High Telomerase Activity (high + telomerase_activity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Telomerase activity in small cell esophageal carcinoma

V. Chow
Small cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor. Telomerase activation is common in human cancers. There is a lack of data on telomerase activity in esophageal small cell cancers. The present report studied the role of telomerase activity in esophageal small cell carcinoma. The clinicopathologic data of five patients with small cell carcinoma of the esophagus who underwent primary surgical treatment between 1991 and 2000 were studied. Telomeric repeat amplification protocol assays were used to investigate telomerase activity in these tumors. The proliferative activity (MIB-1) and p53 expression of these tumors were also studied using immunohistochemistry and correlated with the telomerase activity. All five small cell carcinomas showed detectable telomerase activity in the primary tumor. Two out of the five morphologically normal esophageal mucosae adjacent to the primary tumor had detectable telomerase activity. There was no correlation between the p53 expression, tumor stage, survival of patients, and the presence of telomerase activity. High MIB-1 expression in esophageal small cell carcinomas was associated with high telomerase activity. Telomerase activation is common in small cell carcinoma of the esophagus. This fact may find application in anti-telomerase treatment for this aggressive tumor. [source]

Characterization and multilineage differentiation of embryonic stem cells derived from a buffalo parthenogenetic embryo

Hathaitip Sritanaudomchai
Abstract Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from mammalian embryos have the ability to form any terminally differentiated cell of the body. We herein describe production of parthenogenetic buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) blastocysts and subsequent isolation of an ES cell line. Established parthenogenetic ES (PGES) cells exhibited diploid karyotype and high telomerase activity. PGES cells showed remarkable long-term proliferative capacity providing the possibility for unlimited expansion in culture. Furthermore, these cells expressed key ES cell-specific markers defined for primate species including stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), tumor rejection antigen-1-81 (TRA-1-81), and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4). In vitro, in the absence of a feeder layer, cells readily formed embryoid bodies (EBs). When cultured for an extended period of time, EBs spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as detected by PCR for ectodermal (nestin, oligodendrocytes, and tubulin), mesodermal (scleraxis, ,- skeletal actin, collagen II, and osteocalcin) and endodermal markers (insulin and ,- fetoprotein). Differentiation of PGES cells toward chondrocyte lineage was directed by supplementing serum-containing media with ascorbic acid, ,-glycerophosphate, and dexamethasone. Moreover, when PGES cells were injected into nude mice, teratomas with derivatives representing all three embryonic germ layers were produced. Our results suggest that the cell line isolated from a parthenogenetic blastocyst holds properties of ES cells, and can be used as an in vitro model to study the effects of imprinting on cell differentiation and as an a invaluable material for extensive molecular studies on imprinted genes. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 74: 1295,1302, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

PAX5 activates the transcription of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene in B cells,

Stéphanie Bougel
Abstract Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes telomeric DNA. Its activity is not detectable in most somatic cells but it is reactivated during tumorigenesis. In most cancers, the combination of hTERT hypermethylation and hypomethylation of a short promoter region is permissive for low-level hTERT transcription. Activated and malignant lymphocytes express high telomerase activity, through a mechanism that seems methylation-independent. The aim of this study was to determine which mechanism is involved in the enhanced expression of hTERT in lymphoid cells. Our data confirm that in B cells, some T cell lymphomas and non-neoplastic lymph nodes, the hTERT promoter is unmethylated. Binding sites for the B cell-specific transcription factor PAX5 were identified downstream of the ATG translational start site through EMSA and ChIP experiments. ChIP assays indicated that the transcriptional activation of hTERT by PAX5 does not involve repression of CTCF binding. In a B cell lymphoma cell line, siRNA-induced knockdown of PAX5 expression repressed hTERT transcription. Moreover, ectopic expression of PAX5 in a telomerase-negative normal fibroblast cell line was found to be sufficient to activate hTERT expression. These data show that activation of hTERT in telomerase-positive B cells is due to a methylation-independent mechanism in which PAX5 plays an important role. Copyright © 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Amelioration of experimental arthritis by a telomerase-dependent conditionally replicating adenovirus that targets synovial fibroblasts

Shih-Yao Chen
Objective Synovial fibroblasts (SFs) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It has been documented that the phenotype of rheumatoid synovium is similar, in many respects, to that of an aggressive tumor. In this study, a novel, genetically engineered adenovirus was designed to lyse SFs that exhibit high telomerase activity and p53 mutations, and its effects as a novel therapeutic strategy were assessed in an experimental arthritis model. Methods An E1B,55-kd,deleted adenovirus driven by the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter was constructed (designated Ad.GS1). Cytolysis of SFs and productive replication of Ad.GS1 in the SFs of rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), as well as the SFs of patients with RA (RASFs), were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Treatment responses, as well as the presence of disease-related cytokines and enzymes in the ankle joints, were determined in the murine model. Results Ad.GS1 replicated in and induced cytolysis of human RASFs and SFs from arthritic rats, but spared normal fibroblasts. Bioluminescence imaging in vivo also demonstrated replication of Ad.GS1 in arthritic rat joints, but not in normal rat joints. Intraarticular administration of Ad.GS1 significantly reduced the ankle circumference, articular index scores, radiographic scores, and histologic scores and decreased the production of interleukin-1,, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase in rats with CIA compared with their control counterparts. Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate the amelioration of arthritic symptoms by a novel, telomerase-dependent adenovirus in the rat CIA model, an experimental model that resembles human RA. In addition, the results suggest that because of its ability to induce cytolysis of SFs, this virus may be further explored as a therapeutic agent in patients with RA. [source]