Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Households

  • australian household
  • black household
  • different household
  • farm household
  • income household
  • low-income household
  • migrant household
  • non-poor household
  • other household
  • poor household
  • poorer household
  • poorest household
  • rural household
  • same household
  • selected household
  • urban household

  • Terms modified by Households

  • household activity
  • household asset
  • household behaviour
  • household characteristic
  • household cheese purchase
  • household choice
  • household composition
  • household consumption
  • household contact
  • household data
  • household debt
  • household demand
  • household economy
  • household expenditure
  • household expenditure survey
  • household food security
  • household formation
  • household head
  • household income
  • household labour
  • household level
  • household member
  • household mobility
  • household model
  • household panel
  • household panel data set
  • household panel study
  • household panel survey
  • household population
  • household production
  • household products
  • household resource
  • household response
  • household size
  • household structure
  • household survey
  • household survey data
  • household type
  • household wealth
  • household welfare
  • household work

  • Selected Abstracts


    Summary. This article reviews a number of research methodologies used to record household and settlement architecture and assesses their value in the investigation of the human use of prehistoric built space. It exemplifies, through case studies, five broad approaches to, and research techniques associated with, the investigation of such architecture. These approaches are: architectural form; the spatial distribution of activities; continuity and standardization; the relationship between built and non-built space; and human patterns of movement. Then, drawing mainly on Near Eastern, and particularly Anatolian, material, it shows how a sixth approach, the use of ethnographic observation and analogy, provides insights into functional and seasonal variations in spatial use, patterns of movement and social organization. It identifies seven categories of data collection and nine observations drawn from the ethnographic material which together provide an investigative and interpretative framework for the study of early farming communities in the Near East and elsewhere. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    In the last several decades, the American family has undergone considerable change, with less than half of all adolescents residing with two married biological parents. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we construct an elaborate measure of family structure and find considerable heterogeneity in the risk of antisocial and delinquent behavior among groups of youth who reside in what are traditionally dichotomized as intact and nonintact families. In particular, we find that youth in "intact" families differ in important ways depending on whether the two biological parents are married or cohabiting and on whether they have children from a previous relationship. In addition, we find that youth who reside with a single biological parent who cohabits with a nonbiological partner exhibit an unusually high rate of antisocial behavior, especially if the custodial parent is the biological father. [source]


    Using data from the 2001,2005 waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, and taking account of existing estimates of ability bias and social returns to schooling, I estimate the economic return to various levels of education. Raising high school attainment appears to yield the highest annual benefits, with per-year gains as high as 30% (depending on the adjustment for ability bias). Some forms of vocational training also appear to boost earnings, with significant gains from Certificate Level III/IV qualifications (for high school dropouts only), and from Diploma and Advanced Diploma qualifications. At the university level, bachelor degrees and postgraduate qualifications are associated with significantly higher earnings, with each year of a bachelor degree raising annual earnings by about 15%. For high schools, slightly less than half the gains are due to increased productivity, with the rest being due to higher levels of participation. For vocational training, about one-third of the gains are from productivity, and two-thirds from greater participation. For universities, most of the gains are from productivity. I find some evidence that the productivity benefits of education are higher towards the top of the distribution, but the effects on hours worked are higher towards the bottom of the conditional earnings distribution. [source]

    Medieval Marriage: Symbolism and Society by David d'Avray Byzantine Women: Varieties of Experience, AD 800,1200 edited by Lynda Garland Household, Women and Christianities in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages edited by Anneke B. Mulder-Bakker and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2007
    E. M. C. VAN HOUTS
    First page of article [source]

    Dynamics of work limitation and work in Australia

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 6 2010
    *Article first published online: 5 JUN 200, Umut Oguzoglu
    Abstract This paper examines the impact of self-reported work limitations on the labour force participation of the Australian working age population. Five consecutive waves of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey are used to investigate this relationship. A two-equation dynamic panel data model demonstrates that persistence and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role in work limitation reporting and its effect on labour force participation. Unobserved factors that jointly drive work limitation and participation are also shown to be crucial, especially for women. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Health status and labour force participation: evidence from Australia

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2006
    Lixin Cai
    Abstract This paper examines the effect of health on labour force participation using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. The potential endogeneity of health, especially self-assessed health, in the labour force participation equation is addressed by estimating the health equation and the labour force participation equation simultaneously. Taking into account the correlation between the error terms in the two equations, the estimation is conducted separately for males aged 15,49, males aged 50,64, females aged 15,49 and females aged 50,60. The results indicate that better health increases the probability of labour force participation for all four groups. However, the effect is larger for the older groups and for women. As for the feedback effect, it is found that labour force participation has a significant positive impact on older females' health, and a significant negative effect on younger males' health. For younger females and older males, the impact of labour force participation on health is not significant. The null-hypothesis of exogeneity of health to labour force participation is rejected for all groups. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Household, politics and political morality in the reign of Henry VII

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 217 2009
    David Grummitt
    Late fifteenth-century England, it has recently been suggested, experienced its own ,pre-Machiavellian moment', when the rules of politics and political morality were redefined in the crucible of civil war. Moreover, this was part of a wider western European shift in the nature of politics and one with which Henry, as an exile in Brittany and France, was personally acquainted. The Spanish ambassador's comment, therefore, that the king wished to rule in the ,French fashion' can be interpreted in terms of politics and morality as well as government and administration. This article will argue that the redefinition of political morality in Henry's reign centred upon a redefinition of the nature of the household and the role of household servants. It was manifested through changes in the institution of the royal household itself (the development of the privy chamber and financial machinery of the chamber) and through conflict over the role and meaning of the household. The unease and crisis around this redefinition of one of the cornerstones of late medieval political and social life was also reflected in discourse, such as in the poems of Skelton and in contemporary chronicles. Despite this disquiet, the alteration in political culture was lasting and defined the practice of politics throughout the remainder of the sixteenth century. [source]

    Barriers to girls' education in Mozambique at household and community levels: an exploratory study

    Jini L. Roby
    Although education of children is universally accepted as a leading mechanism of poverty eradication and social development, many developing nations continue to struggle in achieving gender parity in primary and secondary education. While Mozambique has recently accelerated its efforts to reduce this gap, girls are still enrolled and attending school at a much lower rate than boys. The present study explored the barriers to children's , especially girls' , education in central Mozambique, based on information on 738 children in two separate communities. Household, child, environmental, and social/cultural factors are examined in the context of global and regional data. The study found girls to be impacted more negatively by every correlating factor, including the lingering practice, in rural areas, of early marriage. Policy and research implications are discussed. [source]

    The Economic Organization of the Household (second edition)

    Marjorie J.T. Norton
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Measurement of Household and Family Composition in the United States, 1850,2000

    Steven Ruggles
    This article has three goals. First, it explores the effects of changes in census definitions and concepts on the measurement of living arrangements. As part of this analysis, the authors develop new estimates of the number of households and group quarters in each census year since 1850. Second, they evaluate the existing aggregate statistical series on family and household composition, with particular attention to problems in the measurement of subfamilies. Finally, they describe data and methods for developing a consistent set of statistics for the period since 1850 and offer recommendations for the coherent measurement of family and household composition. [source]

    The Relationship between Personal Income and Net Worth in Australia

    John Creedy
    This article uses data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to examine the changing distribution of net worth with age. Even after controlling for age, the relationship between income and net worth is positive, except for the older age groups. Inequality falls as age increases. The income poor save in different forms compared with high income individuals of the same age cohort. Holdings of financial assets, especially equity investments and superannuation, are heavily concentrated in the hands of high income earners, while fixed income investments are favoured by the elderly for all income groups. [source]

    Low-Paid Employment and Unemployment Dynamics in Australia,

    THE ECONOMIC RECORD, Issue 272 2010
    This article uses longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (or HILDA) Survey to examine the extent to which the relatively high rates of transition from low-paid employment into unemployment are the result of disadvantageous personal characteristics or are instead a function of low-paid work itself. Dynamic random effects probit models of the likelihood of unemployment are estimated. After controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and initial conditions, we find that, relative to high-paid employment, low-paid employment is associated with a higher risk of unemployment, but this effect is only significant among women. We also find only weak evidence that low-paid employment is a conduit for repeat unemployment. [source]

    Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor?

    THE ECONOMIC RECORD, Issue 259 2006
    Exploring the Australian Gender Pay Gap
    Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey, this paper analyses the gender wage gaps across the wage distribution in both the public and private sectors in Australia. Quantile regression techniques are used to control for various characteristics at different points of the wage distributions. Counterfactual decomposition analysis, adjusted for the quantile regression framework, is used to examine if the gap is attributed to gender differences in characteristics, or to the differing returns between genders. The main finding is that a strong glass ceiling effect is detected only in the private sector. A second finding is that the acceleration in the gender gap across the distribution does not vanish even after account is taken of an extensive set of statistical controls. This suggests that the observed wage gap is a result of differences in returns to genders. By focusing only on the mean gender wage gap, substantial variations of the gap will be hidden. [source]

    Vajra Brother, Vajra Sister: Renunciation, Individualism and the Household in Tibetan Buddhist Monasticism

    Martin A. Mills
    This article challenges two connected notions in the study of Tibetan Buddhism: that Buddhist monasticism is characterized by a pronounced move towards individualism, systematically detaching monks from relational social life; and that Tibetan Buddhist doctrines of karma represent an alternative mode of identity to those constructed within household life. By comparing the ritual practices and inheritance patterns associated with household groups in Ladakh with tantric ritual forms in local Buddhist (Gelukpa) monasteries, it is argued that they demonstrate pronounced structural similarities, centred on the shared symbolic construct of the household/temple as the source of socialized agency. An analysis of the meditative disciplines of Gelukpa monasticism is used to show how such training serves not to renounce kinship and household values, but to transform them into modes of religious authority, essential to the social position of monks (trapa) and incarnate lamas (tulku) in Tibetan Buddhism. [source]

    Biliteracy and Schooling in an Extended-Family Nicaraguan Immigrant Household: The Sociohistorical Construction of Parental Involvement

    Julia Menard-Warwick
    Situating parental involvement in education within a sociohistorical context, this case study of a Nicaraguan immigrant household in California contrasts the perspectives of two sisters-inlaw who shared a home and whose daughters attended the same urban elementary school. Although the two women were involved in their daughters' schooling in different ways, the article illustrates how both women drew on a variety of personal, family, and community resources to support the girls' academic success. [source]

    Updating Poverty Maps without Panel Data: Evidence from Vietnam,

    Nguyen Viet Cuong
    I31; I32; O15 A household survey and a census can be combined to estimate a poverty map for small areas. Ideally, the survey and the census should be conducted in the same year. In several empirical applications, however, survey and census years can be different, which might make poverty estimates biased. Using data from the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2002 and the 1999 Population and Housing Census, the present paper produces a 2002 poverty map for Vietnam and describes the biases when the survey and census years are not coincident. It is found that poverty estimates from the poverty mapping method taking into account the time difference between the survey and the census are quite close to survey-based estimates, at least at the regional level. [source]

    Social Welfare in Vietnam: A Curse or Blessing for Poor Children?

    Keetie Roelen
    Despite a rapid increase in economic growth accompanied by the rise of living standards over the last two decades in Vietnam, there is still a considerable proportion of the population that lives in poor and vulnerable conditions. Children in particular are disproportionately affected by poverty. The country employs a broad range of social protection programs that tend to be regressive in effect rather than supportive of the poor. The present paper evaluates the social welfare scheme in Vietnam in terms of child poverty. We use the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey (VHLSS) 2006 and identify and quantify child poverty in monetary as well as multidimensional terms. We consider the link between social welfare receipt and poverty and evaluate coverage, exclusion, and inclusion errors. Furthermore, we use benefit incidence analysis to evaluate the impact of social welfare on monetary child poverty. Findings suggest that coverage of the social welfare scheme is limited and that the scheme suffers from considerable exclusion and inclusion errors. Furthermore, we find that social welfare only slightly reduces the incidence and depth of monetary poverty. [source]

    Ageing in "Poor Household" or Ageing into Poverty?

    Tackling the Policy Dilemma of Redistribution
    The policy issue of how to target poor households rather than provide universal coverage takes the primary place in the question of redistribution where resources are limited. The Government of India's social protection programs, particularly the old age pension for the informal sector of the economy, has taken a targeting approach. In this article we show that there is a case for universal coverage since ageing households experience greater exclusion from market-based protection as well as from informal (household-based) protection. We make the argument for universal coverage on two grounds: first, a targeted approach has resulted in leakage, indicating that non-poor elderly individuals in the unorganized sector also require some sort of support. Though they are valid, we do not resort to traditional arguments against targeting, such as that it creates institutional lock-in mechanisms and stigmatizes the recipients. Second, the loss of income on age-related matters (e.g. hospitalization) or the ability of elderly individuals to gain credit is not particularly class-specific, although the targeting policy implies it is. The article is based on the secondary data source of the National Sample Survey, primary data sources, particularly those conducted by the authors in Kerala and Maharashtra and specifically designed for the ageing population, and ethnographic observations from fieldwork. [source]

    Social Protection in Vietnam and Obstacles to Progressivity

    Martin Evans
    The present paper analyzes the incidence and progressivity of Vietnamese state income transfers using survey data from the Vietnamese Household Living Standards Survey 2004. Data quality and sample selection issues are highlighted, especially in the coverage of rural-urban migrants. Simple income-based profiles of incidence are matched to several influences that confound and complicate the measurement of progressivity. The issue of the informal economy is highlighted through analysis of both the extent of private inter-household transfers and remittances and their relationship with state transfers, and in the informal charges that accompany uptake of state services and other petty corruption. Second, the issue of user-charges for health and education services is considered, as a considerable portion of state transfers are related to the take up of schooling and health care. Third, the issue of behavioral effects is also considered, concentrating on private inter-household transfers. The paper concludes by drawing together the evidence and the obstacles to measurement and progressivity to argue a range of data collection, methodological and policy recommendations. [source]

    Coping with Crisis,Smoke, Drought, Flood and Currency: Iban Households in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Professor Reed L. Wadley
    First page of article [source]

    Simple Transfers, Complex Outcomes: The Impacts of Pensions on Poor Households in Brazil

    Peter Lloyd-Sherlock
    ABSTRACT Drawing on quantitative survey data and in-depth interviews, this article seeks to map out the potential direct and indirect effects of simple cash transfers on households in impoverished rural and urban settings. Brazil is shown to have an extensive system of old age pensions, which affords almost universal coverage to households containing older people. These benefits have a significant impact on levels of poverty and vulnerability in recipient households. They also facilitate access to essential healthcare items, such as drugs, which are seldom freely available through the state health system. The in-depth interviews reveal that pensions can have important effects on intra-household relations, but these effects were not generalizable nor easily captured by quantitative survey tools. There was clear evidence that pensions reduced the propensity of older people to remain economically active, but this must be understood in a context of limited employment opportunities for all age groups and a high prevalence of disability. Overall, the article demonstrates the complex effects of a relatively simple cash transfer, which policy makers need to take into account. [source]

    The Impact of AIDS on Rural Households in Africa: A Shock Like Any Other?

    Carolyn Baylies
    In areas where HIV prevalence is high, household production can be significantly affected and the integrity of households compromised. Yet policy responses to the impact of HIV/AIDS have been muted in comparison to outcomes of other shocks, such as drought or complex political emergencies. This article looks at the reasons for the apparent under,reaction to AIDS, using data from Zambia, and examines recent calls to mitigate the effects of AIDS at household level. Critical consideration is directed at proposals relating to community safety nets, micro,finance and the mainstreaming of AIDS within larger poverty alleviation programmes. It is argued that effective initiatives must attend to the specific features of AIDS, incorporating both an assault on those inequalities which drive the epidemic and sensitivity to the staging of AIDS both across and within households. A multi,pronged approach is advocated which is addressed not just at mitigation or prevention, but also at emergency relief, rehabilitation and development. [source]

    Drought, Domestic Budgeting and Wealth Distribution in Sahelian Households

    Matthew Turner
    Over the past twenty-five years, Sahelian households have experienced recurrent harvest failure and greater reliance on remittances from migratory wage labour. Household subsistence has become less dependent on household grain stores and more on the liquidation of individual wealth stores. This study investigates how these broader changes have affected struggles between household members over obligations to support the household in the Zarmaganda region of western Niger. As the land-derived leverage of male patriarchs has declined and household dependence on individual wealth stores has increased, domestic budgeting has become more contested. Household heads make case-by-case moral claims on other household members during times of grain shortage. Women and subordinate males invoke Islamic law, which accords primary provisioning responsibility to the household head, to protect their individual wealth in times of grain deficit. This article investigates the nature of these budgetary struggles, showing how individuals' decisions to contribute individual wealth to support the household are best understood as highly situated, affected not only by the specific material conditions of the household but also the interplay of the moral, structural, and individualistic imperatives that derive from one's position within the household. Using reconstructed livestock wealth histories for the members of fifty-four households in western Niger, this study investigates the material consequences of these struggles. Male heads of corporate households, the historic managers of the household's land and agricultural labour, have lost wealth relative to their wives and married male subordinates since the drought of 1984. [source]

    Distributional Effects of FDI: How the Interaction of FDI and Economic Policy Affects Poor Households in Bolivia

    Peter Nunnenkamp
    This article provides a CGE analysis of the medium to long-run impact of FDI inflows on poverty and income distribution in Bolivia. The simulation results suggest that FDI inflows enhance economic growth and reduce poverty. However, the income distribution typically becomes more unequal. In particular, FDI widens disparities between urban and rural areas. The Bolivian government may promote the growth-enhancing and poverty-alleviating effects by overcoming labour-market segmentation and providing complementary public investment in infrastructure. But simulated policy reforms or alternative productivity scenarios are hardly effective in reducing the economic divide. [source]

    Formal and Informal Risk Sharing in LDCs: Theory and Empirical Evidence

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 4 2008
    Pierre Dubois
    We develop and estimate a model of dynamic interactions in which commitment is limited and contracts are incomplete to explain the patterns of income and consumption growth in village economies of less developed countries. Households can insure each other through both formal contracts and informal agreements, that is, self-enforcing agreements specifying voluntary transfers. This theoretical setting nests the case of complete markets and the case where only informal agreements are available. We derive a system of nonlinear equations for income and consumption growth. A key prediction of our model is that both variables are affected by lagged consumption as a consequence of the interplay of formal and informal contracting possibilities. In a semiparametric setting, we prove identification, derive testable restrictions, and estimate the model with the use of data from Pakistani villages. Empirical results are consistent with the economic arguments. Incentive constraints due to self-enforcement bind with positive probability and formal contracts are used to reduce this probability. [source]

    Characteristics of Household Addresses That Repeatedly Contact 911 to Report Intimate Partner Violence

    Debra Houry MD
    Abstract Objectives: To determine whether households that generate several 911 calls differ in important ways from those that make a single call and to determine whether households that generate repeat 911 calls for intimate partner violence (IPV) experience more severe violence than those that do not. Methods: All cases of police-documented IPV were reviewed and linked with their respective 911 calls. Each incident report was reviewed to determine the relationship between the offender and victim, demographic characteristics of the offender and victim, weapon and substance involvement, prior incidents of IPV, and violence severity. Results: Of the 1,505 IPV addresses identified during the 12-month study interval, 1,010 (67.1%) placed more than one phone call to report IPV. Sixty-nine percent of African American victims, 50.6% of white victims, and 36.8% of Hispanic victims were repeat callers (p < 0.001). There were no differences between addresses that generated repeat calls versus single calls with respect to offender alcohol or drug involvement, presence of children, victim age, or offender age. Sixty-seven percent of households with severe violence and 66.9% of households with minor violence generated repeat 911 calls (p = 0.98). Conclusions: Ethnic differences in 911 use for IPV exist between African Americans, whites, and Hispanics. However, unknown societal, economic, or cultural issues could have influenced this finding. Households that repeatedly contacted 911 during the study interval to report IPV were not more likely to experience severe violence than those that placed a single 911 call. [source]

    Revisiting Reuben Hill's Theory of Familial Response to Stressors: The Mediating Role of Mental Outlook for Offspring of Divorce

    Susan Frazier Kahl
    With data from the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), the authors probe the link between parental and second-generation divorce. They investigate whether parental divorce and offspring's subsequent marital behavior are related to mental outlook. Existing literature maintains that children who experience parental divorce are more likely to divorce than their counterparts, yet explanations for this pattern remain contested. Drawing from Reuben Hill's classic ABCX model, the authors derive an analytical model that includes personal as opposed to interpersonal aspects of family crises. Only one factor produces mediating effects. Parental divorce depresses offspring self-satisfaction as opposed to their marital commitment, which subsequently leads to greater odds of their divorce and marital unhappiness. These results suggest the utility of mental outlook in future analytical models and lend continuing support to the viability of Reuben Hill's perspective for disentangling the complexities of family behaviors. [source]

    Precautionary Savings Behavior of Maritally Stressed Couples

    Michael S. Finke
    According to precautionary savings theory, households tend to save more when future income is less certain. Divorce often results in reduced levels of household income and individual consumption comparable to other potential income shocks. Households that will divorce or separate in 5 years are identified from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1994,1999) to determine whether these households maintain greater wealth holdings in anticipation of divorce. When spouses earn comparable incomes, divorce-prone households have significantly higher wealth levels (p < .01) than households that remain married. When there is a higher-earning spouse, households have significantly lower wealth levels (p < .01) than households that remain married. Results suggest that spouses with comparable earnings treat divorce as a wealth shock, whereas higher-earning spouses rationally dissave when divorce is imminent. Equitable wealth allocation for lower-earning spouses may require a more detailed investigation of predivorce wealth changes. [source]

    Factors Related to Frequency of Fruits and Vegetables Served to Children and Consumed by Mothers in Low-Income Households

    Brenda Jean Birmingham
    A survey of low-income mothers of children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was conducted to identify barriers and other factors influencing the frequency of fruits and vegetables served to children and consumed by the mother. Barriers related to adults not liking a wide variety of fruits or vegetables and adults' lack of interest in trying new fruits or vegetables significantly related to mothers serving and consuming fruits and vegetables less frequently. Cost and convenience barriers related more negatively to mothers' own intakes than to what they served to children. Fruit and vegetable intakes were lower among mothers reporting indicators of household food insecurity. Recommendations for WIC nutrition education are discussed. [source]

    The Net Worth of Female-Headed Households: A Comparison to Other Types of Households

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2006
    Martha N. Ozawa
    Abstract: This article presents the results of a study that investigated the level of assets and debts that female-headed households have in comparison to those of married-couple households and other types of households. The empirical results revealed that the amounts of net worth of married-couple households and male-headed households were significantly larger than that of female-headed households. We discuss policy implications stemming from the findings of the study and recommend that the United States seriously consider creative policy approaches aimed at empowering low-income households such as employment-related supportive policies, microenterprise programs, and Individual Development Accounts programs. [source]