in three phases (infancy, childhood, adolescence) creates opportunities for the individual expression of this genetically directed, but environmentally modified, phenomenon. The impact of the environment works to alter the duration and intensity of critical stages within the total process resulting in individual patterns that can differ radically from the general pattern. However, the constancy of the general pattern is so fixed that its presence in children is taken as a reflection of good health. Departures from that pattern are recognized as reflecting ill health. While the cessation of growth in response to an acute attack is uniformly dramatic, the gradual response to chronic adverse stimuli is less easily predicted and interpreted. For example, in chronic scenarios the loss of centile position that precedes the eventual establishment of normal increments can be viewed as either a poor or a good growth response, as either maladaptive or adaptive, as either poor health or good health. This article reviews such growth patterns in urban South African children exploring the relationship between environment and growth outcome. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Waddling and toddling: The biomechanical effects of an immature gait

    Libby W. Cowgill
    Abstract Femoral shape changes during the course of human growth, transitioning from a subcircular tube to a teardrop-shaped diaphysis with a posterior pilaster. Differences between immature and mature bipedalism and body shape may generate different loads, which, in turn, may influence femoral modeling and remodeling during the course of the human lifespan. This study uses two different approaches to evaluate the hypotheses that differences in gait between young and mature walkers result in differences in ground reaction forces (GRFs) and that the differences in loading regimes between young children and adults will be reflected in the geometric structure of the midshaft femur. The results of this analysis indicate that GRFs differ between young walkers and adults in that normalized mediolateral (ML) forces are significantly higher in younger age groups. In addition, these differences between children and adults in the relative level of ML bending force are reflected in changes in femoral geometry during growth. During the earlier stages of human development, immature femoral diaphyses are heavily reinforced in approximately ML plane. The differences in gait between mature and immature walkers, and hence the differences in femoral shape, are likely partially a product of a minimal bicondylar angle and relatively broad body in young children. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:52,61, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fluctuating and directional asymmetry in young human males: Effect of heavy working condition and socioeconomic status,

    Abstract Many adverse environmental and genetic factors can affect stability of development during human growth. Although the level of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) may be influenced by environmental and genetic stress encountered during this period, directional asymmetry (DA) is largely attributable to differential mechanical loading during bone growth, for example, handedness. I assessed the effects of heavy working conditions and socioeconomic conditions on asymmetry levels in three groups of young human males: 1) individuals employed in the heavy industry sector (n = 104, mean age = 18.48 ± 0.61 years), 2) individuals who had the same socioeconomic status as the laborers (n = 102, mean age = 18.39 ± 0.58 years) but were not laborers, and 3) nonlaborers from the higher socioeconomic levels of society (n = 103, mean age = 18.43 ± 0.67). For all subjects, hand length, hand width, elbow width, wrist width, knee width, ankle width, foot length, foot width, ear length, and ear width were measured. All measurements of the upper extremities in the labor group appeared to exhibit DA; in the other two groups only hand measurements exhibited DA. According to analysis of FA, subjects living in poor conditions exhibited more FA than their nonlaborer peers living in better conditions. In addition, biomechanical pressures due to heavy working conditions of the labor group appeared to cause increased DA in the upper extremities: DA increased with an increase in the number of years working. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:13,20, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Not-so-Dark Ages: Ecology for human growth in medieval and early Twentieth Century Portugal as inferred from skeletal growth profiles

    Hugo F.V. Cardoso
    Abstract This study attempts to address the issue of relative living standards in Portuguese medieval and early 20th century periods. Since the growth of children provides a good measure of environmental quality for the overall population, the skeletal growth profiles of medieval Leiria and early 20th century Lisbon were compared. Results show that growth in femur length of medieval children did not differ significantly from that of early 20th century children, but after puberty medieval adolescents seem to have recovered, as they have significantly longer femora as adults. This is suggestive of greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents. We suggest that this results from distinct child labor practices, which impact differentially on the growth of Leiria and Lisbon adolescents. Work for medieval children and adolescents were related to family activities, and care and attention were provided by family members. Conversely, in early 20th century Lisbon children were more often sent to factories at around 12 years of age as an extra source of family income, where they were exploited for their labor. Since medieval and early 20th century children were stunted at an early age, greater potential for catch-up growth in medieval adolescents results from exhausting work being added to modern adolescent's burdens of disease and poor diet, when they entered the labor market. Although early 20th century Lisbon did not differ in overall unfavorable living conditions from medieval Leiria, after puberty different child labor practices may have placed modern adolescents at greater risk of undernutrition and poor growth. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]