Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Americans

  • african american
  • asian american
  • black american
  • central american
  • chinese american
  • european american
  • hispanic american
  • japanese american
  • korean american
  • latin american
  • low-income african american
  • many american
  • mexican american
  • native american
  • north american
  • older african american
  • older american
  • south american
  • white american

  • Terms modified by Americans

  • american academy
  • american adolescent
  • american adult
  • american anthropological association
  • american anthropologist
  • american association
  • american attitude
  • american beech
  • american board
  • american boreal forest
  • american boy
  • american breeding bird survey
  • american cancer society
  • american case
  • american catfish
  • american century
  • american chestnut tree
  • american child
  • american church
  • american citizen
  • american city
  • american civil war
  • american clade
  • american coast
  • american cockroach
  • american cohort
  • american college
  • american college student
  • american colony
  • american community
  • american conference
  • american congress
  • american consumer
  • american continent
  • american counterpart
  • american country
  • american culture
  • american data
  • american democracy
  • american depositary receipt
  • american diabetes association
  • american dream
  • american economic review
  • american economy
  • american education
  • american electorate
  • american empire
  • american english
  • american ethnicity
  • american experience
  • american family
  • american female
  • american firm
  • american foreign policy
  • american foundation
  • american free trade agreement
  • american frontier
  • american government
  • american grave protection
  • american group
  • american groups
  • american heart association
  • american heart association guideline
  • american hegemony
  • american high school student
  • american history
  • american hospital
  • american identity
  • american indian
  • american indian adolescent
  • american indian community
  • american institute
  • american joint committee
  • american journal
  • american life
  • american lineage
  • american literature
  • american male
  • american mammal
  • american man
  • american medical association
  • american medical college
  • american mink
  • american mother
  • american museum
  • american music
  • american nation
  • american national election study
  • american option
  • american origin
  • american parent
  • american participant
  • american patient
  • american people
  • american perspective
  • american policy
  • american political thought
  • american politics
  • american popular culture
  • american population
  • american power
  • american presidents
  • american psychiatric association
  • american psychological association
  • american public
  • american race
  • american range
  • american region
  • american revolution
  • american sample
  • american scholar
  • american school
  • american sign language
  • american site
  • american society
  • american south
  • american southwest
  • american species
  • american states
  • american student
  • american studies
  • american study
  • american subject
  • american taxa
  • american teenager
  • american tegumentary leishmaniasis
  • american toad
  • american type culture collection
  • american university
  • american urological association
  • american value
  • american way
  • american west
  • american woman
  • american worker
  • american writer
  • american youth

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
    Lukas Rüber
    Abstract., The American seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini) are highly diverse both in morphology and ecology with many endemics in the Caribbean region. We have reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of 54 Gobio-somatini taxa (65 individuals) based on a 1646-bp region that includes the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Val, and 16S rRNA genes. Our results support the monophyly of the seven-spined gobies and are in agreement with the existence of two major groups within the tribe, the Gobiosoma group and the Microgobius group. However, they reject the monophyly of some of the Gobiosomatini genera. We use the molecular phylogeny to study the dynamics of speciation in the Gobiosomatini by testing for departures from the constant speciation rate model. We observe a burst of speciation in the early evolutionary history of the group and a subsequent slowdown. Our results show a split among clades into coastal-estuarian, deep ocean, and tropical reef habitats. Major habitat shifts account for the early significant acceleration in lineage splitting and speciation rate and the initial divergence of the main Gobiosomatini clades. We found that subsequent diversification is triggered by behavior and niche specializations at least in the reef-associated clades. Overall, our results confirm that the diversity of Gobiosomatini has arisen during episodes of adaptive radiation, and emphasize the importance of ecology in marine speciation. [source]


    Charles Negy
    Despite the increasing prevalence of interethnic marriages, remarkably little empirical literature exists for guiding clinical interventions offered to these couples. This study compared the marriages of 72 couples with one Mexican-American partner and one non-Hispanic White American partner, 75 Mexican-American couples, and 66 non-Hispanic White couples. Overall, the interethnic couples were more similar to non-Hispanic White couples than they were to Mexican-American couples across multiple domains, with the latter group indicating modestly higher levels of relationship distress. Among interethnic couples, Mexican-American wives' level of acculturation related significantly to both their own marital- and parental-role orientation and to distress in their relationships with children, as well as to their husbands' marital distress regarding child rearing and the couple's interactions regarding finances. Implications for clinical interventions with Mexican- and White-American interethnic couples are discussed. [source]


    Theories of rational addiction posit that certain habit-forming goods,characterized by an increasing marginal utility of consumption,generate predictable dynamic patterns of consumer behavior. It has been suggested that attendance at sporting events represents an example of such a good, as evidenced by the pricing strategies of commercial sports interests. In this essay, we provide new evidence in support of rational addiction for the case of Major League Baseball but fail to find such support in data from the Korean Professional Baseball League. We then review the scientific literature on sports fans from the perspective of human behavioral ecology and propose a theory of endogenous habit formation among sports fans that could explain our findings. (JEL C32, D83, D87, D91, L83) [source]


    Kozo Matsubayashi MD
    First page of article [source]


    Susan M. Denbo

    Business students' perception of corporate social responsibility: the United States, China, and India

    Alan Wong
    Abstract This study used a questionnaire to assess perceptive differences in corporate social responsibility among business students in the United States, China, and India. The study finds that American and Indian respondents attached more importance to the noneconomic aspects of social responsibility than Chinese respondents. Chinese students were more accepting of making facilitating payments to get things moving. Indian respondents placed more emphasis on philanthropy while the US group emphasized legal obligations. In the choice of business goals, there is generally little difference between the three nationality groups. The two main goals selected are taking care of owners' interests and consumers' needs. The study's findings have implications for business school curriculum, public policy, and multinational corporations. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Previous research frequently has observed a positive cross-sectional relationship between racial/ethnic minorities and crime and generally has posited that this relationship is entirely because of the effect of minorities on neighborhood crime rates. This study posits that at least some of this relationship might be a result of the opposite effect,neighborhood crime increases the number of racial/ethnic minorities. This study employs a unique sample (the American Housing Survey neighborhood sample) focusing on housing units nested in microneighborhoods across three waves from 1985 to 1993. This format allows one to test and find that such racial/ethnic transformation occurs because of the following effects: First, White households that perceive more crime in the neighborhood or that live in microneighborhoods with more commonly perceived crime are more likely to move out of such neighborhoods. Second, Whites are significantly less likely to move into a housing unit in a microneighborhood with more commonly perceived crime. And third, African American and Latino households are more likely to move into such units. [source]


    Research Summary: The issue of whether innocent people have been executed is now at the center of the debate concerning the legitimacy of capital punishment. The purpose of this research was to use data collected by the Gallup Organization in 2003 to investigate whether Americans who believed that an innocent person had been executed were less likely to support capital punishment. We also explored whether the association varied by race, given that African Americans are disproportionately affected by the death penalty. Our results indicated that three-quarters of Americans believed that an innocent person had been executed for a crime they did not commit within the last five years and that this belief was associated with lower levels of support for capital punishment, especially among those who thought this sanction was applied unfairly. In addition, our analyses revealed that believing an innocent person had been executed had a stronger association with altering African American than white support for the death penalty. Policy Implications: A key claim of death penalty advocates is that a high proportion of the public supports capital punishment. In this context, scholars opposing this sanction have understood the importance of showing that the public's support for executing offenders is contingent and shallower than portrayed by typical opinion polls. The current research joins this effort by arguing that the prospect of executing innocents potentially impacts public support for the death penalty and, in the least, creates ideological space for a reconsideration of the legitimacy of capital punishment. [source]

    Recombinant History: Transnational Practices of Memory and Knowledge Production in Contemporary Vietnam

    Christina Schwenkel
    Recent years have seen the diversification of knowledge, memory, and meaning at former battlefields and other social spaces that invoke the history of the "American War" in Vietnam. Popular icons of the war have been recycled, reproduced, and consumed in a rapidly growing international tourism industry. The commodification of sites, objects, and imaginaries associated with the war has engendered certain rearticulations of the past in the public sphere as the terrain of memory making becomes increasingly transnational. Diverse actors,including tourism authorities, returning U.S. veterans, international tourists, domestic visitors, and guides,engage in divergent practices of memory that complicate, expand, and often transcend dominant modes of historical representation in new and distinct ways. [source]

    Writing the History of Humanity: The Role of Museums in Defining Origins and Ancestors in a Transnational World

    Monique Scott
    ABSTRACT This article explores the question of how transnational audiences experience anthropology exhibitions in particular, and the natural history museum overall. Of interest are the ways in which natural history museums reconcile anthropological notions of humanity's shared evolutionary history,in particular, African origins accounts,with visitors' complex cultural identities. Through case studies of British, American, and Kenyan museum audiences, this research probed the cultural preconceptions that museum visitors bring to the museum and use to interpret their evolutionary heritage. The research took special notice of audiences of African descent, and their experiences in origins exhibitions and the natural history museums that house them. The article aims to draw connections between natural history museums and the dynamic ways in which museum visitors make meaning. As museums play an increasing role in the transnational homogenization of cultures, human origins exhibitions are increasingly challenged to communicate an evolutionary prehistory that we collectively share, while validating the cultural histories that make us unique. [source]

    Revisiting the Storied Landscape of Language Policy Impact Over Time: A Case of Successful Educational Reform

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 3 2005
    ABSTRACT The many failures of large-scale top-down educational reforms are well documented in the reform literature. These failures are most evident when they are reviewed from the advantageous perspective of hindsight. What are less well documented are the extraordinarily interesting, centrally driven educational changes that have had important and lasting impacts over time, not only because they are rare, but also because they have often occurred outside the mainstream (North American) focus of the reform literature. This article provides a retrospective review of one such educational reform as unique as the tropical island country in which it occurred. Revisiting this storied landscape (Clandinin & Connelly, 1995) provides insight into the process and potential of a systemwide educational reform. [source]

    Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience

    Enrique Amy
    Abstract,,, Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouthguard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases. [source]

    Race and religion: differential prediction of anxiety symptoms by religious coping in African American and European American young adults,

    L. Kevin Chapman Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: Psychosocial factors, including religious coping, consistently have been implicated in the expression of anxiety disorders. This study sought to investigate the relationship between religious coping on anxiety symptoms among a nonclinical sample of African American and European American young adults. Methods: One hundred twenty-one European American and 100 African American young adults completed measures of anxiety and religious coping. Results: As predicted, results differed according to race. African Americans reported significantly more positive religious coping, less negative religious coping, and experienced fewer anxiety symptoms than European Americans. European Americans demonstrated a significant, positive relationship between negative religious coping and anxiety symptoms, and an opposite trend related to anxiety and positive religious coping. However, no such relationships emerged among the African American sample. Conclusions: Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder among African Americans and blacks of Caribbean descent: results from the national survey of American life,

    Joseph A. Himle Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: There is limited research regarding the nature and prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among various racial and ethnic subpopulations within the United States, including African Americans and blacks of Caribbean descent. Although heterogeneity within the black population in the United States has largely been ignored, notable differences exist between blacks of Caribbean descent and African Americans with respect to ethnicity, national heritage, and living circumstances. This is the first comprehensive examination of OCD among African Americans and blacks of Caribbean descent. Methods: Data from the National Survey of American Life, a national household probability sample of African Americans and Caribbean blacks in the United States, were used to examine rates of OCD among these groups. Results: Lifetime and 12-month OCD prevalence estimates were very similar for African Americans and Caribbean blacks. Persistence of OCD and rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders were very high and also similar between African American and Caribbean black respondents. Both groups had high levels of overall mental illness severity and functional impairment. Use of services was low for both groups, particularly in specialty mental health settings. Use of anti-obsessional medications was also rare, especially among the Caribbean black OCD population. Conclusions: OCD among African Americans and Caribbean blacks is very persistent, often accompanied by other psychiatric disorders, and is associated with high overall mental illness severity and functional impairment. It is also likely that very few blacks in the United States with OCD are receiving evidence-based treatment and thus considerable effort is needed to bring treatment to these groups. Depression and Anxiety, 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Psychometric evaluation of a measure of Beck's negative cognitive triad for youth: applications for African,American and Caucasian adolescents

    Leilani Greening
    Abstract A measure of Beck's negative cognitive triad, the Cognitive Triad for Children (CTI-C), was evaluated for its psychometric properties and utility with a community sample of 880 African,American and Caucasian adolescents. High-school students ranging from 14 to 17 years of age completed the CTI-C, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R) on two occasions 4 months apart. The CTI-C was found to be internally consistent, Cronbach's ,=.90, to have acceptable test-retest reliability, r=.70, and concurrent validity as demonstrated by a significant correlation with the CASQ-R, r=.53. A principal factor analysis with promax rotation did not yield support for Beck's tripartite model of negative cognitions about the self, world, and future but rather yielded three factors with a combination of cognitions from all three domains. African American adolescents who reported more maladaptive cognitions on the CTI-C reported fewer depressive symptoms on the CDI 4 months later compared to their Caucasian counterparts, suggesting some limitation to using the CTI-C to predict depressive symptoms in African,American youth; however, Factor 1 derived from a factor analysis with the sample was more consistent in predicting future symptoms among both African,American and Caucasian adolescents. This factor consisted largely of positively worded items, offering some support for low positive affect as a predictor of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Depression and Anxiety 21:161,169, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Morpheaform Basal Cell Carcinoma in African Americans

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12p2 2004
    Uma Nadiminti MD
    Background. Although it has been established that basal cell carcinoma is an uncommon diagnosis in black patients, the morpheaform subtype is very rare among these individuals. Objective. The objective is to present two cases of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma in African-American patients. Methods. This is a case series and a literature review using the Ovid Medline Database. Key words used in the search include "basal cell carcinoma,""African American,""black,""African,""negros,""morpheaform,""sclerosing,""fibrosing," and "scar-like basal cell carcinoma." The Ovid Medline Database was searched from 1966 to present and was restricted to the English language. Results. A review of the Emory Dermatology clinic charts from 1989 to 2004 revealed two black patients with morpheaform basal cell carcinomas. Conclusions. Although extremely rare, morpheaform pattern basal cell carcinoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis for black patients presenting with nonhealing lesions. [source]

    What Determines Cross-Country Access to Antiretroviral Treatment?

    Nicoli Nattrass
    Despite the recent international effort to expand access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developing countries, its coverage still varies significantly from country to country and is strongly correlated with per capita income. However, regional and political variables are also important. Cross-country regressions indicate that, controlling for political and economic characteristics and the scale of the HIV epidemic, Latin American and African countries have better coverage than predicted. Whereas the level of HIV prevalence was a significantly (negative) factor when accounting for HAART coverage in June 2004, this effect had disappeared by December 2004. The improvement appears to have benefited democratic countries in particular. [source]

    Prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2004
    A review of the evidence, its application in a UK setting
    Abstract Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic, multifactorial disease, which affects the quality, quantity and style of life. People with T2DM have a life expectancy that can be shortened by as much as 15 years, with up to 75% dying of macrovascular complications. To reduce the impact of T2DM in the 21st century, we need an approach that not only optimally treats the person with established diabetes but also prevents diabetes from occurring in the first place. The best evidence for prevention of diabetes is for interventions that target individuals at highest risk. Targeting patients who have impaired glucose tolerance with lifestyle changes including physical activity and dietary factors has been shown to be effective in the Chinese, North American and Finnish populations. In order for such lifestyle interventions to be successful in other populations, they need to be culturally sensitive, individualized and sustained. Some pharmacological agents including metformin and acarbose have also been shown to be effective, although the profile of those who respond is different. There continues to be a need to develop and evaluate interventions that target communities and populations at risk in a UK setting. Diabet. Med. (2004) [source]

    A review of the epidemiological transition in dementia , cross-national comparisons of the indices related to Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    Guk-Hee Suh
    Objective: To examine temporal changes in the prevalence of dementia and associated factors. Method: All publications on the epidemiology of dementia were identified using a medline search for the years 1966,1999. Results: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become nearly twice as prevalent as vascular dementia (VaD) in Korea, Japan, and China since transition in early 1990s. Prior to this, in the 1980s, VaD was more prevalent than AD in these countries. In Nigeria, the prevalence of dementia was low. Indian studies were contradictory, with both AD and VaD being more prevalent in different studies. American and European studies consistently reported AD to be more prevalent than VaD. Conclusion: A theoretical model of transition from low incidence,high mortality society to high incidence,high mortality society to low incidence,low mortality society may explain these findings. Rigorous testing in prospective, longitudinal and population-based cross-national studies using culture-fair diagnostic instruments is required. [source]

    The Impact of a Concurrent Trauma Alert Evaluation on Time to Head Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspected Stroke

    Esther H. Chen MD
    Background: Emergency department (ED) overcrowding threatens quality of care by delaying the time to diagnosis and treatment of patients with time-sensitive diseases, such as acute stroke. Objective: The authors hypothesized that the presence of a trauma alert evaluation would impede the time to head computed tomography (hCT) in patients with stroke-like symptoms. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data on patients with potential stroke who received an hCT in an urban trauma center ED from January 1, 2004, to November 30, 2004. Structured data collection included historical and examination items, National Institutes of Health (NIH) stroke scale score, laboratory and radiographic results, and final diagnosis. Admitted patients were followed in hospital. Patients who presented within one hour following a trauma evaluation were compared with patients who presented without concurrent trauma for triage time until completion of hCT. Chi-square, t-tests, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used for comparisons. Results: The 171 patients enrolled had a mean (± standard deviation) age of 60.7 (± 7) years; 60% were female; and 58% were African American. Of these, 72 patients had a significant cerebrovascular event (38 [22%] ischemic stroke, 25 [15%] transient ischemic attack, seven [4%] intracranial hemorrhage, one [0.6%] subarachnoid hemorrhage, and one [0.6%] subdural hematoma). The remaining diagnoses included 4.6% migraine, 2.3% seizure, 2.9% syncope, 2.3% Bell's palsy, and 2.9% vertigo. There was no significant difference in time to hCT in patients who presented during a trauma activation and those who did not (99 minutes [interquartile range (IQR) = 24,156] vs. 101 minutes [IQR = 43,151.5]; p = 0.537). In subgroup analysis of patients with a significant cerebrovascular event, times to hCT were also similar (24 minutes [IQR = 12,99] vs. 61 minutes [IQR = 15,126]; p = 0.26). Conclusions: In the authors' institution, the presence of concurrent trauma evaluation does not delay CT imaging of patients with potential stroke. [source]

    How Lutherans Read the Bible: A North American and Global Conversation

    DIALOG, Issue 1 2006
    By Dennis T. Olson
    Abstract:, Recent debates and conflicts over the interpretation of the Bible among Lutherans both in the U.S. and in other parts of the world impel us to consider our history in a Lutheran tradition, our present challenges, and an agenda for future directions. This introductory essay briefly introduces some of the distinctive Lutheran emphases in the use of Scripture, provides an overview of the other essays in this issue of Dialog which are largely focused on the North American context, and then offers a sample of what two Lutheran scholars in places other than the U.S. are thinking about their experiences as Lutherans using the Bible in places like Malaysia and Argentina. [source]

    Treatment of achalasia: lessons learned with Chagas' disease

    F. A. M. Herbella
    SUMMARY., Chagas' disease (CD) is highly prevalent in South America. Brazilian surgeons and gastroenterologists gained valuable experience in the treatment of CD esophagopathy (chagasic achalasia) due to the high number of cases treated. The authors reviewed the lessons learned with the treatment of achalasia by different centers experienced in the treatment of Chagas' disease. Preoperative evaluation, endoscopic treatment (forceful dilatation and botulinum toxin injection), Heller's myotomy, esophagectomy, conservative techniques other than myotomy, and reoperations are discussed in the light of personal experiences and review of International and Brazilian literature. Aspects not frequently adopted by North American and European surgeons are emphasized. The review shows that nonadvanced achalasia is frequently treated by Heller's myotomy. Endoscopic treatment is reserved to limited cases. Treatment for end-stage achalasia is not unanimous. Esophagectomy was a popular treatment in advanced disease; however, the morbidity/mortality associated to the procedure made some authors seek different alternatives, such as Heller's myotomy and cardioplasties. Minimally invasive approach to esophageal resection may change this concept, although few centers perform the procedure routinely. [source]

    Subjective social status affects smoking abstinence during acute withdrawal through affective mediators

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
    Lorraine R. Reitzel
    ABSTRACT Objectives Direct and mediated associations between subjective social status (SSS), a subjective measure of socio-economic status, and smoking abstinence were examined during the period of acute withdrawal among a diverse sample of 421 smokers (33% Caucasian, 34% African American, 33% Latino) undergoing a quit attempt. Methods Logistic regressions examined relations between SSS and abstinence, controlling for socio-demographic variables. Depression, stress, positive affect and negative affect on the quit day were examined as potential affective mediators of the SSS-abstinence association, with and without adjusting for pre-quit mediator scores. Results SSS predicted abstinence to 2 weeks post-quit. Abstinence rates were 2.6 (postquit week 1) and 2.4 (postquit week 2) times higher in the highest versus the lowest SSS quartile. Depression and positive affect mediated the SSS,abstinence relationships, but only depression maintained significance when adjusting for the baseline mediator score. Conclusions Among a diverse sample of quitting smokers, low SSS predicted relapse during acute withdrawal after controlling for numerous covariates, an effect accounted for partially by quit day affective symptomatology. Smokers endorsing lower SSS face significant hurdles in achieving cessation, highlighting the need for targeted interventions encompassing attention to quit day mood reactivity. [source]

    The added risk of opioid problem use among treatment-seeking youth with marijuana and/or alcohol problem use

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Geetha A. Subramaniam
    Abstract Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Methods A total of 475 youth (ages 14,21 years) with OPU + MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e. no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment-funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity; higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle use and sex-related HIV risk behaviours; and greater physical distress. The OPU + MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be aged 15,17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and polydrug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand upon the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. [source]

    Listing BRICs: Stock Issuers from Brazil, Russia, India, and China in New York, London, and Luxembourg

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Dariusz Wójcik
    abstract In the past decade, hundreds of companies from emerging markets have listed their shares on American and European stock markets. Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) are the main countries of origin of issuers, and stock exchanges in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Luxembourg are the main destinations involved in the process. We use a comprehensive data set for these home and host markets for the end of 2008 to explore the intensity of foreign listings, the subnational geography of cross-listed firms, and the destinations of foreign listings. Cross-listing firms tend to be relatively large and come from capital-intensive, export-oriented, and high-growth sectors. Trading links with and industrial specialization of the host markets affect the choice of destination markets. These patterns, however, are not universal across countries. There is a high concentration of cross-listed firms in the leading financial centers of the BRIC countries, particularly in Russia and Brazil. Firms outside of the leading centers rarely cross-list, and when they do, they enter second-tier host markets. While BRIC countries have a large potential for further foreign listings, the process remains politically sensitive. Our results highlight the shortcomings of the literature on cross-listing in economics and the significance of the cross-listing phenomenon to future research in financial geographies. [source]

    Progression through early drinking milestones in an adolescent treatment sample

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Kristina M. Jackson
    ABSTRACT Aims Research using nationally representative and community samples demonstrates a robust association between early onset of drinking and increased likelihood of numerous adverse outcomes. However, little is known about the subsequent drinking that occurs early in the drinking career. The present study dissects the transition from any alcohol use to treatment entry by taking a fine-grained approach to examining the attainment and progression of drinking events in a sample of adolescents in substance use treatment. Design/Setting Data were taken from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study for Adolescents (DATOS-A), a multi-site, community-based study of adolescents entering treatment. Participants Respondents included 3331 youth aged 12,18 years (mean = 15.75) admitted to treatment in 1993,95 (74% male, 52% white, 24% African American, 20% Hispanic). Measurements Age of attainment was obtained for five drinking-related milestones, including first drink of alcohol, first time drunk, first monthly drinking, first drank five or more drinks/day on a weekly basis and first drank five or more drinks/day on a daily basis. Findings Most milestones were attained at a very early age, and average progression through adjacent drinking events was relatively swift, Movement through early drinking milestones was accelerated in girls and white youth. Youth who reported their first drink at an early age (age 10 or younger) showed slower progression, suggesting the existence of distinct processes underlying early use and drinking transitions within an individual. Conclusions This study provides data relevant to understanding drinking progression/natural history in a large clinical sample, especially for differences by gender and ethnicity. The findings have implications for the identification of intermediate stages that might benefit from selected intervention programs. [source]

    Progress and poverty in early modern Europe

    Robert C. Allen
    An econometric model of economic development is estimated with data from leading European countries between 1300 and 1800. The model explores the impact of population, enclosure, empire, representative government, technology, and literacy on urbanization, agricultural productivity, proto-industry, and the real wage. Simulations show that the main factors leading to economic success in north-western Europe were the growth of American and Asian commerce and, especially, the innovations underlying the export of the new draperies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The enclosure of the open fields, representative government, and the spread of literacy did not play major roles. [source]

    Motivation and patch treatment for HIV+ smokers: a randomized controlled trial

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
    Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson
    ABSTRACT Aims To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in a HIV positive (HIV+) sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV+ smoker referrals from eight immunology clinics in the northeastern United States. Participants A total of 444 participants enrolled in the study (mean age = 42.07 years; 63.28% male; 51.80% European American; mean cigarettes/day = 18.27). Interventions SC participants received two brief sessions with a health educator. Those setting a quit date received self-help quitting materials and NRT. ME participants received four sessions of motivational counseling and a quit-day counseling call. All ME intervention materials were tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals. Measurements Biochemically verified 7-day abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups. Findings Intent-to-treat (ITT) abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month and 6-month follow-ups were 12%, 9% and 9%, respectively, in the ME condition, and 13%, 10% and 10%, respectively, in the SC condition, indicating no between-group differences. Among 412 participants with treatment utilization data, 6-month ITT abstinence rates were associated positively with low nicotine dependence (P = 0.02), high motivation to quit (P = 0.04) and Hispanic American race/ethnicity (P = 0.02). Adjusting for these variables, each additional NRT contact improved the odds of smoking abstinence by a third (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.99,1.75). Conclusions Motivationally enhanced treatment plus NRT did not improve cessation rates over and above standard care treatment plus NRT in this HIV+ sample of smokers. Providers offering brief support and encouraging use of nicotine replacement may be able to help HIV+ patients to quit smoking. [source]

    Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    ABSTRACT Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version IV (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004,2005 (wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34 653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% white, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian and 2% Native American. Findings Approximately 2% of the population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one life-time same-sex sexual partner and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines the reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for more effective prevention and intervention efforts that target subgroups at greatest risk. [source]

    Emergency Department Pelvic Examination and Pap Testing: Addressing Patient Misperceptions

    Michael S. Lyons MD
    Objectives: Failure to obtain cervical cancer screening can be precipitated by limited knowledge. This study describes understanding of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear testing among women undergoing emergency department (ED) pelvic examination and tests the feasibility of educating patients in the ED. Methods: Patients undergoing pelvic examination in an urban, tertiary care ED were surveyed about Pap smear screening. Among the initial cohort, no education was provided prior to survey administration. Subsequently, a pilot study of scripted information provided by physicians alone or both physicians and counselors was conducted. Results: There were 81 patients in the non-intervention cohort and 32 patients in the intervention cohort. Of the 32 intervention patients, 16 received physician-administered intervention, and 16 received reinforced counseling (physician + counselor). Of 113 total patients, 90 (82%) were African American; mean age was 26 years (SD ± 7.7 years). Of the 81 non-intervention patients, six (7%; 95% CI = 3% to 15%) said they were told that a Pap test was not done, and 60 (74%; 95% CI = 64% to 82%) mistakenly believed they had a Pap test. Sixty-six (81.5%; 95% CI = 72% to 88%) patients stated they knew the purpose of a Pap test; only 17 (26%; 95% CI = 17% to 37%) of these correctly identified the Pap test as a test for cervical cancer. All 32 intervention patients were surveyed after physician counseling. Compared with the non-intervention group, fewer (56%; 95% CI = 39% to 72%) thought they had a Pap test, and more (31%; 95% CI = 18% to 49%) said they were told they did not receive a Pap test. All 16 reinforced intervention patients correctly denied receiving a Pap test after counselor education. Conclusions: Knowledge of Pap testing among women undergoing ED pelvic examination is poor; most mistakenly believe they receive a Pap test during ED evaluation. Educating patients may be feasible and effective in the ED setting. [source]