Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Physics and Astronomy

Kinds of Holes

  • antarctic ozone hole
  • black hole
  • central black hole
  • central hole
  • drill hole
  • fermi hole
  • idiopathic macular hole
  • intermediate-mass black hole
  • macular hole
  • massive black hole
  • oxyanion hole
  • ozone hole
  • side hole
  • small hole
  • spinning black hole
  • structural hole
  • supermassive black hole
  • tree hole

  • Terms modified by Holes

  • hole center
  • hole closure
  • hole concentration
  • hole density
  • hole effective mass
  • hole growth
  • hole injection
  • hole mass
  • hole mobility
  • hole pair
  • hole size
  • hole surgery
  • hole system
  • hole transport

  • Selected Abstracts


    M.S. Bedinger
    ABSTRACT: Devils Hole is a collapse depression connected to the regional carbonate aquifer of the Death Valley ground water flow system. Devils Hole pool is home to an endangered pupfish that was threatened when irrigation pumping in nearby Ash Meadows lowered the pool stage in the 1960s. Pumping at Ash Meadows ultimately ceased, and the stage recovered until 1988, when it began to decline, a trend that continued until at least 2004. Regional ground water pumping and changes in recharge are considered the principal potential stresses causing long term stage changes. A regression was found between pumpage and Devils Hole water levels. Though precipitation in distant mountain ranges is the source of recharge to the flow system, the stage of Devils Hole shows small change in stage from 1937 to 1963, a period during which ground water withdrawals were small and the major stress on stage would have been recharge. Multiple regression analyses, made by including the cumulative departure from normal precipitation with pumpage as independent variables, did not improve the regression. Drawdown at Devils Hole was calculated by the Theis Equation for nearby pumping centers to incorporate time delay and drawdown attenuation. The Theis drawdowns were used as surrogates for pumpage in multiple regression analyses. The model coefficient for the regression, R2= 0.982, indicated that changes in Devils Hole were largely due to effects of pumping at Ash Meadows, Amargosa Desert, and Army 1. [source]


    ABSTRACT:,This article supplements and enriches,Judd's and Sapotichne, Jones, and Wolfe's,controversial diagnosis of a disjuncture between "mainstream" political science and the study of urban politics in the United States by suggesting that Canadian urban political science scholarship is equally isolated. Yet for the most part, the underlying causes of this predicament differ greatly from the U.S. experience. We offer three interpretations,one institutional, one epistemological, and one ontological,to explain the marginality of Canadian urban political science in relation to both mainstream Canadian political science and American urban politics. First, the growth of Canadian urban political science has been inhibited not because there are too few interested scholars, but rather because interested faculty are so thinly dispersed across the country's academic institutions. Second, unlike the American experience, the historical development of Canadian political science as a discipline has led it to focus on national-level issues at the expense of local and urban politics. Finally, Canadian cities have developed differently from American cities in important respects, again leading Canadian scholars to privilege the national over the local. [source]


    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    This essay examines how Michel Henry's and Jean-Luc Marion's continuation of phenomenology's turn to the invisible relates to painting, aesthetics, and theology. First, it discusses Henry and Marion's redefinition of phenomenality. Second, it explores Henry's "Kandinskian" description of abstract painting as expressing "Life." Third, it explicates Marion's "Rothkoian" rehabilitation of the idol and renewed zeal for the icon,both phenomena exemplify "givenness." Fourth, it unpacks my thesis: Henry's phenomenology, theologically applied, exercises an inadequate Kantian apophasis, characterized by a sublime sacrifice of the imagination; although Marion's work sometimes evidences a similar tendency, its prevailing momentum offers theology a fully catholic scope. [source]

    Fixing the Hole in the Bucket: Household Poverty Dynamics in the Peruvian Andes

    Anirudh Krishna
    ABSTRACT Achieving the Millennium Development Goal of halving poverty will require simultaneous action on two separate fronts: helping poor people escape from poverty, and stemming the flow of people into poverty. This article examines forty Peruvian communities, and finds that descents into poverty have occurred alongside escapes in every one of them. Escape and descent are asymmetric in terms of reasons: while one set of reasons is responsible for escapes from poverty, another and different set of reasons is associated with descent. Making progress in poverty reduction will require measures to accelerate escapes whilst at the same time slowing down descents. The article looks at the different policies which will be required to serve these two separate purposes. [source]

    Design of Multilayered Nanostructures and Donor,Acceptor Interfaces in Solution-Processed Thin-Film Organic Solar Cells,

    Hiroaki Benten
    Abstract Multilayered polymer thin-film solar cells have been fabricated by wet processes such as spin-coating and layer-by-layer deposition. Hole- and electron-transporting layers were prepared by spin-coating with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oxidized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and fullerene (C60), respectively. The light-harvesting layer of poly-(p -phenylenevinylene) (PPV) was fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of the PPV precursor cation and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The layer-by-layer technique enables us to control the layer thickness with nanometer precision and select the interfacial material at the donor,acceptor heterojunction. Optimizing the layered nanostructures, we obtained the best-performance device with a triple-layered structure of PEDOT:PSS|PPV|C60, where the thickness of the PPV layer was 11,nm, comparable to the diffusion length of the PPV singlet exciton. The external quantum efficiency spectrum was maximum (ca. 20%) around the absorption peak of PPV and the internal quantum efficiency was estimated to be as high as ca. 50% from a saturated photocurrent at a reverse bias of ,3,V. The power conversion efficiency of the triple-layer solar cell was 0.26% under AM1.5G simulated solar illumination with 100,mW,cm,2 in air. [source]

    Down the Rabbit Hole with Alice,Sucking Soil Gas All the Way

    David K. Kreamer
    First page of article [source]

    Headache and Heart Defects: Closing a Hole to Free the Mind?

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2007
    Gianluca Rigatelli MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Estimating Projectile Perpendicular Impact Velocity on Metal Sheet Targets from the Shape of the Target Hole

    Tsadok Tsach M.Sc.
    Abstract:, The correlation between bullet hole shapes in metal and projectile impact velocity was examined. A series of shots were fired from an M-16A1 assault rifle of 5.56 mm caliber toward a 1-mm thick metal target. All shots were fired at a perpendicular angle to the metal sheets, and the velocity was measured just before the projectile hit the target. Velocities ranged between 400 and 900 m/sec. From the replica of the shooting hole, a perpendicular plane was created, showing the symmetrical properties of the hole. The best mathematical equation describing the shape of the entrance hole was the exponential function in the form: The empirical equation of the hole defined using the regression method is: This equation describes the general shape of shooting holes created by velocities ranging from 440 to 750 m/sec. From this equation, one can estimate the bullet velocity when it hits the target. [source]

    An Analysis of the Effect of a Vent Hole on Excess Cement Expressed at the Crown,Abutment Margin for Cement-Retained Implant Crowns

    Dipan Patel BDS
    Abstract Purpose: The labial margins of anterior implant-retained crowns are often positioned subgingivally for a superior esthetic appearance. One of the consequences of subgingival margins is the increased risk of leaving excess cement behind following cementation. This can lead to potential problems, including peri-implant inflammation, soft tissue swelling, soreness, bleeding or suppuration on probing, and bone loss. The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effect of placement, location, and diameter of a vent hole on the amount of cement being expressed at the margin of an anterior implant abutment-retained crown. Materials and Methods: Three implant crown copings were fabricated to fit on the same custom abutment. Three vent diameters (0.75, 1.25, and 1.65 mm) and three locations on the palatal surface of the coping (cervico-palatally, mid-palatally, inciso-palatally) were chosen for vent hole placement. For each test, the coping was cemented onto the abutment under standardized conditions. A preweighed thin coating of cement was applied to the fit surface of the coping. The amount of cement expressed at the margin and vent hole was measured by weight and calculated as a proportion of the amount of cement placed in the coping before seating. The procedure was completed 15 times for each variable. The results were statistically analyzed using univariate ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni-adjusted independent samples t -tests. Results: The presence of a vent hole influenced the proportion of cement expressed at the coping margin (p < 0.05). The location of a vent hole influenced the proportion of cement expressed at the coping margin (p < 0.05), with the exception of the mid-palatal and inciso-palatal positioning where there was no significant difference (p= 0.61) between groups. The diameter of the vent hole did not significantly influence the proportion of cement expressed at the coping margin (p= 0.096). Conclusions: When using anterior cement-retained implant crowns, the use of a 0.75-mm mid-palatal or inciso-palatal vent hole to minimize the amount of cement expressed at the margin during cementation should be considered. [source]


    M.S. Bedinger
    ABSTRACT: Devils Hole is a collapse depression connected to the regional carbonate aquifer of the Death Valley ground water flow system. Devils Hole pool is home to an endangered pupfish that was threatened when irrigation pumping in nearby Ash Meadows lowered the pool stage in the 1960s. Pumping at Ash Meadows ultimately ceased, and the stage recovered until 1988, when it began to decline, a trend that continued until at least 2004. Regional ground water pumping and changes in recharge are considered the principal potential stresses causing long term stage changes. A regression was found between pumpage and Devils Hole water levels. Though precipitation in distant mountain ranges is the source of recharge to the flow system, the stage of Devils Hole shows small change in stage from 1937 to 1963, a period during which ground water withdrawals were small and the major stress on stage would have been recharge. Multiple regression analyses, made by including the cumulative departure from normal precipitation with pumpage as independent variables, did not improve the regression. Drawdown at Devils Hole was calculated by the Theis Equation for nearby pumping centers to incorporate time delay and drawdown attenuation. The Theis drawdowns were used as surrogates for pumpage in multiple regression analyses. The model coefficient for the regression, R2= 0.982, indicated that changes in Devils Hole were largely due to effects of pumping at Ash Meadows, Amargosa Desert, and Army 1. [source]

    Multilayer Thin Films by Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Hole- and Electron-Transport Polyelectrolytes: Optical and Electrochemical Properties

    Kyungsun Choi
    Abstract Summary: In this paper, we present the synthesis of a series of p-type and n-type semiconducting polyelectrolytes with triarylamine, oxadiazole, thiadiazole and triazine moieties. The synthesized polymeric hole and electron transport materials were examined optically and electrochemically using UV/Vis spectroscopy, PL spectroscopy and CV. Based on the optical and electrochemical data, each of the energy levels were calculated and all values suggested that they were promising hole- (p-type) or electron-transport (n-type) materials for devices. Moreover, the synthesized ionic polymers were suitable for LBL thin film deposition from dilute polymer solutions and the multilayers were fully characterized by UV/Vis, PL spectroscopy and CV. [source]

    Light-Induced Demixing of Hole or Electron Transporting Moieties

    Marc Behl
    Abstract Summary: This paper describes the synthesis of two triphenylamine monomers (hole conducting) and one triazine monomer (electron conducting) which differ in their copolymerization parameters because of their styrene and vinyl ester nature. A blend of triphenylamine monomer and poly(ethylene glycol) and mixtures of both types of monomers (triphenylamine and triazine) were illuminated through a line mask, creating laterally modulated radicals, thus leading to lateral demixing. The experiments with mixtures of triphenylamine and triazine monomers show that the concentration of p- or n-type polymers can be modulated laterally in a controlled way. AFM measurement of line pattern formed by illuminating a mixture of monomer 2 and 3 showing the height difference between illuminated and non-illuminated areas. [source]

    Molecular Reproduction & Development: Volume 76, Issue 10

    Article first published online: 20 AUG 200
    Snapshot from the life of Ernest Everett Just (1883,1941), circa 1920s. Montage includes images of Just in the laboratory at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, MA USA (©Alfred Huettner, with permission from the Marine Biological Laboratory Archives) with his autograph; the building housing the Howard University Colleges of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy at that time (courtesy of the Howard University College of Medicine); and hand drawings made by Just of Platynereis megalops fertilization (chronology) and the early zygote (background) (Just, 1915; J Morphology 26; 217,233). The reviews and essays in this issue's special section are in honor of Just's contribution to reproductive biology. [source]

    Deep radio imaging of the SCUBA 8-mJy survey fields: submillimetre source identifications and redshift distribution

    R. J. Ivison
    Abstract The SCUBA 8-mJy survey is the largest submillimetre (submm) extragalactic mapping survey undertaken to date, covering 260 arcmin2 to a 4 , detection limit of ,8 mJy at 850 ,m, centred on the Lockman Hole and ELAIS N2 regions. Here, we present the results of new 1.4-GHz imaging of these fields, of the depth and resolution necessary to reliably identify radio counterparts for 18 of 30 submm sources, with possible detections of a further 25 per cent. Armed with this greatly improved positional information, we present and analyse new optical, near-infrared (near-IR) and XMM,Newton X-ray imaging to identify optical/IR host galaxies to half of the submm-selected sources in those fields. As many as 15 per cent of the submm sources detected at 1.4 GHz are resolved by the 1.4-arcsec beam and a further 25 per cent have more than one radio counterpart, suggesting that radio and submm emission arise from extended starbursts and that interactions are common. We note that less than a quarter of the submm-selected sample would have been recovered by targeting optically faint radio sources, underlining the selective nature of such surveys. At least 60 per cent of the radio-confirmed optical/IR host galaxies appear to be morphologically distorted; many are composite systems , red galaxies with relatively blue companions; just over one half are found to be very red (I , K > 3.3) or extremely red (I , K > 4); contrary to popular belief, most are sufficiently bright to be tackled with spectrographs on 8-m telescopes. We find one submm source which is associated with the steep-spectrum lobe of a radio galaxy, at least two more with flatter radio spectra typical of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN), one of them variable. The latter is amongst four sources (,15 per cent of the full sample) with X-ray emission consistent with obscured AGN, though the AGN would need to be Compton thick to power the observed far-IR luminosity. We exploit our well-matched radio and submm data to estimate the median redshift of the S850,m , 8 mJy submm galaxy population. If the radio/far-IR correlation holds at high redshift, and our sample is unbiased, we derive a conservative limit of ,z, ,2.0, or ,2.4 using spectral templates more representative of known submm galaxies. [source]

    Book review: A Hole in the Head: More Tales in the History of Neuroscience

    David A. Steinberg
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Hole,polar phonon interaction scattering mobility in chain structured TlSe0.75S0.25 crystals

    A. F. Qasrawi
    Abstract In this study, the electrical resistivity, charge carriers density and Hall mobility of chain structured TlSe0.75S0.25 crystal have been measured and analyzed to establish the dominant scattering mechanism in crystal. The data analyses have shown that this crystal exhibits an extrinsic p-type conduction. The temperature-dependent dark electrical resistivity analysis reflected the existence of three energy levels located at 280 meV, 68 meV and 48 meV. The temperature dependence of carrier density was analyzed by using the single donor,single acceptor model. The carrier concentration data were best reproduced assuming the existence of an acceptor impurity level being located at 68 meV consistent with that observed from resistivity measurement. The model allowed the determination of the hole effective mass and the acceptor,donor concentration difference as 0.44m0 and 2.2 × 1012 cm,3, respectively. The Hall mobility of the TlSe0.75S0.25 crystal is found to be limited by the scattering of charged carriers over the (chain) boundaries and the scattering of hole,polar phonon interactions above and below 300 K, respectively. The value of the energy barrier height at the chain boundaries was found to be 261 meV. The polar phonon scattering mobility revealed the high-frequency and static dielectric constants of 13.6 and 15.0, respectively. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Alan Greenspan on the Economic Implications of Population Aging

    Article first published online: 15 DEC 200
    At the 2004 annual symposium of central bank leaders sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, Alan Greenspan, Chairman of the US Federal Reserve Board, devoted his opening remarks on 27 August to a discussion of the economic implications of population aging. The full text of his remarks is reproduced below. Greenspan's high prestige and great influence on US economic policy lend special interest to his views on this much-discussed subject (see also the next Documents item in this issue). He outlines the coming demographic shift in the United States in language that is characteristically cautious and qualified. (The elderly dependency ratio will "almost certainly" rise as the baby boom generation retires, Greenspan says, although elsewhere he terms the process, more accurately, inexorable.) The main factor responsible for population aging he identifies as the decline of fertility. Immigration is an antidote, but, to be effective, its size would have to be much larger than is envisaged in current projections. Greenspan's assessment of the economic consequences of the changing age structure highlights the prospect of a deteriorating fiscal situation in the United States: chronic deficits in the Social Security program over the long haul, assuming that existing commitments for benefits per retiree are met, and even greater difficulties for the health care system for the elderly,Medicare,in which the effects of increasing numbers in old age are amplified by advances in medical technology and the bias inherent in the current system of subsidized third-party payments. The sober outline of policy choices imposed by population aging,difficult in the United States, but less so, Greenspan notes, than in Europe and Japan,underlies the need for counteracting the declining growth of the population of labor force age through greater labor force participation and later retirement. Beyond that, growth of output per worker can provide the key "that would enable future retirees to maintain their expected standard of living without unduly burdening future workers." This requires continuation of policies that enhance productivity, such as deregulation and globalization, and greater investment. In turn, the latter presupposes greater domestic saving, both personal and by the government, as the United States cannot "continue indefinitely to borrow saving from abroad." Demographic aging requires a new balance between workers and retirees. Curbing benefits once bestowed is difficult: only benefits that can be delivered should be promised. Public programs should be recalibrated, providing incentives for individuals to adjust to the inevitable consequences of an aging society. [source]

    Field Play: The Normalization of an Alternate Cognizance in Seriously Ill Children

    Kelvin Saxton
    Children who grow up with a life-threatening illness live and face death in a way that is foreign to those of us who have reached adulthood in relative health. The experiences that form their identities create a range of knowledge, and processes for acquiring that knowledge, quite apart from the mainstream. In the pace of its acquisition, and the depth of its content, this knowledge is hard for the rest of us to comprehend. Indeed, the primary symptom of this alternate cognizance is that it sets these children apart from their families, peers, and greater communities. The child as a whole is marginalized in interpersonal relations by essentializing the child as the illness. The experience of the illness itself further isolates the child. Through firsthand observation, we find that the Hole in the Wall Gang summer camps provide a nearly unique environment for the normalization of this alternate cognizance. At camp, all those things that set them apart from the rest of the world mark them as normal members of a society. Other children share their physical qualities, have similar experiences and immediately understand their perspective on life. Small adjustments to social and physical environments have a lasting effect. A warm pool to swim in, a caring touch, an open smile,the children take the memory of these with them when they leave. They begin to understand that they are a desired part of a large and varied community. A new definition of normal is created and they are included. [source]

    MHD waves in the solar north polar coronal hole

    E. Devlen
    Abstract The effects, hitherto not treated, of the temperature and the number density gradients, both in the parallel and the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field, of O VI ions, on the MHD wave propagation characteristics in the solar North Polar Coronal Hole are investigated. We investigate the magnetosonic wave propagation in a resistive MHD regime where only the thermal conduction is taken into account. Heat conduction across the magnetic field is treated in a non-classical approach wherein the heat is assumed to be conducted by the plasma waves emitted by ions and absorbed at a distance from the source by other ions. Anisotropic temperature and the number density distributions of O VI ions revealed the chaotic nature of MHD standing wave, especially near the plume/interplume lane borders. Attenuation length scales of the fast mode is shown not to be smoothly varying function of the radial distance from the Sun (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    General Relativity effects and line emission

    G. Matt
    Abstract General Relativity effects (gravitational redshift, light bending, ,) strongly modify the characteristics of the lines emitted close to the Black Hole in Active Galactic Nuclei and Galactic Black Hole systems. These effects are reviewed and illustrated, with particular emphasis on line emission from the accretion disc. Methods, based on the iron line, to measure the two astrophysically relevant parameters of a Black Hole, the mass and spin, are briefly discussed. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Ultrahigh-pressure and Retrograde Metamorphic Ages for Paleozoic Protolith of Paragneiss in the Main Drill Hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD-MH), SW Sulu UHP Terrane

    LIU Fulai
    Abstract, Laser Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) images show that most zircon crystals separated from paragneiss in the main drill hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD-MH) at Maobei, southwestern Sulu terrane, contain low-pressure mineral-bearing detrital cores, coesite-bearing mantles and quartz-bearing or mineral inclusion-free rims. SHRIMP U-Pb dating on these zoned zircons yield three discrete and meaningful age groups. The detrital cores yield a large age span from 659 to 313 Ma, indicating the protolith age for the analyzed paragneiss is Paleozoic rather than Proterozoic. The coesite-bearing mantles yield a weighted mean age of 228 ± 5 Ma for the UHP event. The quartz-bearing outmost rims yield a weighted mean age of 213 ± 6 Ma for the retrogressive event related to the regional amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Sulu UHP terrane. Combined with previous SHRIMP U-Pb dating results from orthogneiss in CCSD-MH, it is suggested that both Neoproterozoic granitic protolith and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks were subducted to mantle depths in the Late Triassic. About 15 million years later, the Sulu UHP metamorphic rocks were exhumed to mid-crustal levels and overprinted by an amphibolite-facies retrogressive metamorphism. The exhumation rate deduced from the SHRIMP data and metamorphic P-T conditions is about 6.7 km/Ma. Such a fast exhumation suggests that the Sulu UHP paragneiss and orthogneiss returned towards the surface as a dominant part of a buoyant sliver, caused as a consequence of slab breakoff. [source]

    Structure and Mechanism of an Unusual Malonate Decarboxylase and Related Racemases

    Krzysztof Okrasa Dr.
    Hole in one! The first structure of an arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase; see picture), which reveals the mechanism by which this unusual cofactor-independent enzyme catalyses the decarboxylation of ,-arylmalonates, is presented. Notably, an active site "dioxyanion hole" motif is utilised to stabilise a putative high-energy enediolate intermediate. Other AMDases are also characterised, along with a Glu-racemase that also possesses a dioxyanion hole and promiscuous malonate decarboxylase activity. [source]

    From Theozymes to Artificial Enzymes: Enzyme-Like Receptors for Michael Additions with Oxyanion Holes and Active Amino Groups

    Luis Simón
    Abstract Different artificial enzymes, based on the theozyme concept, have been designed for Michael additions of pyrrolidine to ,,,-unsaturated lactams. These molecules each have skeleton able to mimic a structure called an "oxyanion hole", as is present in many enzymes. Amine groups are also responsible for the catalytic activities of these receptors, since they support the important proton-transport step. The requirement for the amine groups was established from the reaction mechanism and from theoretical calculations. The catalytic activities of the receptors are discussed, taking into account their relative association constants with the substrate: kcat/kuncat values of up to 104 were obtained. The catalytic activities of the receptors are compared with those found in natural enzymes and catalytic antibodies. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    Holes in the head: Evolutionary interpretations of the paranasal sinuses in catarrhines

    Todd C. Rae
    Everyone who has ever experienced a head cold is familiar with the paranasal sinuses, the bony hollows above and beside the nasal cavity that contribute, sometimes painfully, to upper respiratory tract disorders. These internal cranial structures have a wide distribution among eutherian mammals and archosaurs.1, 2 Sinuses have languished somewhat in the shadow of their better known and more accessible morphological cousins (dentition, postcrania), but new imaging techniques, growth studies, and explicit phylogenetic evaluation3 are beginning to fill in the gaps in our knowledge of the evolution of these enigmatic spaces in primates and promise to yield insights into the evolution of the facial skeleton. [source]

    How Zaynab Became the First Arabic Novel

    Elliott Colla
    This paper is part of a History Compass conference cluster tracing the formation of national culture in Egypt. Guest edited by Walter Armbrust, this cluster of articles was originally part of a conference in Oxford on January 12,13, 2007, organized by Walter Armbrust, Ronald Nettler, and Lucie Ryzova, and funded by the Middle East Centre (St. Antony's), The Faculty of Oriental Studies, The Khalid bin ,Abdullah Al-Sa'ud Professorship (Professor Clive Holes), and The Centre for Political Ideologies. The cluster is made up of the following articles: Guest Editor: Walter Armbrust ,The Formation of National Culture in Egypt in the Interwar Period: Cultural Trajectories', Walter Armbrust, History Compass 6 (2008), DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00571.x,Repackaging the Egyptian Monarchy: Faruq in the Public Spotlight, 1936,1939', Matthew Ellis, History Compass 6 (2008), DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00572.x,How Zaynab Became the First Arabic Novel', Elliott Colla, History Compass 6 (2008), DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00573.x,Women in the Singing Business, Women in Songs', Frédéric Lagrange, History Compass 6 (2008), DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00574.x,Long Live Patriarchy: Love in the Time of ,Abd al-Wahhab', Walter Armbrust, History Compass 6 (2008), DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00575.x,Football as National Allegory: Al-Ahram and the Olympics in 1920s Egypt', Shaun Lopez, History Compass 6 (2008), DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00576.x,The Professional Worldview of the Effendi Historian', Yoav Di-Capua, History Compass 6 (2008), DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2008.00577.x Despite a long-standing critical consensus that Muhammad Husayn Haykal's 1914 novel Zaynab was the first ,mature' Arabic novel, there is much evidence to the contrary. First, in terms of genre, Zaynab was not the first book calling itself by the term that later critics would call ,novel'; second, in terms of the bibliographic record, it was not a unique book on the cultural market in 1914; third, in terms of literary style, it was not at the time a particularly unique formal or thematic experiment in prose fiction; and finally, in terms of reception, it was not recognized as significant even by the small market segment and cultural field in which it initially appeared. This article revisits this critical debate and suggests that the canonization of Zaynab as the first Arabic novel cannot be explained by the work itself, but rather by subsequent developments , most especially, in the film adaptations of the novel and in the nationalization of university curricula during the Nasserist period. [source]

    Confucian Capitalism and the Paradox of Closure and Structural Holes in East Asian Firms

    Sun-Ki Chai
    abstract A long-standing debate has taken place in the organizational sociology and social network literatures about the relative advantages of network closure versus structural holes in the generation of social capital. There is recent evidence that these advantages differ across cultures and between East Asia and the West in particular, but existing network models are unable to explain why or address cultural variation in general. This paper seeks to provide a solution by integrating a culture-embedded rational model of action into the social network model of structure, using this not only to re-examine the closure versus structural hole debate, but also to tie it to the literature on Confucian capitalism and the ,East Asian Model' of the firm. We argue that this integrated approach allows us to systematically analyse the relationship between culture and behaviour in networks and, more specifically, to explain why closure has been a more powerful source of productivity in East Asia than the West. [source]

    Structure and gas transmission characteristics of microperforations in plastic films

    P. Allan-Wojtas
    Abstract Bright field transmitted light microscopy (BFTLM), differential interference contrast light microscopy (DICLM), conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LV-SEM) were used to observe microperforations in plastic film used for modified atmosphere packaging. Characteristics of the microperforations, including size, shape and obstructions are indicators of consistency and reproducibility of the process used to produce the microperforations. In addition, the microperforations appeared differently on the upper and lower surfaces of the plastic films, including a local thickening at the site of the microperforation and size of the opening. Microperforations in the range of 30 to 100,µm in diameter exhibited a linear increase of both O2 and CO2 transmission rates with hole area, for diffusion under calm conditions. Further testing indicated that microperforations larger than 55,µm in diameter can lose their diffusion constant if convection is present. Holes with a diameter less than 55,µm should therefore be used to achieve the required oxygen transmission rates (OTR). Copyright © 2007 Crown in the right of Canada. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Holes In The Health Insurance System-Who Lacks Coverage And Why

    Catherine Hoffman
    First page of article [source]

    Peculiar relics from Primordial Black Holes in the inflationary paradigm

    ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, Issue 3 2004
    A. Barrau
    Abstract Depending on various assumptions on the energy scale of inflation and assuming a primordial power spectrum of a step-like structure, we explore new possibilities for Primordial Black Holes (PBH) and Planck relics to contribute substantially to Cold Dark Matter in the Universe. A recently proposed possibility to produce Planck relics in four-dimensional string gravity is considered in this framework. Possible experimental detection of PBHs through gravitational waves is also explored. We stress that inflation with a low energy scale, and also possibly when Planck relics are produced, leads unavoidably to relics originating from PBHs that are not effectively classical during their formation, rendering the usual formalism inadequate for them. [source]

    Dangerous Holes in Global Environmental Governance: The Roles of Neoliberal Discourse, Science, and California Agriculture in the Montreal Protocol

    ANTIPODE, Issue 1 2008
    Brian J. Gareau
    Abstract:, This paper explores how a relatively successful global environmental treaty, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, is currently undermined by US protectionism. At the "global scale" of environmental governance, powerful nation-states like the US prolong their domination of certain economic sectors with the assistance of neoliberal discourse. Using empirical data gathered while attending Montreal Protocol meetings from 2003 to 2006, I show how US policy undermines the Montreal Protocol's mandate to phase out methyl bromide (MeBr). At the global scale of environmental governance the US uses a discourse of technical and economic infeasibility because, in the current neoliberal milieu, it cannot make a simply protectionist argument. The discourse, in other words, is protectionism by another name. While much of the literature in critical geography on neoliberalism has focused on de-regulation versus re-regulation, this paper illustrates how science, protectionism, and neoliberalism can become articulated uneasily and in sometimes unexpected ways. [source]