Human Groups (human + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

BIOETHNIC CONSCRIPTION: Genes, Race, and Mexicana/o Ethnicity in Diabetes Research

This article is an examination of academic, corporate, and state-funded alliance of molecular, biological, computer, and clinical scientists who are conducting research into the genetic epidemiology of type 2 diabetes. Because type 2 diabetes affects human groups differently, researchers use ethnic and racial taxonomies to parse populations and social history to rationalize their categorical choices. In a process termed "bioethnic conscription," the social identities and life conditions of DNA donors are grafted into the biological explanations of human difference and disease causality in both objectionable and constructive ways. Bioethnic conscription is presented as an ethnographically sound alternative to the either,or proposition of the (R)ace,no race debate within biomedicine and anthropology. [source]

Geoarchaeology and late glacial landscapes in the western lake superior region, Central North America

Christopher L. Hill
The transition from full glacial to interglacial conditions along the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet resulted in dramatic changes in landscapes and biotic habitats. Strata and landforms resulting from the Wisconsin Episode of glaciation in the area directly west of Lake Superior indicate a context for late Pleistocene biota (including human populations) connected to ice margins, proglacial lakes, and postglacial drainage systems. Late Glacial landscape features that have the potential for revealing the presence of Paleoindian artifacts include abandoned shorelines of proglacial lakes in the Superior and Agassiz basins and interior drainages on deglaciated terrains. The linkage between Late Pleistocene human populations and Rancholabrean fauna has yet to be demonstrated in the western Lake Superior region, although isolated remains of mammoth ( Mammuthus) have been documented, as well as fluted points assigned to Clovis, Folsom, and Holcombe-like artifact forms. Agate Basin and Hell Gap (Plano-type) artifacts also imply the presence of human groups in Late Glacial landscapes associated with the Agassiz and Superior basins. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Prevalence rates of spondylolysis in British skeletal populations

L. Fibiger
Abstract As an activity-related pathological lesion, spondylolysis and its prevalence rates are indicative of relative diachronic activity levels in different populations. In this paper we document the prevalence of spondylolytic defects in a series of time-successive populations with special reference to the recording methods employed, and compare the findings with modern clinical studies. We identify epidemiological trends in expression of the condition through 1500 years in a series of skeletonised human remains from England. This includes a 5th,6th-century settlement, a 15th-century mass grave, a 14th to 17th-century rural parish, a medieval Dominican friary, a medieval leper hospital and an 18th to 19th-century crypt collection. These skeletal populations sample human groups experiencing considerable social change from an agrarian, non-centralised early medieval period through the development of the medieval state to the earliest phases of industrialisation in England. A detailed study of all lumbar vertebrae in one of the assemblages highlights discrepancies between clinical prevalence rates for spondylolysis established through radiography, and those resulting from direct osteological analysis of the lumbar region of the vertebral column. Current prevalence rates cited in the osteological as well as the clinical literature are greatly dependent upon the recording methods employed, and the effects of several methods for osteological remains are considered in this treatment. For the populations reported on here, prevalence rates vary from considerably less than 1% to as much as 12%, depending on the method selected. A standardised recording method for spondylolytic lesions is suggested to facilitate accurate prevalence reporting and comparison of activity levels between different populations. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Old wine in new bottles: civic nation-building and ethnic nationalism in schooling in Piedmont, ca.


ABSTRACT. Gellner (1983: 35) equates nationalism with ,the organisation of human groups into large, centrally educated, culturally homogeneous units'. As the theorist of nationalism argues, and as recent and not so recent historical research shows, the modernisation of schooling is a defining moment in this process. The objective of this article is twofold: first, to show that during the Risorgimento schooling in Piedmont became nationalist; and second, to explain why that was the case. In doing so, it is argued that: (a) the modernisation of schooling reflected the rise of laissez faire liberalism, industrialisation and the enfranchisement of the middle class; and (b) the leadership of the Risorgimento revived pre-modern ethnic symbols of patriotism to legitimate inequality and state formation under conditions of individualism. [source]

Population relationships in the Mediterranean revealed by autosomal genetic data (Alu and Alu/STR compound systems)

Emili González-Pérez
Abstract The variation of 18 Alu polymorphisms and 3 linked STRs was determined in 1,831 individuals from 15 Mediterranean populations to analyze the relationships between human groups in this geographical region and provide a complementary perspective to information from studies based on uniparental markers. Patterns of population diversity revealed by the two kinds of markers examined were different from one another, likely in relation to their different mutation rates. Therefore, while the Alu biallelic variation underlies general heterogeneity throughout the whole Mediterranean region, the combined use of Alu and STR points to a considerable genetic differentiation between the two Mediterranean shores, presumably strengthened by a considerable sub-Saharan African genetic contribution in North Africa (around 13% calculated from Alu markers). Gene flow analysis confirms the permeability of the Sahara to human passage along with the existence of trans-Mediterranean interchanges. Two specific Alu/STR combinations,CD4 110(,) and DM 107(,),detected in all North African samples, the Iberian Peninsula, Greece, Turkey, and some Mediterranean islands suggest an ancient genetic background of current Mediterranean peoples. Am J Phys Anthropol 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic admixture, self-reported ethnicity, self-estimated admixture, and skin pigmentation among Hispanics and Native Americans

Yann C. Klimentidis
Abstract The relationship between ethnicity and biology is of interest to anthropologists, biomedical scientists, and historians in understanding how human groups are constructed. Ethnic self-identification in recently admixed groups such as Hispanics, African Americans, and Native Americans (NA) is likely to be complex due to the heterogeneity in individual admixture proportions and social environments within these groups. This study examines the relationships between self-identified ethnicity, self-estimated admixture proportions, skin pigmentation, and genetic marker estimated admixture proportions. These measures were assessed using questionnaires, skin color measurements, and genotyping of a panel of 76 ancestry informative markers, among 170 Hispanics and NAs from New Mexico, a state known for its complex history of interactions between people of NA and European (EU) ancestry. Results reveal that NAs underestimate their degree of EU admixture, and that Hispanics underestimate their degree of NA admixture. Within Hispanics, genetic-marker estimated admixture is better predicted by forehead skin pigmentation than by self-estimated admixture. We also find that Hispanic individuals self-identified as "half-White, half Hispanic" and "Spanish" have lower levels of NA admixture than those self-identified as "Mexican" and "Mexican American." Such results highlight the interplay between culture and biology in how individuals identify and view themselves, and have implications for how ethnicity and disease risk are assessed in a medical setting. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human,wildlife conflict scenarios

Catherine M. Hill
Abstract Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human,nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human,animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. Am. J. Primatol. 72:919,924, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

MtDNA from extinct Tainos and the peopling of the Caribbean

Tainos and Caribs were the inhabitants of the Caribbean when Columbus reached the Americas; both human groups became extinct soon after contact, decimated by the Spaniards and the diseases they brought. Samples belonging to pre-Columbian Taino Indians from the La Caleta site (Dominican Republic) have been analyzed, in order to ascertain the genetic affinities of these groups in relation to present-day Amerinds, and to reconstruct the genetic and demographic events that took place during the peopling of the Caribbean. Twenty-seven bone samples were extracted and analyzed for mtDNA variation. The four major Amerindian mtDNA lineages were screened through amplification of the specific marker regions and restriction enzymatic digestion, when needed. The HVRI of the control region was amplified with four sets of overlapping primers and sequenced in 19 of the samples. Both restriction enzyme and sequencing results suggest that only two (C and D) of the major mtDNA lineages were present in the sample: 18 individuals (75%) belonged to the C haplogroup, and 6 (25%) to the D haplogroup. Sequences display specific substitutions that are known to correlate with each haplogroup, a fact that helped to reject the possibility of European DNA contamination. A low rate of Taq misincorporations due to template damage was estimated from the cloning and sequencing of different PCR products of one of the samples. High frequencies of C and D haplogroups are more common in South American populations, a fact that points to that sub-continent as the homeland of the Taino ancestors, as previously suggested by linguistic and archaeological evidence. Sequence and haplogroup data show that the Tainos had a substantially reduced mtDNA diversity, which is indicative of an important founder effect during the colonization of the Caribbean Islands, assumed to have been a linear migratory movement from mainland South America following the chain configuration of the Antilles. [source]