Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Anomalies

  • anatomical anomaly
  • apparent anomaly
  • artery anomaly
  • brain anomaly
  • cardiac anomaly
  • cardiovascular anomaly
  • ce anomaly
  • chromosomal anomaly
  • chromosome anomaly
  • circulation anomaly
  • cold anomaly
  • congenital anomaly
  • congenital cardiac anomaly
  • coronary anomaly
  • craniofacial anomaly
  • cytogenetic anomaly
  • dental anomaly
  • developmental anomaly
  • developmental venous anomaly
  • ebstein anomaly
  • eu anomaly
  • eye anomaly
  • facial anomaly
  • fetal anomaly
  • flow anomaly
  • genital anomaly
  • gravity anomaly
  • growth anomaly
  • height anomaly
  • magnetic anomaly
  • major anomaly
  • minor anomaly
  • multiple anomaly
  • negative anomaly
  • negative eu anomaly
  • other anomaly
  • positive anomaly
  • precipitation anomaly
  • pressure anomaly
  • rainfall anomaly
  • rare anomaly
  • rare congenital anomaly
  • rare coronary anomaly
  • renal anomaly
  • sea surface temperature anomaly
  • sea-surface temperature anomaly
  • skeletal anomaly
  • sst anomaly
  • structural anomaly
  • surface temperature anomaly
  • temperature anomaly
  • thermal anomaly
  • tract anomaly
  • velocity anomaly
  • venous anomaly
  • warm sst anomaly
  • wind anomaly
  • zonal wind anomaly

  • Terms modified by Anomalies

  • anomaly pattern

  • Selected Abstracts

    Aberrant subclavian artery causing difficulty in transhiatal esophageal dissection

    C. S. Pramesh
    SUMMARY The right subclavian artery normally arises from the brachiocephalic artery. Anomalies in development may lead to peculiar problems during surgery. We report a patient with esophageal carcinoma who had an aberrant right subclavian artery, posing specific difficulties during a transhiatal esophagectomy, requiring conversion of the procedure into a transthoracic approach. The embryologic basis of this anomaly and the clinical significance are discussed. [source]

    Conditional Asset Pricing and Stock Market Anomalies in Europe

    Rob Bauer
    G12; G14 Abstract This study provides European evidence on the ability of static and dynamic specifications of the Fama-French (1993) three-factor model to price 25 size-B/M portfolios. In contrast to US evidence, we detect a small-growth premium and find that the size effect is still present in Europe. Furthermore, we document strong time variation in factor risk loadings. Incorporating these risk fluctuations in conditional specifications of the three-factor model clearly improves its ability to explain time variation in expected returns. However, the model still fails to completely capture cross-sectional variation in returns as it is unable to explain the momentum effect. [source]

    Anomalies and stock returns: Australian evidence

    ACCOUNTING & FINANCE, Issue 3 2009
    Philip Gharghori
    G12; G14 Abstract Prior research has identified the existence of several cross-sectional patterns in equity returns, commonly referred to as effects. This paper tests for the existence of a number of well-known effects using data from the Australian equities market. Specifically, we investigate the size effect, book-to-market effect, earnings-to-price effect, cashflow-to-price effect, leverage effect and the liquidity effect. An additional aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of the Fama,French model in explaining any observed effects. We document a size, book-to-market, earnings-to-price and cashflow-to-price effect but fail to find evidence of a leverage or liquidity effect. Although our findings indicate that the Fama,French model can partially explain some of the observed effects, we conclude that its performance is less than satisfactory in Australia. [source]

    Estimating Background and Threshold Nitrate Concentrations Using Probability Graphs

    GROUND WATER, Issue 5 2006
    S.V. Panno
    Because of the ubiquitous nature of anthropogenic nitrate () in many parts of the world, determining background concentrations of in shallow ground water from natural sources is probably impossible in most environments. Present-day background must now include diffuse sources of such as disruption of soils and oxidation of organic matter, and atmospheric inputs from products of combustion and evaporation of ammonia from fertilizer and livestock waste. Anomalies can be defined as derived from nitrogen (N) inputs to the environment from anthropogenic activities, including synthetic fertilizers, livestock waste, and septic effluent. Cumulative probability graphs were used to identify threshold concentrations separating background and anomalous NO3 -N concentrations and to assist in the determination of sources of N contamination for 232 spring water samples and 200 well water samples from karst aquifers. Thresholds were 0.4, 2.5, and 6.7 mg/L for spring water samples, and 0.1, 2.1, and 17 mg/L for well water samples. The 0.4 and 0.1 mg/L values are assumed to represent thresholds for present-day precipitation. Thresholds at 2.5 and 2.1 mg/L are interpreted to represent present-day background concentrations of NO3 -N. The population of spring water samples with concentrations between 2.5 and 6.7 mg/L represents an amalgam of all sources of in the ground water basins that feed each spring; concentrations >6.7 mg/L were typically samples collected soon after springtime application of synthetic fertilizer. The 17 mg/L threshold (adjusted to 15 mg/L) for well water samples is interpreted as the level above which livestock wastes dominate the N sources. [source]

    Interannual variability in rainy season characteristics over the Limpopo region of southern Africa

    C. J. C. Reason
    Abstract This study focuses on the interannual variability of dry spell frequencies, dry and wet spell characteristics and onset dates of the austral summer rainy season over the Limpopo region (22,25 °S, 27,32 °E) of northern South Africa. These characteristics of the rainy season are of considerable interest to farmers, water resource managers and other user groups. The Limpopo region supports a large rural population dependent on rain-fed agriculture as well as significant biodiversity, particularly in the Kruger National/Limpopo Transfrontier Park. It is also a region prone to devastating floods and droughts. Evidence is presented that summer dry spell frequency and onset date are related to ENSO via changes in regional circulation. Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies appear to show a robust relationship with dry spell frequency during the 1979,2002 period analysed. Anomalies in onset date of the rainy season during 1979,2002 appear to be inversely related to Niño 3.4 SST, with the relationship strengthening after 1986. These results suggest that there may be some predictability in these parameters, particularly in dry spell frequency during austral summer, based on existing skill in predicting tropical Pacific SST. Copyright © 2005 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    The impact of El Niño,southern oscillation upon weather regimes over Europe and the North Atlantic during boreal winter

    Vincent Moron
    Abstract The influence of the warm and cold sea-surface temperatures in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific associated with El Niño,southern oscillation (ENSO) on the probability of occurrence of weather regimes (WRs) over the North Atlantic sector is investigated for the period November,March. Five WRs are identified from daily sea-level pressure anomalies (SLPAs) during 119 winters (1882,2000) over this sector by applying cluster analysis: the positive North Atlantic oscillation (NAO; called ZO for zonal) and negative NAO (called WBL for west blocking) patterns; GA (for Greenland anticyclone), with a positive SLPA shifted north of 60° N; EA (for European anticyclone) with a positive SLPA over Europe but enhanced north,south SLPA gradient over the western and central North Atlantic; and AR (for Atlantic Ridge) with a positive (negative) SLPA over the central North Atlantic (northern and central Europe). El Niño winters are associated with a significant increase (decrease) in the prevalence of ZO (WBL) in November,December and a significant increase (decrease) in the prevalence of GA and WBL (EA and ZO) in January,March. During La Niña winters, ZO (WBL and AR) occurs significantly less (more) frequently in November,December, and GA and WBL (EA and AR) are less (more) frequent in January,March. So, the anomalies of the WR frequencies are almost inverted between November,December and January,March. The response of the WR frequencies to ENSO extremes is most pronounced in February. On the inter- and multi-decadal time scales, the typical ENSO signals tend to be stronger during preferred phases of the basinwide westerlies, especially in January,March. The typical El Niño signal in January,March (e.g. more GA and WBL and less ZO and EA than normal) is strong when westerlies are slower than normal, around 1900, 1915 and mainly from 1930 to 1970. The generally reversed association during La Niña winters (e.g. more EA and AR and less GA and WBL than normal) in January,March is strong mainly when westerlies are faster than normal. Anomalies are weaker and quite different during ,slow westerlies,La Niña' and ,fast westerlies,El Niño' January,March winters. Such a modulation also appears in November,December with reversed association (i.e. stronger ENSO signal during ,slow westerlies,La Niña' and ,fast westerlies,El Niño' November,December winters), but the difference between the slow and fast westerlies phases is weaker than in January,March. Copyright © 2003 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Description of a clinical technique for tooth extraction in the cleft lip and palate area

    G.S. Dalben
    Cleft lip and palate are relatively common congenital malformations, which may require specialist paedodontic treatment. In this article, the case of a 9-year-old boy with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate is presented. He attended the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies (HRAC) for routine examination, during which the presence of pre-canine supernumeraries bilaterally in the cleft area was seen. The extraction of these dental elements was justified by extensive carious lesions and because they represented a potential problem during secondary palatoplasty. The precautions needed in tooth extraction in patients with cleft lip and palate are described, together with illustrations of the clinical procedure. [source]

    Anomalies in the Foundations of Ridge Regression: Some Clarifications

    Prasenjit Kapat
    Summary Several anomalies in the foundations of ridge regression from the perspective of constrained least-square (LS) problems were pointed out in Jensen & Ramirez. Some of these so-called anomalies, attributed to the non-monotonic behaviour of the norm of unconstrained ridge estimators and the consequent lack of sufficiency of Lagrange's principle, are shown to be incorrect. It is noted in this paper that, for a fixed,Y, norms of unconstrained ridge estimators corresponding to the given basis are indeed strictly monotone. Furthermore, the conditions for sufficiency of Lagrange's principle are valid for a suitable range of the constraint parameter. The discrepancy arose in the context of one data set due to confusion between estimates of the parameter vector,,,, corresponding to different parametrization (choice of bases) and/or constraint norms. In order to avoid such confusion, it is suggested that the parameter,,,corresponding to each basis be labelled appropriately. Résumé Plusieurs anomalies ont été récemment relevées par Jensen et Ramirez (2008) dans les fondements théoriques de la "ridge regression" considérée dans une perspective de moindres carrés constraints. Certaines de ces anomalies ont été attribuées au comportement non monotone de la norme des "ridge-estimateurs" non contraints, ainsi qu'au caractère non suffisant du principe de Lagrange. Nous indiquons dans cet article que, pour une valeur fixée de,Y, la norme des ridge-estimateurs correspondant à une base donnée sont strictement monotones. En outre, les conditions assurant le caractère suffisant du principe de Lagrange sont satisfaites pour un ensemble adéquat de valeurs du paramètre contraint. L'origine des anomalies relevées se trouve donc ailleurs. Cette apparente contradiction prend son origine, dans le contexte de l'étude d'un ensemble de données particulier, dans la confusion entre les estimateurs du vecteur de paramètres,,,correspondant à différentes paramétrisations (associées à différents choix d'une base) et/ou à différentes normes. Afin d'éviter ce type de confusion, il est suggéré d'indexer le paramètre de façon adéquate au moyen de la base choisie. [source]

    Aortic Arch Aneurysm Associated with Arch Vessel Anomalies: Truncus Bicaroticus and Retroesophageal Right Subclavian Artery

    Namhee Park M.D.
    An aberrant right subclavian artery is just as rare, especially with a retroesophageal course. A combination of these two conditions, we believe, has never been reported. [source]

    Role of second trimester sonography in detecting trisomy 18: A review of 70 cases

    Csaba Papp MD
    Abstract Purpose. To investigate the role of second-trimester sonographic examination in the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18. Methods. Out of 22,150 fetal chromosomal analyses performed between 1990 and 2004, 70 trisomy 18 fetuses were found. The sonographic findings of this aneuploidy were analyzed. Results. The average maternal age was 32.4 years; the average gestational age was 19.5 weeks. Major anomalies were seen in 61 (87.1%) of the 70 fetuses with trisomy 18; among these, cardiac anomalies were the most common (47.1%), with a 27.1% incidence of ventricular septal defects. Anomalies of the central nervous system were seen in 35.7% of cases; abnormal head shape was the most frequently detected anomaly in this group (12.9%). Fifty-six (80%) of the fetuses had at least 1 minor anomaly; of these, choroid plexus cyst was the most common (38.6%). Increased nuchal fold thickness was detected in 17.1% of cases. Conclusion. The vast majority of trisomy 18 fetuses have sonographically detectable abnormalities in the second trimester. Both the 87.1% frequency of major anomalies and the 80% frequency of minor anomalies are substantially higher than multiple biochemical marker tests could achieve. It was also demonstrated that fetal echocardiography plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of trisomy 18. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 35:, 2007 [source]

    Development of a Posterior Fossa Cavernous Malformation Associated With Bilateral Venous Anomalies: Case Report

    Jason Sheehan MD
    ABSTRACT Venous angiomas (VAs) and cavernous malformations (CMs) are common cerebrovascular malformations. Frequently, these lesions are found in close proximity. The interrelationship between VAs and CMs has not yet been adequately defined. The authors report a case of a 48-year-old man with progressive dysarthria, dysmetria, and ataxia. Eight years previously, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solitary CM and bilateral posterior fossa VAs. Later imaging after neurological progression revealed the presence of 2 rather than 1 CMadjacent to the VAs. The sequential imaging suggests a causal relationship between VAs and some CMs. Furthermore, the detailed MRI permitted radiosurgical treatment of these CMs. The occurrence of de novo CMs adjacent to VAs on future imaging studies in other patients may help confirm the etiology of at least a subset of CMs. [source]

    Microstructural Corpus Callosum Anomalies in Children With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: An Extension of Previous Diffusion Tensor Imaging Findings

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2009
    Jeffrey R. Wozniak
    Background:, Several studies have now shown corpus callosum abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in comparison with nonexposed controls. The data suggest that posterior regions of the callosum may be disproportionately affected. The current study builds on previous efforts, including our own work, and moves beyond midline corpus callosum to probe major inter-hemispheric white matter pathways with an improved DTI tractographic method. This study also expands on our prior work by evaluating a larger sample and by incorporating children with a broader range of clinical effects including full-criteria fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Methods:, Participants included 33 children with FASD (8 FAS, 23 partial FAS, 2 static encephalopathy) and 19 nonexposed controls between the ages of 10 and 17 years. Participants underwent DTI scans and intelligence testing. Groups (FASD vs. controls) were compared on fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in 6 white matter tracts projected through the corpus callosum. Exploratory analyses were also conducted examining the relationships between DTI measures in the corpus callosum and measures of intellectual functioning and facial dysmorphology. Results:, In comparison with the control group, the FASD group had significantly lower FA in 3 posterior tracts of the corpus callosum: the posterior mid-body, the isthmus, and the splenium. A trend-level finding also suggested lower FA in the genu. Measures of white matter integrity and cognition were correlated and suggest some regional specificity, in that only posterior regions of the corpus callosum were associated with visual-perceptual skills. Correlations between measures of facial dysmorphology and posterior regions of the corpus callosum were nonsignificant. Conclusions:, Consistent with previous DTI studies, these results suggest that microstructural posterior corpus callosum abnormalities are present in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and cognitive impairment. These abnormalities are clinically relevant because they are associated with cognitive deficits and appear to provide evidence of abnormalities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure independent of dysmorphic features. As such, they may yield important diagnostic and prognostic information not provided by the traditional facial characteristics. [source]

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: oral and craniofacial phenotypes

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 3 2009
    DL Domingo
    Objective:, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare early-onset accelerated senescence syndrome. In HGPS, a recently identified de novo dominant mutation of the lamin A gene (LMNA) produces abnormal lamin A, resulting in compromised nuclear membrane integrity. Clinical features include sclerotic skin, cardiovascular and bone abnormalities, and marked growth retardation. Craniofacial features include ,bird-like' facies, alopecia, craniofacial disproportion, and dental crowding. Our prospective study describes dental, oral soft tissue, and craniofacial bone features in HGPS. Methods:, Fifteen patients with confirmed p.G608G LMNA mutation (1,17 years, seven males, eight females) received comprehensive oral evaluations. Anomalies of oral soft tissue, gnathic bones, and dentition were identified. Results:, Radiographic findings included hypodontia (n = 7), dysmorphic teeth (n = 5), steep mandibular angles (n = 11), and thin basal bone (n = 11). Soft tissue findings included ogival palatal arch (n = 8), median sagittal palatal fissure (n = 7), and ankyloglossia (n = 7). Calculated dental ages (9 months to 11 years 2 months) were significantly lower than chronological ages (1 year 6 months to 17 years 8 months) (P = 0.002). Eleven children manifested a shorter mandibular body, anterior/posterior cranial base and ramus, but a larger gonial angle, compared to age/gender/race norms. Conclusion:, Novel oral-craniofacial phenotypes and quantification of previously reported features are presented. Our findings expand the HGPS phenotype and provide additional insight into the complex pathogenesis of HGPS. [source]

    Epidemiology underpinning research in the aetiology of orofacial clefts,

    Peter Mossey
    Structured Abstract Author,,, Mossey P Introduction,,, Epidemiological information gathered through birth defects surveillance is an important adjunct to carrying out clinical and aetiological research. Information on the incidence in the population, causative risk factors and providing baseline data prior to intervention are all important elements. Under the auspices of the World Health Organisation, it was agreed that a global registry and database on craniofacial anomalies should be created and this, the International Database on Craniofacial Anomalies (ICDFA) was designed to gather information on craniofacial abnormalities from existing birth defects registries and databases around the world to become a resource underpinning research. There are currently 62 registries covering 2 million births per year contributing to a database along with information on the size and type of studies used to collect the information, any variation in ascertainment and on the inclusion of syndromes and associated abnormalities. Generation of hypotheses,,, From the epidemiological data collected it is possible to carry out meta-analysis and to search for trends and consistencies in the data that enable hypothesis to be generated. Issues such as geographical distribution, ethnicity, gender, associated abnormalities and clefts in stillbirths can all be examined in a meta-analytical approach. Collection of information on risk factors such as maternal illnesses, medications, lifestyle factors, nutrition and perhaps occupational exposures enables investigation into environmental contribution to causality and genetic predisposition. A range of techniques are currently being used to identify new candidate genes and ultimately it will be necessary to test genetic and environmental hypothesis in the context of human population studies. Conclusions,,, It is only by consistency of association between different populations with different gene pools and maternal exposures, lifestyles, nutrition etc that conclusive evidence regarding causality will be found. It is therefore essential, and a major objective of the WHO that international multicentre collaborative studies are setup to gather the appropriate evidence and improve knowledge and the cause of birth defects in general and orofacial clefts in particular, with the ultimate humanitarian and scientific objective of the WHO being primary prevention. Clinical utility and implications,,, This IDCFA project fulfils three basic objectives namely to enable global surveillance of CFA; to create online access to those who wish to contribute to the IDCFA, and to develop an online directory of resources on craniofacial anomalies for the support of research and improving quality of care. The next sttif for IPDTOC are to expand the number of participating registries and to actively collect data on other craniofacial birth defects. [source]

    Placental Anomalies in Children with Infantile Hemangioma

    Juan Carlos López Gutiérrez M.D., Ph.D.
    We investigated the pathogenic significance of placental features and their relationship to the development of infantile hemangioma in order to obtain a better understanding of its cause. Placental specimens were reviewed from 26 singleton pregnancies of women whose offspring weighed less than 1500 g. A group of 13 neonates who developed infantile hemangioma in the immediate neonate period were compared with 13 healthy preterm infants of comparable postconception age who had no infantile hemangioma. Pathologic placental changes were analyzed in both groups. Gross lesions with disturbance of the utero-placental circulation were found in all placentas from children who developed infantile hemangioma, including massive retroplacental hematoma in two infants, extensive ischemic infarction in seven, and large dilatated vascular communications, severe vasculitis, chorioamnionitis and funiculitis in four. Placental features included percentages greater than 25% of avascular villi, platelet and fibrin aggregates, and multifocal disease involving more than one histologic section. Examination of 13 placentas of low-birth-weight infants without infantile hemangioma only showed abnormal placentation in one and isolated villous dismaturity in two. The higher ratio of placental pathologic findings in patients with infantile hemangioma suggests that reduced placental oxygen diffusive conductance contributes to fetal hypoxic stress and that hypoxic/ischemic changes in the placenta could be related to infantile hemangioma development via vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor expression, among others, within the villious vessels and throphoblasts. [source]

    Multiple Keratotic Papules and Skeletal Anomalies

    Balvinder Brar M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Incontinentia Pigmenti in Boys: A Series and Review of the Literature

    Daniela Ardelean M.D.
    Occurrences of this disease in boys have been reported, however, its clinical phenotype has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to report on additional instances of incontinentia pigmenti in boys and to review the clinical, laboratory, and molecular characteristics of all published such patients. A retrospective chart review and Medline search using the keywords incontinentia pigmenti, males, and NEMO gene was undertaken. Six new boys with incontinentia pigmenti were found in our database and 36 more were previously reported in the literature. The vesiculo-bullous stage was the most frequent clinical presentation at diagnosis (80%). Fifteen percent of patients had an initial unilateral presentation. Recurrences of this stage were noted in 16%. Stages 2 and 3 of the disease were present in only 72.5% and 75% of patients, respectively. Only 15% of the boys had a documented stage 4. Extracutaneous manifestations were also documented (30%, central nervous system manifestations, 35%, eye involvement, 30%, alopecia, 40%, teeth anomalies). Thirty two percent of boys had peripheral eosinophilia. Only five had evidence of NEMO gene mutation. The male phenotype has clinical features similar to those of the female phenotype. Unilateral presentation is a distinct occurrence in boys, especially in early stages. Anomalies are the most common extracutaneous findings, followed by eye, hair, and central nervous system abnormalities. [source]

    Anomalies, influencing factors, and guidelines for DMA testing of fiber reinforced composites

    POLYMER COMPOSITES, Issue 7 2009
    Gowthaman Swaminathan
    This study systematically assessed the measurement of dynamic properties of a range of fiber reinforced composite materials using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) instrument. The discrepancy in the moduli from DMA to ASTM tests was investigated. The study showed that proper specimen preparation, maintaining appropriate aspect ratio (span to thickness ratio) to reduce the transverse shear deformation, and sufficient loading are critical to measure correct properties from DMA test. The guidelines on aspect ratio and loading for plastics to high-modulus carbon fiber composites are presented as a design chart and equations, respectively. The study also found that the glass transition temperature (Tg) was independent of specimen aspect ratio and Tg is lower for multidirectional composites when compared with its unidirectional composites. The particle interleaved T800H/3900-2 composite showed two glass transition temperatures (140 and 198°C), the lower value is due to the effect of interleaving by thermoplastic particles, and the higher value is the Tg of its base matrix. This lowering of Tg would have significant effect on the application temperature of the material. This phenomenon was not observed here to fore in the literature. POLYM. COMPOS., 2009. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

    Anomalies of the fetal thorax and abdomen: diagnosis, management and outcome

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 7 2008
    R. Douglas Wilson
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Do Anomalies Disappear in Repeated Markets?*

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 486 2003
    Graham Loomes
    There is some evidence that, as individuals participate in repeated markets, ,anomalies' tend to disappear. One interpretation is that individuals , particularly marginal traders , are learning to act on underlying preferences which satisfy standard assumptions. An alternative interpretation, the ,shaping' hypothesis, is that individuals' preferences are adjusting in response to cues given by market prices. The paper reports an experiment designed to discriminate between these hypotheses with particular reference to the disparity between willingness to pay and willingness to accept. [source]

    Children Who Commit Sexual Offences: Some Legal Anomalies and Practical Approaches to the Law

    It provides a brief survey of the prevalence of sexual offences committed by children. It reviews some of the key legislation that deals with children who commit sexual offences with a particular focus on some of the anomalies contained within it. Drawing on the experience of the work of the Howard League's legal department, it identifies a systematic failure to deal with these children in a constructive way and suggests some ways in which the law can be used to improve the chances of effective rehabilitation for children who are convicted of sexual offences. [source]

    Anomalies in Copyright Law

    Anirban Mazumder
    The word copyright is a misnomer. The law of copyright is based on the encouragement of motive. Plagiarism is not necessarily copyright infringement and copyright infringement is not necessarily plagiarism. Copyright law is concerned, in essence, with the negative right of preventing the copying of physical material. Copyright is not a monopoly, unlike patent and registered design. Thus, if it can be shown that two precisely similar works were in fact produced wholly independently of one another, there can be no infringement of copyright by one or the other. Substantial similarity leading to copyright infringement is a grey area in copyright law. As per copyright law principles, making a digital copy itself is copyright infringement, no matter what amount of work is accessible to users. If a compilation work satisfies the originality criteria, that is ,creativity', then it will be protected. There is no copyright in facts per se, but original expression of factual compilation can have copyright protection. [source]

    Persistent Cloaca, Fused Kidneys, Female Pseudohermaphroditism and Skeletal Anomalies in a Simmental Calf

    M. Y. Gulbahar
    Summary A 5-day-old Simmental calf was referred to our department for atresia ani and postural abnormalities caused by skeletal deformities. The calf had a short and deviated tail and a bowed hind limb. The calf appeared like a male because of the prepuce and penis located just near the teats and the absence of female external genitalia. During the necropsy, a horseshoe kidney, single ureter that originated from the kidney, and bilateral uterine horns with one ovary each were detected. The ureter, blind-ended large intestine, and bilateral uterine horns were connected to a dilated cloaca having two sacs, which were filled with a yellowish brown viscous fluid admixed with meconium and urine. Skeletal deformities found included scoliosis, partial synostosis of vertebrae, deviation of rudimentary sacrum and coccygeal vertebrae, and narrowed pelvic cavity. This is the first report of an anomalous combination including urogenital, large intestinal, and skeletal deformities in cattle. [source]

    Genetic Heterogeneity of Icelanders

    E. Árnason
    Summary Recently statements have been made about a special ,genetic homogeneity' of the Icelanders that are at variance with earlier work on blood groups and allozymes. To validate these claims an extensive reanalysis was undertaken of mtDNA variation by examining primary data from original sources on 26 European populations. The results show that Icelanders are among the most genetically heterogeneous Europeans by the mean number of nucleotide differences as well as by estimates of , parameters of the neutral theory. The distribution of pairwise differences in general has the same shape as European populations and shows no evidence of bottlenecks of numbers in Iceland. The allelic frequency distribution of Iceland is relatively even with a large number of haplotypes at polymorphic frequencies contrasting with other countries. This is a signature of admixture during the founding or history of Iceland. Assumptions of models used to simulate number of haplotypes at sampling saturation for comparing populations are violated to different degrees by various countries. Anomalies identified in data in previous reports on Icelandic mtDNA variation appear to be due to errors in publicly accessible databases. This study demonstrates the importance of basing analyses on primary data so that errors are not propagated. Claims about special genetic homogeneity of Icelanders are not supported by evidence. [source]

    Comment on ,Anomalies in grasstree fire history reconstructions for south-western Australian vegetation' by Enright N. J., Lamont B. B. and Miller B. P.

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Anomalies in the Oversight of Australian Auditors

    Graeme L. Wines
    This commentary identifies and comments on anomalies in the oversight of Australian auditors and audit firms. Regulatory and professional oversight and inspection of Australian auditors and audit firms arise from a number of sources, highlighting its multi-faceted nature. This makes it impossible to identify a single body with ultimate responsibility for auditor oversight. Three recent Australian reviews commissioned by the Financial Reporting Council, together with an evaluation of the roles of the various regulatory and professional bodies, are used in this commentary as a platform from which to identify a number of significant anomalies in oversight processes. Major anomalies highlighted arise from the overlapping nature of the duties and functions of the various bodies and the variation in oversight across different categories of audit service providers. Policymakers should closely examine the issues raised in the paper if auditor oversight is to be undertaken in an effective and efficient manner. [source]

    Securing IMS against novel threats

    Stefan Wahl
    Fixed mobile convergence (FMC) based on the 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is considered one of the most important communication technologies of this decade. Yet this all-IP-based network technology brings about the growing danger of security vulnerabilities in communication and data services. Protecting IMS infrastructure servers against malicious exploits poses a major challenge due to the huge number of systems that may be affected. We approach this problem by proposing an architecture for an autonomous and self-sufficient monitoring and protection system for devices and infrastructure inspired by network intrusion detection techniques. The crucial feature of our system is a signature-less detection of abnormal events and zero-day attacks. These attacks may be hidden in a single message or spread across a sequence of messages. Anomalies identified at any of the network domain's ingresses can be further analyzed for discriminative patterns that can be immediately distributed to all edge nodes in the network domain. © 2009 Alcatel-Lucent. [source]

    Eyes Absent Proteins: Characterization of Substrate Specificity and Phosphatase Activity of Mutants Associated with Branchial, Otic and Renal Anomalies

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 14 2008
    Amna Musharraf
    Abstract The eyes absent (Eya) genes encode a family of proteins that combine the functions of transcriptional cofactors, signal transducers and enzymes, namely protein tyrosine phosphatases. The latter activity resides in the highly conserved C-terminal Eya domain (ED). Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of the Arabidopsis thaliana homologue (AtEya) by using low-molecular-weight compounds and synthetic phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing peptides that correspond either to phosphorylation sites in proteins or to peptides that were selected through the screening of a combinatorial peptide library. AtEya displayed modest peptide substrate specificity and was sensitive to charges adjacent to pY. In general, the presence of acidic residues on the N-terminal side of the phosphorylation site was critical for catalysis, whereas basic amino acids seemed to be preferred with respect to high-affinity binding. We also detected significant acyl phosphatase activity of AtEya; this suggests that Eya proteins might have further substrates in vivo. In addition, we analysed the phosphatase activity of a number of variants of the mouse Eya1 protein that harbours single point mutations that were associated with branchio,oto,renal syndrome (BOR), branchio,oto syndrome (BO) and ocular defects, respectively, in humans. While BOR mutations led to a significantly reduced phosphatase activity, BO mutants as well as those that are associated with ocular defects only displayed activity that was similar to wild-type levels. [source]

    Quantitative neuropathological analysis of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    T. Ansari
    Abstract Detailed stereological analyses of specific regions of brains of children who had died from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was undertaken to determine whether global evidence of an underlying pathology exists, contributing to an increased susceptibility to SIDS. A significant reduction in the total number of neocortical neurones and neurone volume was observed in SIDS normal birth weight (NBW) infants in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in both volume and total neurone number were also noted in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in SIDS NBW group when compared with controls. Anomalies in regions of the brain involved with cardiorespiratory control (brainstem) and arousal (brainstem and neocortex) may play a crucial role in the chain of events resulting in a SIDS event. [source]

    A concurrent occurrence of cutis laxa, Dandy-Walker syndrome and immunodeficiency in a girl

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 7 2003
    J Litzman
    We report on a 17-y-old girl with inherited cutis laxa, immunodeficiency and Dandy-Walker syndrome. Immunodeficiency manifested itself by decreased and fluctuating levels of IgG, IgA and IgM and intermittent leucopenia causing increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections. Dandy-Walker syndrome (agenesis of the cerebellar vermis with a large posterior fossa cyst communicating with an enlarged 4th ventricle) was shown on a CT scan but with the exception of macrocrania, no typical signs or symptoms were observed at the age of 17. Loose hyperextensible skin with pendulous skinfolds as a manifestation of cutis laxa was observed from birth. Anomalies of the right pulmonary artery, abnormal branching of the left arteria subclavia (arteria lusoria) from the left aortic arch and bicuspidal aortic valve were also present. Conclusion: The combination of the rare disorders cutis laxa, Dandy-Walker syndrome and immunodeficiency is reported here for the first time. [source]