Hong Kong SAR (hong + kong_sar)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


FIELD STUDY OF ALGAL RECRUITMENT BY CLEARING EXPERIMENT IN PING CHAU, HONG KONG SAR, CHINA

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
S. L. Kong
Recruitment, the entry of new individuals into a population, was investigated by a clearing experiment along the shore of A Ma Wan (AMW) in Ping Chau, Hong Kong SAR, China. Two types of clearing, with all the existing vegetation removed (cleared) and with the top 2 to three mm of the rock surface removed (hammered), were carried out monthly in AMW from November 1997 to June 1999. Observations were made one month after clearing and on a monthly basis thereafter. The number of algal species present on the cleared areas and their percentage cover were recorded. The experimental results showed that more algal species were recruited during March and April in 1998 (n=10) but in 1999, the number of species was found higher in February and March (n=8). Species richness dropped after May (more obvious in 1998), indicating that recruitment greatly declined in summer. A tuft complex composed of several filamentous algal species dominated over the others in all clearing areas (coverage mostly over 90%) but recruits of Caulerpa peltata, Colpomenia sinuosa, Enteromorpha sp., Hypnea charoides, Padina spp., Sargassum sp., Spyridia filamentosa, Ulva sp., etc. also were observed during the study period. Generally, there were no significant differences in terms of species richness and composition of the recruits between the two treatments (cleared vs. hammered) as well as with the controls. This implied that algae in AMW were more likely to be recruited de novo from elsewhere rather than regenerated from remnants of the previous year's growth. [source]


A prevalence study of suicide ideation among older adults in Hong Kong SAR

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 11 2003
Paul S. F. Yip
Abstract Objective The objective of this paper is to ascertain estimates of the prevalence, and associated risk factors for, suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Method The study was conducted as part of the General Household Survey (GHS), using face to face interviews of ethnic Chinese people aged 60 or above living in the community. Elders living in institutions or elderly homes were excluded from the study. Results Six percent of the sample was found to have ever had suicide ideation. The results showed that poor physical health, including poor vision, hearing problems, and a greater number of diseases; and poor mental health, especially in the form of depression, are predictors of suicidal ideation in the elderly population. Also, statistical analysis by linking individual factors to depression showed that financial and relationship problems are significant risk factors as well. Older adults who engaged in active coping, that is, those who actively seek to manage or control the negative events in their lives, fare better with lower levels of suicidal ideation than those who use passive coping styles. Conclusions The prevalence of suicidal ideation is similar among elders in Hong Kong and western countries. Factors that contribute to risk for suicidal ideation span physical and mental health, social, and psychological domains. Although the association of suicidal ideation to self-destructive acts remains to be determined, these findings indicate a variety of potential foci for late life suicide prevention efforts. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Financial Debt and Suicide in Hong Kong SAR,

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
Paul S. F. Yip
The presence of indebtedness is known to be a risk factor that can trigger stressed persons to contemplate suicide. This study compares the profiles of suicides with and without debt problems based on 2002 Coroner's Court death files. The category of men aged 25,39 has seen a 70% increase in suicide rate since 1997, and the number using carbon monoxide poisoning has increased from 1% of the total deaths in 1997 to about 26% of the total deaths in 2002. Suicides associated with debt problems seem to involve fewer mental and physical problems with formal job attachment than do suicides without debt problems. Gambling is a significant contributing factor to unmanageable indebtedness. [source]


FIELD STUDY OF ALGAL RECRUITMENT BY CLEARING EXPERIMENT IN PING CHAU, HONG KONG SAR, CHINA

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
S. L. Kong
Recruitment, the entry of new individuals into a population, was investigated by a clearing experiment along the shore of A Ma Wan (AMW) in Ping Chau, Hong Kong SAR, China. Two types of clearing, with all the existing vegetation removed (cleared) and with the top 2 to three mm of the rock surface removed (hammered), were carried out monthly in AMW from November 1997 to June 1999. Observations were made one month after clearing and on a monthly basis thereafter. The number of algal species present on the cleared areas and their percentage cover were recorded. The experimental results showed that more algal species were recruited during March and April in 1998 (n=10) but in 1999, the number of species was found higher in February and March (n=8). Species richness dropped after May (more obvious in 1998), indicating that recruitment greatly declined in summer. A tuft complex composed of several filamentous algal species dominated over the others in all clearing areas (coverage mostly over 90%) but recruits of Caulerpa peltata, Colpomenia sinuosa, Enteromorpha sp., Hypnea charoides, Padina spp., Sargassum sp., Spyridia filamentosa, Ulva sp., etc. also were observed during the study period. Generally, there were no significant differences in terms of species richness and composition of the recruits between the two treatments (cleared vs. hammered) as well as with the controls. This implied that algae in AMW were more likely to be recruited de novo from elsewhere rather than regenerated from remnants of the previous year's growth. [source]


IS EAST ASIA FIT FOR AN OPTIMUM CURRENCY AREA?

THE DEVELOPING ECONOMIES, Issue 3 2006
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF A HIGHER DEGREE OF MONETARY COOPERATION IN EAST ASIA
F42; N15 This paper attempts to make a contribution to the recent search for a suitable assessment of the economic feasibility of a higher degree of monetary cooperation in East Asia. By using a structural vector autoregression approach as well as a generalized purchasing power parity approach, we find that a larger group of appropriately selected East Asian economies does satisfy the macroeconomic conditions for forming an Optimum Currency Area (OCA). The East Asian group consists of four ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) and four Northeast Asian economies (Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Taiwan). This finding presents a striking contrast to the existing research results whose policy recommendation has generally been that countries in East Asia should start with a smaller subgroup currency area. It is time that many East Asian economies as a region made a serious effort to pursue a higher degree of monetary cooperation among themselves for forming an OCA. [source]


Fisheries, large-scale trade, and conservation of seahorses in Malaysia and Thailand

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue 4 2010
Allison L. Perry
Abstract 1.All seahorse species (genus Hippocampus) are listed under CITES Appendix II, requiring that exports of these fishes must be regulated for sustainability. Preliminary trade surveys and anecdotal reports suggested Malaysia and Thailand represented an important source for seahorses used globally in traditional medicine, curios, and aquarium display, but few historic trade or fisheries data are available. Baseline information about pre-CITES catch and trade is essential for managing seahorse fisheries and trade under CITES, and for understanding present-day effects of CITES regulation on the seahorse trade. 2.In 1998,1999, seahorse fisheries and trade in both countries were assessed by interviewing participants at many levels of the trade and corroborating those surveys with official trade documents. 3.Seahorses were found to be landed primarily as trawl bycatch. Malaysia's catch of 2900,kg year,1 was less than the estimated domestic consumption (5500,6000,kg year,1), whereas Thailand's catch of 6600,kg year,1 apparently far exceeded domestic consumption (,520,kg year,1). 4.Both countries imported seahorses from and exported to other Asian nations. Import statistics from Hong Kong SAR and Taiwan recorded maximum annual trade from Malaysia at 1280,kg year,1. Trade surveys indicated that Thailand exported at least 5000,kg annually (similar to the estimation of catch), but national Customs records reported 10,500,kg year,1 in exports, supported by official import records from Hong Kong SAR and Taiwan which indicated that Thailand was the source of up to 11,400,kg year,1. 5.Fishers and traders in both countries reported decreasing availability of seahorses, raising conservation concerns. These apparent declines, in combination with substantial domestic consumption, point towards the challenges that Malaysia and Thailand face in establishing sustainable levels of exports under CITES. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The Institutional Determinants of the Path to Political Reform in Hong Kong SAR

ASIAN POLITICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2010
Charn Wing Wan
The political economy of political reform in Hong Kong is characterized by the persistent contradictory imperatives and conflicts of ideology between the pro-democracy camp and the Beijing-backed Hong Kong government. On December 29, 2007, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China ruled out universal suffrage for both the selection of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong and the election of the legislative councilors before 2016 and stated that the earliest possible dates for the election of the Chief Executive and the legislative councilors would be 2017 and 2020, respectively. This article suggests that the constitutional institutions (formal and informal) that have evolved from Hong Kong's colonial past restrain the sets of choices for its political reform, and that unless the pro-democracy camp falls in line with Chinese central government's positions, the status quo in the political system will remain for years to come. [source]