High Susceptibility (high + susceptibility)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Relationships between cholinergic phenotype and acetyl-CoA level in hybrid murine neuroblastoma cells of septal origin

Hanna Bielarczyk
Abstract High susceptibility of cholinergic neurons to neurotoxic signals may result from their utilization of acetyl-CoA for both energy production and acetylcholine synthesis. SN56 cholinergic cells were transfected stably with cDNA for choline acetyltransferase. Transfected cells (SN56ChAT2) expressed choline acetyltransferase activity and acetylcholine content, 17 times and 2 times higher, respectively, than did nontransfected cells. Transfection did not change pyruvate dehydrogenase but decreased the acetyl-CoA level by 62%. Differentiation by cAMP and retinoic acid caused an increase of choline acetyltransferase activity and decrease of acetyl-CoA levels in both cell lines. Negative correlation was found between choline acetyltransferase activity and acetyl-CoA level in these cells. SN56ChAT2 cells were more susceptible to excess NO than were native SN56 cells, as evidenced by the thiazolyl blue reduction assay. Thus, the sensitivity of cholinergic neurons to pathologic conditions may depend on the cholinergic phenotype-dependent availability of acetyl-CoA. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Susceptibility of a Northern Hardwood Forest to Exotic Earthworm Invasion

Acer saccharum; Bosque Nacional Ottawa; lombrices invasoras; Sylvania Wilderness Area; uso del suelo Abstract:,Numerous exotic earthworm species are colonizing northern hardwood forests of North America, where no native earthworms exist. Upon invasion, earthworms have been shown to alter the surface soil environment and plant populations and communities. We sought to identify land-use factors in the Ottawa National Forest (ONF), Michigan (U.S.A.), that contribute to earthworm invasion in forest dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) so that the susceptibility to additional colonization could be evaluated. We sampled earthworm communities in Sylvania Wilderness Area, a unique old-growth hardwood forest, and nonwilderness sites influenced by recreational fishing, recent timber harvesting, or roads. All the nonwilderness sites contained one to five species of exotic earthworms. In contrast, only 50% of wilderness sites contained exotic earthworms, all of a single species. Nonwilderness sites also had thinner litter and duff layers, higher soil C and N content, and higher nitrogen mineralization potentials than Sylvania sites. Two central differences between Sylvania and nonwilderness sites were that all nonwilderness sites were in close contact with roads and had a history of timber harvest, whereas these factors were not present in Sylvania Wilderness Area. Using average rates of colonization, we constructed two geographic information system models to estimate the percentage of sugar maple on the ONF falling within a theoretical 100-year invasion distance of roads and of second-growth sugar maple as relative indices of susceptibility to invasion. Both models indicated high susceptibility to invasion, with 91.7% and 98.9% of sugar maple habitat falling within a theoretical 100-year invasion distance of roads or historical harvests, respectively. Resumen:,Numerosas especies de lombrices exóticas están colonizando los bosques boreales, en los que previamente no existían lombrices terrestres nativas. Por encima de la invasión, se ha demostrado que las lombrices alteran el ambiente superficial del suelo, así como a las comunidades y poblaciones de plantas. Tratamos de identificar factores de uso del suelo en el Bosque Nacional Ottawa (BNO), Michigan, E. U. A., que contribuyen a la invasión de lombrices en bosques dominados por arces (Acer saccharum Marsh.), para poder evaluar la susceptibilidad a futuras invasiones. Muestreamos comunidades de lombrices en Sylvania Wilderness Area, un bosque maduro único, y en sitios no silvestres influenciados por pesca deportiva, cosecha reciente de madera o caminos. Todas las áreas no silvestres contenían 1 - 5 especies de lombrices exóticas. En contraste, solo 50% de los sitios silvestres contenían lombrices exóticas, todas de una sola especie. Los sitios no silvestres también tenían capas de hojarasca y de mantillo más delgadas, mayor contenido de C y N del suelo y mayor potencial de mineralización del nitrógeno que los sitios en Sylvania. Dos diferencias centrales entre Sylvania y los sitios no silvestres fueron que estos estaban en contacto cercano con caminos y tenían una historia de cosecha de madera, mientras que estos factores no estuvieron presentes en Sylvania Wilderness Area. Utilizando tasas promedio de colonización, construimos dos modelos de sistemas de información geográfica para estimar el porcentaje de arces en el BNO que queda a una distancia teórica de invasión en 100 años; con caminos y arce de crecimiento secundario como índices relativos de susceptibilidad a la invasión. Ambos modelos indicaron alta susceptibilidad a la invasión, con 91.7% y 98.9% del hábitat de arce dentro de la distancia teórica de invasión en 100 años o con cosechas históricas, respectivamente. [source]

Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases T1, M1 and P1 and susceptibility to reflux esophagitis

B. Liu
SUMMARY., Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of reflux esophagitis (RE) in China is increasing. RE is one of the most common esophageal complications associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and RE-Barrett's esophagus-esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) sequence has been considered as an histogenesis model for EAC in Western countries. RE is only present in a subset of patients with GERD, suggesting an altered susceptibility to RE may exist in these GERD individuals. However, the genetic changes related with high susceptibility to RE is largely unknown. The polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) T1, M1 and P1 have been reported with high susceptibity to esophageal cancer in Chinese people. The present case-control study was thus undertaken to characterize the genetic polymorphisms of GSTs and their correlation with susceptibility to RE. One hundred and nine patients with RE, 97 patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and 97 normal controls were recruited in this study. All the subjects were from Beijing, China, and received endoscopic examination and questionnaires for RE. Genomic DNA was extracted from the lymphocytes of peripheral blood for each subject. Genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed by a multiplex PCR method. A,G polymorphism of codon 104 of the GSTP1 gene was detected using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The variant GSTP1 genotypes (*A/*B,*B/*B) was found with a high frequency in the case with RE (40%), and followed by NERD (25%) and normal control (22%). The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The risk for RE increased 2.42-fold [odds ratio (OR); 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.42 (1.22,4.80)] in the subjects with variant GSTP1 genotype. The subjects with positive variant GSTP1 genotypes and negative H. pylori infection showed increasing tendency for risk of RE [OR (95% CI), 2.67 (1.06,6.70)]. However, the subjects with GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms did not show any correlation with high risk for RE or NERD. No significant interactions were identified between the variant GSTs and cigarette smoking, or alcohol drinking and subtype of RE. The present result suggests that GSTP1 genetic polymorphism may be one of the high susceptibility factors involved in the mechanisms of RE. H. pylori infection may play a protective role against RE. [source]

Antioxidant and inflammatory responses of healthy horses and horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction to inhaled ozone

Summary Reasons for performing study: Inhaled ozone can induce oxidative injury and airway inflammation. Horses affected by recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) have a decreased pulmonary antioxidant capacity, which may render them more susceptible to oxidative challenge. It is currently unknown whether RAO-affected horses are more susceptible to oxidative stress than those unaffected by RAO. Objectives: To determine whether ozone exposure induces greater oxidative stress and airway inflammation in RAO-affected horses in remission than in healthy horses. Methods: Seven healthy control horses and 7 RAO-affected horses were exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone for 2 h at rest. Results: At baseline, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) ascorbic acid concentrations were lower in RAO-affected horses than healthy controls. Ozone appeared to preferentially oxidise glutathione rather than ascorbic acid 6 h after exposure. Individual healthy and RAO-affected horses demonstrated oxidation of BALF glutathione after ozone exposure. Overall, RAO-affected horses did not demonstrate increased oxidative stress following ozone exposure, compared with healthy horses. Ozone did not induce significant airway inflammation in either group. Conclusions: RAO-affected horses in remission are not more sensitive to ozone despite a decreased pulmonary antioxidant capacity. Sensitivity to ozone appears to be independent of initial pulmonary antioxidant status. Potential relevance: Horses with high susceptibility to oxidative stress may benefit from antioxidant supplementation. [source]

Proliferation and interleukin,5 production by CD8hiCD57+ T cells


Abstract CD8hiCD57+ T cells have previously been described as effector memory T cells with minimal expansion capacity and high susceptibility to activation-induced cell death. In contrast, we demonstrate here that CD8hiCD57+ T cells are capable of rapid expansion using multiple techniques including [3H]thymidine uptake, flow cytometric bead-based enumeration and standard haemocytometer counting. Previous reports can be explained by marked inhibition of activation-induced expansion and increased 7-amino-actinomycin,D uptake by CD8hiCD57+ T cells following treatment with CFSE, a dye previously used to measure their proliferation, combined with specific media requirements for the growth of this cell subset. The ability of CD8hiCD57+ T cells to further differentiate is highlighted by a distinct cytokine profile late after activation that includes the unexpected release of high levels of interleukin,5. These data indicate that CD8hiCD57+ T cells should not be considered as "end-stage" effector T cells incapable of proliferation, but represent a highly differentiated subset capable of rapid division and exhibiting novel functions separate from their previously described cytotoxic and IFN-, responses. [source]

Seed roasting improves the oxidative stability of canola (B.,napus) and mustard (B.,juncea) seed oils

Chakra Wijesundera
Abstract Animal fats and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO) have preferentially been used for deep-frying of food because of their relatively high oxidative stability compared to natural vegetable oils. However, animal fats and PHVO are abundant sources of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids, respectively, both of which are detrimental to human health. Canola (Brassica napus) is the primary oilseed crop currently grown in Australia. Canola quality Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is also being developed for cultivation in hot and low-rainfall areas of the country where canola does not perform well. A major impediment to using these oils for deep-frying is their relatively high susceptibility to oxidation, and so any processing interventions that would improve the oxidative stability would increase their prospects of use in commercial deep-frying. The oxidative stability of both B.,napus and B.,juncea crude oils can be improved dramatically by roasting the seeds (165,°C, 5,min) prior to oil extraction. Roasting did not alter the fatty acid composition or the tocopherol content of the oils. The enhanced oxidative stability of the oil, solvent-extracted from roasted seeds, is probably due to 2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinylphenol produced by thermal decarboxylation of the sinapic acid naturally occurring in the canola seed. [source]

Chromodomain helicase/adenosine triphosphatase DNA binding protein 1,like (CHD1l) gene suppresses the nucleus-to-mitochondria translocation of nur77 to sustain hepatocellular carcinoma cell survival,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Leilei Chen
Amplification of 1q21 has been detected in 58% to 78% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma cases, suggesting that one or more oncogenes within the amplicon play a critical role in the development of this disease. The chromodomain helicase/adenosine triphosphatase DNA binding protein 1,like gene (CHD1L) is a recently identified oncogene localized at 1q21. Our previous studies have demonstrated that CHD1L has strong tumorigenic ability and confers high susceptibility to spontaneous tumors in a CHD1L -transgenic mouse model. In this study, we demonstrate that the antiapoptotic ability of CHD1L is associated with its interaction with Nur77, a critical member of a p53-independent apoptotic pathway. As the first cellular protein identified to bind Nur77, CHD1L is able to inhibit the nucleus-to-mitochondria translocation of Nur77, which is the key step of Nur77-mediated apoptosis, resulting in the hindrance of the release of cytochrome c and the initiation of apoptosis. Knock-down of CHD1L expression by RNA interference could rescue the mitochondrial targeting of Nur77 and the subsequent apoptosis. Further studies found that the C-terminal Macro domain of CHD1L is responsible for the interaction with Nur77, and a CHD1L mutant lacking residues 600-897 failed to interact with Nur77 and prevented Nur77-mediated apoptosis. More importantly, we found that the inhibition of Nur77-mediated apoptosis by endogenous CHD1L is a critical biological cellular process in hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion: We demonstrate in this study that overexpression of CHD1L could sustain tumor cell survival by preventing Nur77-mediated apoptosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

A recombined haplotype in the major histocompatibility region contains a cluster of genes conferring high susceptibility to ulcerative colitis in the Spanish population

Laura Fernández PhD
Abstract Background: The most consistently described associations in ulcerative colitis (UC) have been with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles. Our aim was to look for associations among distinct genetic polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that might play a role in determining the susceptibility to UC and especially to the extensive form of the disease. Methods: A case-control study was performed with a total of 253 patients with UC and 315 healthy controls recruited from a single Spanish center. All the samples and 4 cell lines carrying DRB1*0103 or DRB1*1501 alleles were typed for the HLA-DRB1 class II gene and for a panel of HLA class III markers (D6S273, BAT_2, TNFa, b, c, d, e, IKBL+738, MICA). Results: The frequency of the alleles DRB1*0103, IKBL+738(C) (extending our previous results) and BAT_2-8 (newly typed) was increased in patients compared with controls (P = 0.00001, odds ratio [OR] = 5.90; P = 0.002, OR = 2.42; and P = 0.0001, OR = 3.04, respectively), and these associations were greatest in patients with extensive disease compared with patients with distal disease (P = 0.02, OR = 2.53; P = 0.002, OR = 3.06; and P = 0.03, OR = 2.08, respectively). The allelic combination DRB1*0103/D6S273-5/BAT_2-8/TNFa11b4c1d3e3/IKBL+738(C)/MICA5.1 that includes the telomeric class III markers of the 7.1 ancestral haplotype is highly increased in patients with UC (P = 0.0001, OR = 10.57), especially in those with the extensive form of the disease (P = 0.02, OR = 3.41 extensive versus distal). Conclusions: The above-mentioned pattern, most likely formed by recombination of the telomeric fragment of the MHC 7.1 ancestral haplotype, seems to be the most important genetic determinant of susceptibility to the extensive form of UC in our population. [source]

The umbric epipedon in the N Apennines, Italy,an example from the Vallombrosa Forest

Guido Sanesi
Abstract The umbric epipedon is a diagnostic surface horizon recognized by both the World Reference Base for Soil Resources and the U.S. Soil Taxonomy. It is mainly characterized by a dark color, a moderate to high content of OM, and a base saturation of less than 50%. In the N Apennines, Central Italy, forest soils over 600,700 m a.s.l. often have this epipedon. This paper stresses the morphological, chemical, and biological properties of the epipedon, specifically in the Vallombrosa Forest, where considerable work has been done in the last decade. Here, the umbric epipedon forms on sandstone, in high forests of Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, and Castanea sativa. It does not have homogeneous properties throughout its thickness and often is divided into two distinct genetic horizons, A1 and A2. The A1 horizon is thinner, darker, and richer in OM, more base-saturated, and biologically more active than the underlying A2 horizon. The mean residence time of the bulk OM amounts to about a century in the A1 horizon, versus half a millennium in the A2. In both A1 and A2 horizons, the non-humic fraction prevails in the OM; this could account for the high susceptibility of the umbric epipedon to degrade when the forest is clear-cut or undergoes extensive uprooting due to windstorms or heavy snow loads. Significant discrepancies between the two A horizons have been found in regard to the microbial community. Umbric epipedons which developed under different tree species show minor differences, mainly concerning the microbial community. [source]

Corrosion of Dental Magnet Attachments for Removable Prostheses on Teeth and Implants

Arne F. Boeckler DMD, Dr Med Dent
Abstract Purpose: For a long time, the use of magnets for the anchorage of dental prostheses failed due to lack of biocompatibility and the magnets' high susceptibility to corrosion in the mouth. These facts make encapsulation of the magnetic alloy with a corrosion-resistant, tight, and functionally firm sealing necessary. Due to different products and analysis methods, it is not feasible to compare the findings for contemporary products with the sparse and rather old test results in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this study was the standardized control and the comparison of the corrosion behavior of modern magnetic attachments for use on teeth and dental implants. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven components of magnetic attachments on implants and natural teeth from different alloys (NdFeB, SmCo, Ti, CrMoMnTiFe, etc.) as delivered by the manufacturers or fabricated according to their instructions were examined for their corrosion behavior using the statical immersion analysis (ISO 10271:2001). Four specimens of every product with the same design were used. An uncased SmCo magnet served as control. Analyses after 1, 4, 7, and 28 days of the storage in corrosion solution were made. The eluate was examined quantitatively on the alloy components of the respective component with the help of optical emission spectrometry (,g/cm2). The results were compared to the requirements of ISO standard 22674:2006. In addition, existing corrosion products were also defined in the solution after 28 days. The results were analyzed descriptively and statistically to determine possible significant differences (t -test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon rank-sums test; p < 0.05). Results: Dissolved metal ions could be found on all tested products. The release after 1 and 4 days was different for all specimens. In the group of implant abutments, the highest ion release after 7 days was found (all measurements ,g/cm2): Fe (13.94, Magfit-IP-IDN dome type), Pd (1.53, Medical-anchor), Cr (1.32, Magfit-IP-IDN dome type), Ti (1.09, Magfit-IP-IDN abutment), Co (0.81, Medical-anchor), and B (0.6, Magfit-IP-IDN dome type). After 28 days, the analyzed ion release increased irregularly: Fe (173.58, Magfit-IP-IDN dome type), Pd (44.17, Medical-anchor), Cr (2.02, Magfit-IP-IDN dome type), Ti (2.11, Magfit-IP-IDN abutment), Co (26.13, Medical-anchor), B (1.77, Magfit-IP-IDN dome type), and Nd (79.18, Magfit-IP-IDN dome type). In the group of magnetic systems on natural teeth, the highest ion release after 7 days was found for Fe (4.81, Magfit DX 800 keeper), Cr (1.18, Magfit DX 800 keeper), Pd (0.21, Direct System Keeper), Ni (0.18, WR-Magnet S3 small), Co (0.12, Direct System Keeper), and Ti (0.09, Magna Cap , Mini). After 28 days, the analyzed ion release increased non-uniformly: Fe (31.92, Magfit DX 800 Keeper), Cr (6.65, Magfit DX 800 Keeper), Pd (18.19, Direct System Keeper), Ni (0.61, WR-Magnet S3 small), Co (10.94, Direct System Keeper), Ti (0.83, Magna Cap , Mini), and Pd (2.78, EFM Alloy). In contrast, the uncased control magnet showed an exponential release after 7 days of Sm ions (55.06) and Co-ions (86.83), after 28 days of Sm ions (603.91) and Co ions (950.56). The release of corrosion products of all tested products stayed significantly under the limit of 200 ,g/cm2 (ISO 22674:2006). In contrast, the non-encapsulated control magnet exceeded that limit significantly. Conclusion: The analysis of the corrosion behavior of modern magnetic attachments for use on teeth and dental implants according to ISO 10271:2001 showed that metal ions had dissolved on all specimens. In the case of one product, the magnet corroded. For this product, an improvement of the capsulation would be desirable. None of the products reached the limit specified in ISO 22674:2006. All products seem to be suitable for dental application. Further studies in regard to the specific biocompatibility and possible cytotoxic effects on mucosa and tissue would be desirable. [source]

Ethanol as a Reinforcer in the Newborn's First Suckling Experience

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2001
Sarah J. Cheslock
Background: Recent evidence suggests that human infants prefer alcohol-flavored milk when fed through a bottle. Animal models also indicate a surprising predisposition for neonatal and infant rats to voluntarily and willingly ingest ethanol. These findings suggest high susceptibility to the reinforcing properties of ethanol early in ontogeny. Methods: A surrogate nipple technique,a highly effective tool for investigation of the reinforcing properties of different fluids,was applied in the present study. Tests of ethanol reinforcement were accomplished in terms of two basic paradigms of Pavlovian conditioning. In one paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was the surrogate nipple, and in the other, the CS was a novel odor. Results: Newborn rats showed sustained attachment to the nipple providing 5% ethanol, and later reproduced this behavioral pattern toward the empty nipple (CS alone). Ingestion of ethanol yielding appetitive reinforcement was accompanied by detectable blood alcohol concentrations, with most in the range of 20,30 mg/dl. The reinforcing efficacy of ethanol was also confirmed in the classical olfactory conditioning paradigm: following pairing with intraoral ethanol infusions, the odor (CS) alone elicited sustained attachment to an empty nipple. Females showed better olfactory conditioning with low concentrations of ethanol, whereas males were effectively more conditioned to high concentrations. Although there were no reinforcing consequences of intraperitoneally injected ethanol [as an unconditioned stimulus (US)] when a neutral odor was the CS, when paired with ingestion of water from a nipple, the injection of ethanol had a reinforcing effect. Conclusions: The present series of experiments revealed ethanol reinforcement in the newborn rat. Two varieties of Pavlovian conditioning established that ethanol can serve as an effective US, and hence reinforcer, in such a way as to increase the approach and responsiveness toward stimuli paired with that US, indicating appetitive reinforcement. [source]

Phlebotomus (Adlerius) halepensis vector competence for Leishmania major and Le. tropica

J. Sádlová
Abstract., In Eurasia, phlebotomine sandflies of the subgenus Adlerius (Diptera: Psychodidae) comprise about 20 known species. Some are suspected vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and at least one species has been implicated as a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We tested Phlebotomus (Adlerius) halepensis Theodor (Jordan strain) for CL vector competence, compared with three standard vectors: Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) duboscqi N-L. from Senegal, Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti Parrot from Turkey and the Neotropical Lutzomyia longipalpis (L. & N) (Jacobina strain). Sandfly females were membrane-fed on amastigote suspensions of Leishmania major Y. & S. and Le. tropica (Wright) (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and examined for parasite development 3, 6 and 10 days post-infection. Phlebotomus halepensis showed high susceptibility to both leishmanias, supporting typical suprapylarian parasite development similar to the other vectors. Phlebotomus halepensis infection rates were ,90% for Le. major and ,80% for Le. tropica, with high parasite densities. Development of infections was relatively fast, colonizing the thoracic midgut by 6 days post-bloodmeal in every case and reaching the stomodeal valve in >80% of flies. In late-stage infections, 10 days post-bloodmeal, nearly all P. halepensis females had cardia and stomodeal valve filled with very high numbers of parasites and some Le. tropica -infected females had promastigotes in the pharynx and proboscis. Host choice experiments in the laboratory showed that P. halepensis females fed readily on rat or rabbit and preferred the human forearm. In view of its vector competence and partial anthropophily, we infer that P. halepensis is a potential vector of cutaneous as well as visceral leishmaniases. [source]

Toxicology and risk assessment of coumarin: Focus on human data

Klaus Abraham
Abstract Coumarin is a secondary phytochemical with hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. For the carcinogenic effect, a genotoxic mechanism was considered possible, but was discounted by the European Food Safety Authority in 2004 based on new evidence. This allowed the derivation of a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for the first time, and a value of 0.1,mg/kg body weight was arrived at based on animal hepatotoxicity data. However, clinical data on hepatotoxicity from patients treated with coumarin as medicinal drug is also available. This data revealed a subgroup of the human population being more susceptible for the hepatotoxic effect than the animal species investigated. The cause of the high susceptibility is currently unknown; possible mechanisms are discussed. Using the human data, a TDI of 0.1,mg/kg body weight was derived, confirming that of the European Food Safety Authority. Nutritional exposure may be considerably, and is mainly due to use of cassia cinnamon, which is a popular spice especially, used for cookies and sweet dishes. To estimate exposure to coumarin during the Christmas season in Germany, a telephone survey was performed with more than 1000 randomly selected persons. Heavy consumers of cassia cinnamon may reach a daily coumarin intake corresponding to the TDI. [source]

Measurement of Angle and Length of the Eustachian Tube on Computed Tomography Using the Multiplanar Reconstruction Technique

Kenji Takasaki MD
Abstract Objective: To compare the anatomic features of the eustachian tube (ET) between children with and without otitis media with effusion (OME) and with adults. Methods: The angle and length of the ET in children with OME (54 ears, OME children) and without OME (50 ears, normal children), as well as those of normal adults (90 ears), were measured on computed tomography using the multiplanar reconstruction technique. Results: The angles of ET in the OME children group, the normal children group, and the normal adult group were 20.4 ± 3.5° and 21.2 ± 4.8°, 19.9 ± 3.4° and 20.0 ± 3.6°, and 27.3 ± 2.7° and 27.3 ± 2.8° on the right and the left sides, respectively. There was no significant difference between the right and the left side in any group (P = .541, P = .952, P = .978). The lengths of ET in the OME children group, the normal children group, and the normal adult group were 37.2 ± 3.0 mm (mean ± SD) and 37.6 ± 3.2 mm, 37.5 ± 3.3 mm and 38.0 ± 3.2 mm, and 42.5 ± 2.8 mm and 42.9 ± 2.9 mm on the right and the left sides, respectively. There was no significant difference between the right and left sides in any group (P = .670, P = .597, and P = .545). Both the angles and lengths were significantly greater in the normal adult group than in either the OME children group or the normal children group (one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's protected least significant difference tests, P < .05), but there was no significant difference in either the angle or length of the ET between the OME and normal children groups (P > .05). In the OME and normal children groups, the angle was observed to constantly increase with age, and the values were found to be within the range of the adult size in all the patients older than 7.5 years and 7.7 years in the OME children group and the normal children group, respectively. As well as the angle, the lengths were observed to constantly increase with age, but the increase appeared to be greater at a younger age (until approximately 3 to 4 years) than at an older age, and the values were found to be within the range of the adult size in all the patients older than 6.8 years and 7.7 years in the OME children group and the normal children group, respectively. Conclusion: The angle and length of the ET are more horizontal and shorter in infants than in adults. However, there is no statistical difference between the angle and length of the ET in infants with and without OME. These results lead us to believe that a short and horizontal ET may not be a main etiologic factor related to high susceptibility to OME in infants and children. [source]

Biomechanics of the Fractured Medial Coronoid Process and the Isolated Anconeal Process in the Canine Elbow Joint

J. Maierl
Introduction:, Elbow dysplasia is one of the most important orthopaedic diseases of the canine elbow joint. The medial coronoid process (MCP) and the anconeal process (AP) are involved with a high incidence. Aims:, The aim of this study was to clarify whether these processes are especially loaded resulting in osteoarthrosis. Material and Methods:, Elbow joints were examined from dogs of various breeds, with a body weight over 20 kg and an age ranging from 1 to 12 years. Only joints without damage to the articular cartilage have been included in this investigation. Articular surfaces have been evaluated macroscopically, subchondral bone density (long-term loading) and split-lines (long-term tensile loading) have been determined. Results:, In the humeral fossa olecrani, there was a distinct impression on the inner side of the lateral compared to the medial epicondyle. In the ulna, the MCP was much greater than the lateral coronoid indicating that the medial process has to support the humeral condyle to a higher extent. Subchondral split lines with a transverse orientation in the fossa olecrani gave evidence of long-term transverse tensile loading in this area. Split lines on the MCP were oriented radially as if the lateral edge was bent downwards. Subchondral bone density in the fossa olecrani was higher towards the lateral epicondyle in comparison to the medial. Furthermore, there was a bone density maximum on the medial part of the humeral condyle opposite of the MCP with its very high density. Discussion:, Gait analyses showed that there is a transverse, medially oriented force of up to 4% bodyweight acting on the paw during midstance. As the carpus is stable when slightly hyperextended during midstance loading there is a long lever arm from the ground up to an assumed rotation centre in the depth of the trochlear notch. The medially directed ground reaction force slightly rotates the forearm inwards causing a bending moment about the elbow joint, which leads to an increased pressure of the AP and the MCP. This bending in addition to sagittal loading is the reason for the high susceptibility of the MCP and AP. [source]

Frequency of fault bars in feathers of birds and susceptibility to predation

Fault bars are transparent bands in the feathers of birds produced under stressful and adverse conditions. The frequency of feathers with fault bars is highly heterogeneous among species. We predicted that prey had a higher frequency of fault bars than individuals from the general population, and that a high susceptibility to predation would be associated with a low frequency of fault bars among species of birds because such species would suffer particularly high costs of producing fault bars. The frequency of fault bars in prey was almost three-fold higher than in the general population, based on a database on the frequency of fault bars and susceptibility to predation by the goshawk Accipiter gentilis L., implying intense natural selection against fault bars. A high susceptibility to predation by the sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus L. and the goshawk, relative to what would be expected from their abundance, was associated with a low frequency of fault bars across species, with long distance migration also being negatively associated with frequency of fault bars. Feathers with fault bars were more likely to break than feathers without fault bars, thereby potentially affecting the flight ability of individuals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that susceptibility to factors that cause production of fault bars can be modified by natural selection, as illustrated by the impact of predation on the frequency of fault bars. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 334,345. [source]

A single nasal allergen challenge increases induced sputum inflammatory markers in non-asthmatic subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis: correlation with plasma interleukin-5

K. M. Beeh
Summary Background Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) is a risk factor for asthma in affected individuals. Nasal allergic inflammation enhances bone-marrow eosinophil production, mainly via IL-5, and rhinitis patients have increased airway inflammation during the pollen season. Objective To assess the impact of nasal allergy on sputum inflammatory markers. Methods In an open-labelled, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study with 16 non-asthmatic SAR patients (median age 25 years, 56% males), the effect of a single nasal allergen challenge performed out of season on induced sputum inflammatory parameters was evaluated. SAR patients were identified by history, skin-prick test and specific IgE. All patients had normal lung function/bronchial hyper-responsiveness out of season and a negative asthma/wheezing history. Sputum cells and supernatant levels of ECP, sICAM, IL-5 and IL-10, and plasma levels of IL-5 and ECP, were measured before and 24 h after nasal allergen challenge. After a washout period of at least 4 weeks, the procedure was repeated with placebo challenge (diluent). Results Nasal allergen challenge led to an increase in sputum ECP (pre = 60 ± 12, post = 212 ± 63 µg/L, P = 0.02 vs. placebo), and sICAM (4.8 ± 2.7 to 6.5 ± 2.9 ng/mL, P = 0.02 vs. placebo), whereas IL-10 decreased after provocation (44 ± 11 to 29 ± 6 pg/mL, P = 0.06 vs. placebo). Sputum IL-5 was undetectable in all patients. The absolute number of blood and sputum eosinophils did not change significantly after allergen or placebo challenge (P > 0.07, both comparisons). Plasma levels of IL-5 increased after allergen challenge (8.7 ± 2.9 to 14.5 ± 3.9 pg/mL, P = 0.001), and the increase in plasma IL-5 was positively correlated with the rise in sputum ECP in a subgroup of ,responders' (n = 12, r = 0.71, P = 0.01). Conclusions A single nasal allergen challenge in SAR patients increased markers of allergic inflammation in the lower respiratory tract, possibly via pronounced activation of inflammatory cells through circulating immediate-type reaction cytokines like IL-5. These findings may provide additional explanatory data for the high susceptibility of SAR patients to incident asthma. [source]