High Survival Rate (high + survival_rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Optimum Dietary Level of L-ascorbic Acid for Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica

Toncaun Ren
A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary level of ascorbic acid (AsA) for Japanese eel juveniles using L-ascorbic acid Ca based on growth, AsA content in tissues, hematology, and bactericidal activity of serum with Escherichia coli. Test diets with six levels of AsA (3, 10, 27,126, 645, and 3,135-mg/kg diet) as Ca ascorbate were fed to juvenile Japanese eels (11.0 0.2 g) once a day for 8 wk. High survival rates (> 80%) were observed among all dietary treatment groups. The specific growth rates of the fish fed diets containing 3 and 10-mg AsA/kg were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of other groups. Liver and brain AsA contents of the fish fed diets containing 3, 10, and 27-mg AsA/kg were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the fish fed diets containing 645 and 3,135-mg AsA/kg. Hemoglobin content tended to be higher in the fish fed diets containing 645 and 3,135-mg AsA/kg than those of the fish fed other diets. Hematocrit value and total serum protein content of the fish fed diets containing 645 and 3135 mg AsA/kg were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the other groups. The fish fed diets containing more than 27-mg AsAlkg showed a higher bactericidal activity of serum than the fish fed the diets containing 3-mg and 10-mg AsA/kg. The optimum dietary level of AsA for the Japanese eel juveniles growth was estimated to be more than 27-mg AsA/kg. Furthermore, the inclusion of 645-mg AsA/kg or more also increased the hematocrit, hemoglobin, total serum protein value, and liver and brain vitamin C concentrations. [source]

Selection of hibernation sites by Anthonomus pomorum: preferences and ecological consequences

St. Toepfer
Abstract The apple blossom weevil, Anthonomus pomorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has a long period of aestivo-hibernation in the adult stage lasting from summer to early spring of the following year. Potential hibernation sites within an apple orchard consist of high-stem rough-bark trees or dwarf smooth-bark trees. Field release-recapture experiments in 2 consecutive years showed that 64 and 47% of the weevils remained in the vicinity of the release sites in an area of high-stem trees and dwarf trees, respectively. The dispersing weevils moved over an average distance of 5.5 m in the dwarf tree area, as compared to 3.8 m in the high-stem tree area. The prevalent direction of dispersal was along tree rows in both areas. Some weevils displayed, after release in mid-July, a directional dispersal to the adjacent forests. Others, released in the dwarf tree area, dispersed towards the area of high-stem rough-bark apple trees. Experiments simulating various hibernation sites demonstrated that the litter of dry leaves was the most preferred overwintering shelter, yielding a relatively high survival rate. Branches with rough bark ranked second, while branches with smooth bark, grass and pure soil were not favourable for overwintering. Flight tendency in newly emerged weevils of summer generation was significantly higher in June/July than in August/September. This corresponds to the dispersal behaviour in the field. The timing of spring colonisation of apple trees was similar for weevils overwintering within the orchard and for those from outside. These results suggest that modern, dwarf apple orchards offer unfavourable conditions for overwintering, but that the relatively small proportion of weevils which manage to reach the adjacent forests find optimal hibernation sites there. [source]

ECMO in ARDS: a long-term follow-up study regarding pulmonary morphology and function and health-related quality of life

Background: A high survival rate can be achieved in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The technique and the costs are, however, debated and follow-up studies in survivors are few. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term pulmonary health after ECMO and severe ARDS. Methods: Twenty-one long-term survivors of severe ARDS and ECMO were studied in a follow-up program including high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs, extensive pulmonary function tests, pulmonary scintigraphy and the pulmonary disease-specific St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Results: The majority of patients had residual lung parenchymal changes on HRCT suggestive of fibrosis, but the extension of morphologic abnormalities was limited and without the typical anterior localization presumed to indicate ventilator-associated lung injury. Pulmonary function tests revealed good restitution with mean values in the lower normal range, while T for outwash of inhaled isotope was abnormal in all patients consistent with subclinical obstructivity. Most patients had reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), according to the SGRQ, but were stating less respiratory symptoms than conventionally treated ARDS patients in previous studies. The majority were integrated in normal work. Conclusion: The majority of ECMO-treated ARDS patients have good physical and social functioning. However, lung parenchymal changes on HRCT suggestive of fibrosis and minor pulmonary function abnormalities remain common and can be detected more than 1 year after ECMO. Furthermore, most patients experience a reduction in HRQoL due to the pulmonary sequelae. [source]

Evaluation of acute congestive heart failure in dogs and cats: 145 cases (2007,2008)

Caroline M. Goutal DVM
Abstract Objective , To characterize the clinical presentation, management, and in-hospital outcomes of dogs and cats diagnosed with acute congestive heart failure (CHF). Design , Retrospective study of animals seen between January 2007 and May 2008. Setting , Emergency service at a university teaching hospital. Animals , Ninety dogs and 55 cats with CHF. Measurements and Main Results , Patient characteristics, including age, clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, diagnostic testing, and outcome were recorded. Forty-eight of the animals already were receiving cardiac medications at the time of presentation. The most common diseases represented were chronic valvular disease and cardiomyopathies. Cats had significantly lower median body temperature at admission compared with dogs (P<0.001). The most common abnormalities were elevated lactate (64%), elevated BUN (52%), hypochloremia (31%), hyperglycemia (27%), and elevated liver enzymes (26%). Many of these became even more prevalent during hospitalization. One hundred and sixteen animals were discharged from the hospital, for a survival rate of 80%. There was no survival difference between dogs and cats (P=0.39). Dogs that developed hypokalemia during hospital stay (P=0.04) were more likely to survive compared with those without hypokalemia and initial body temperature was lower for those cats that did not survive (P=0.02). Of those that did not survive, the majority were euthanized (n=25), while 4 dogs died. Conclusions , Dogs and cats presented to the emergency service with CHF had a high survival rate. In cats, initial body temperature was lower for those cats that did not survive. Although clinicopathologic abnormalities were common in both species, only dogs with hypokalemia had improved survival to hospital discharge. [source]

Severe blunt trauma in dogs: 235 cases (1997,2003)

Stephen A. Simpson DVM
Abstract Objective , To evaluate population characteristics, injuries, emergency diagnostic testing, and outcome of dogs with blunt trauma requiring intensive care in an urban hospital. Design , Retrospective study 1997,2003. Setting , All data obtained from the University of Pennsylvania , Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital. Animals , Dogs admitted to the intensive care unit for treatment following blunt trauma. Interventions , None. Measurements and Main results , Of the 235 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 206 (88%) survived and 29 (12%) did not survive. Blunt vehicular trauma accounted for 91.1% of cases. Mild hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia was common in both survivors and nonsurvivors. The chest was the most common region traumatized and the prevalence of polytrauma was 72.3%. Initial weight, vital signs, PCV, total plasma protein, BUN, glucose, lactate, acid-base status, and electrolytes did not differ between survivors and nonsurvivors. Nonsurvivors were significantly more likely to have had head trauma (P=0.008), cranium fractures (P<0.001), recumbency at admission (P<0.001), development of hematochezia (P<0.001), clinical suspicion of acute respiratory distress syndrome (P<0.001), disseminated intravascular coagulation (P<0.001), multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (P<0.001), development of pneumonia (P<0.001), positive-pressure ventilation (P<0.001), vasopressor use (P<0.001), and cardiopulmonary arrest (P<0.001). Conclusions , Outcome of severe blunt trauma in dogs treated with intensive care is very good. Despite the high survival rate, several features associated with poor outcome were identified. Neither admission lactate nor glucose was able to predict outcome. [source]

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: prenatal diagnosis permits immediate intensive care with high survival rate in isolated cases.

A population-based study
Abstract Objectives To estimate the prognosis of prenatally diagnosed isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (PDICDH) treated with ,immediate planned care' (IPC) between 1999 and 2003 in Eastern Brittany. Methods The prognosis of PDICDH was compared with the prognosis of the other live-born CDH, either prenatally undiagnosed or not having had IPC. IPC consisted in prenatal lung maturation with corticosteroids, elective caesarean section at 37 weeks, immediate intubation, surfactant, high- frequency ventilation or oscillation, nitric oxide, intravenous prostacyclin, anaesthesia and haemodynamic support. Surgical repair was performed in the NICU 34 h after birth. Results The incidence of CDH was 0.8, with a prenatal diagnosis rate of 27/30 (90%), leading to a termination of pregnancy in nine cases. Ten CDH were associated with other malformations. IPC in PDICDH was performed in 12 cases. The survival rate of PDICDH with IPC was 11/12 versus 1/9 in CDH with no IPC or no prenatal diagnosis (p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that IPC was determinant for survival (p < 0.01). Conclusion Prenatal diagnosis of isolated CDH treated with immediate planned care is associated with a high survival rate. This suggests that prenatal diagnosis associated with specifically adapted postnatal procedure may improve the prognosis of isolated CDH. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Vitamin contents of eggs that produce larvae showing a high survival rate in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica

Hirofumi Furuita
Abstract This paper describes the relationship between the egg vitamin concentrations and the egg quality in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. No notable relation was found between any vitamin and the fertilization rate. Hatching and survival rates of larvae, however, significantly increased with an elevated level of egg vitamin C (VC). In contrast to VC, the relation between vitamins E (VE) and A (VA) concentrations and survival rate showed a clear peak, with a reduced survival rate at both higher and lower vitamin concentrations. The ratio of VE to lipid or highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) in eggs positively correlated with hatching and survival rates of larvae. High-quality (HQ) eggs were determined as eggs that produced larvae having a survival rate higher than 80% at 8 days post hatch, and low-quality (LQ) eggs were determined as eggs that did not hatch. The level of VC of HQ was significantly higher than LQ. The results of this study suggest that HQ eggs, which produce larvae having a high survival rate, must have high levels of VC and VE/HUFA ratio and contain optimum levels of VA and VE in Japanese eel. [source]

Matched-related donor transplantation for sickle cell disease: report from the Center for International Blood and Transplant Research

Julie A. Panepinto
Summary We report outcomes after myeloablative haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors in 67 patients with sickle cell disease transplanted between 1989 and 2002. The most common indications for transplantation were stroke and recurrent vaso-occlusive crisis in 38% and 37% of patients respectively. The median age at transplantation was 10 years and 67% of patients had received >10 red blood cell transfusions before HCT. Twenty-seven percent of patients had a poor performance score at transplantation. Ninety-four percent received busulfan and cyclophosphamide-containing conditioning regimens and bone marrow was the predominant source of donor cells. Most patients achieved haematopoietic recovery and no deaths occurred during the early post-transplant period. Rates of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease were 10% and 22% respectively. Sixty-four of 67 patients are alive with 5-year probabilities of disease-free and overall survival of 85% and 97% respectively. Nine patients had graft failure with recovery of sickle erythropoiesis, eight of who had recurrent sickle-related events. This report confirms and extends earlier reports that HCT from HLA-matched related donors offers a very high survival rate, with few transplant-related complications and the elimination of sickle-related complications in the majority of patients who undergo this therapy. [source]

Benefits of dental implants installed during ablative tumour surgery in oral cancer patients: a prospective 5-year clinical trial

Anke Korfage
Abstract Objective: This prospective study assessed treatment outcome and patient satisfaction of oral cancer patients with a mandibular overdenture on implants up to 5 years after treatment. Materials and methods: At baseline, 50 consecutive edentulous oral cancer patients, in whom prosthetic problems were expected after oncological treatment, were evaluated by standardized questionnaires and clinical assessments. All implants were installed during ablative tumour surgery in native bone in the interforaminal area. About two-thirds of the patients (n=31) had radiotherapy post-surgery (dose >40 Gy in the interforaminal area). Results: At the 5-year evaluation, 26 patients had passed away and four patients had to be excluded from the analyses, because superstructures were not present, due to persistent local irritation (n=2), loss of three implants (n=1) and the impossibility of making an overdenture related to tumour and oncological surgery-driven anatomical limitations (n=1). In the remaining 20 patients, the prosthesis was still in function (76 implants). During the 5-year follow-up, total 14 implants were lost, 13 in irradiated bone (survival rate 89.4%, dose >40 Gy) and one in non-irradiated bone (survival rate 98.6%). Peri-implant tissues had a healthy appearance and remained healthy over time. Patients were satisfied with their dentures. Conclusions: It was concluded that oral cancer patients can benefit from implants installed during ablative surgery, with a high survival rate of the implants, a high percentage of rehabilitated patients and a high denture satisfaction up to 5 years after treatment. To cite this article: Korfage A, Schoen PJ, Raghoebar GM, Roodenburg JLN, Vissink A, Reintsema H. Benefits of dental implants installed during ablative tumour surgery in oral cancer patients: a prospective 5-year clinical trial. Clin. Oral Impl. Res. 21, 2010; 971,979. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0501.2010.01930.x [source]

A systematic review of the survival and complication rates of resin-bonded bridges after an observation period of at least 5 years

Bjarni E. Pjetursson
Abstract Objectives: The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the 5-year survival of resin-bonded bridges (RBBs) and to describe the incidence of technical and biological complications. Methods: An electronic Medline search complemented by manual searching was conducted to identify prospective and retrospective cohort studies on RBBs with a mean follow-up time of at least 5 years. Patients had to have been examined clinically at the follow-up visit. Assessment of the identified studies and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. Failure and complication rates were analyzed using random-effects Poissons regression models to obtain summary estimates of 5-year proportions. Results: The search provided 6110 titles and 214 abstracts. Full-text analysis was performed for 93 articles, resulting in 17 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated an estimated survival of RBBs of 87.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 81.6,91.9%) after 5 years. The most frequent complication was debonding (loss of retention), which occurred in 19.2% (95% CI: 13.8,26.3%) of RBBs over an observation period of 5 years. The annual debonding rate for RBBs placed on posterior teeth (5.03%) tended to be higher than that for anterior-placed RBBs (3.05%). This difference, however, did not reach statistical significance (P=0.157). Biological complications, like caries on abutments and RBBs lost due to periodontitis, occurred in 1.5% of abutments and 2.1% of RBBs, respectively. Conclusion: Despite the high survival rate of RBBs, technical complications like debonding are frequent. This in turn means that a substantial amount of extra chair time may be needed following the incorporation of RBBs. There is thus an urgent need for studies with a follow-up time of 10 years or more, to evaluate the long-term outcomes. [source]

Abiotic constraints on the establishment of Quercus seedlings in grassland

Brett T. Danner
Abstract High evaporative demand and periodic drought characterize the growing season in midwestern grasslands relative to deciduous forests of the eastern US, and predicted climatic changes suggest that these climatic extremes may be exacerbated. Despite this less than optimal environment for tree seedling establishment, deciduous trees have expanded into adjacent tallgrass prairie within the last century leading to a dramatic land cover change. In order to determine the role of light and temperature on seedling establishment, we assessed carbon and water relations and aboveground growth of first-year Quercus macrocarpa seedlings exposed to one of three conditions: (1) intact tallgrass prairie communities (control), (2) aboveground herbaceous biomass removed (grass removal), and (3) shade plus biomass removal to reduce light (PFD) to levels typical of the grassland-forest ecotone (shade). In the 2000 growing season, precipitation was 35% below the long-term average, which had a significant negative effect on oak seedling carbon gain at midseason (photosynthesis declined to 10% of maximum rates). However, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the shade treatment was ca. 2.5 and 1.5 times greater, respectively, than in control treatment seedlings during this drought. During this period, leaf and air temperatures in control seedlings were similar whereas leaf temperatures in the shade treatment remained below air temperature. A late-season recovery period, coincident with decreased air temperatures, resulted in increased net photosynthesis for all seedlings. Increased photosynthetic rates and water relations in shaded seedlings compared to seedlings in full sun suggest that, at least in dry years, high light and temperature may negatively impact oak seedling performance. However, high survival rates for all seedlings indicate that Q. macrocarpa seedlings are capable of tolerating both present-day and future climatic extremes. Unless historic fire regimes are restored, forest expansion and land cover change are likely to continue. [source]

Nutritional value of Pavlova spp. (Prymnesiophyceae) for spat of the Cortez oyster Crassostrea corteziensis during late-nursery culturing at the hatchery

Josafat J Ojeda-Ramrez
Abstract Three Pavlova species were evaluated for their nutritional value as diets for growth and survival of the Cortez oyster Crassostrea corteziensis spat during late-nursery cultivation at a hatchery. Microalgae were provided as monospecific diets (Pavlova salina, P. sp. C50 and P. sp. C53) and in binary combinations of diets 1+2, 1+3 and 2+3 at 80,90 103 cells mL,1 for 21 days. Juveniles experienced high survival rates and grew well with all dietary treatments, but binary diets yielded greater survival and growth of spat. From the three binary treatments, Diet 6 (P. sp. C50 and P. sp. C53) promoted significantly (P<0.001) fastest growth of juveniles in shell height (0.19 mm day,1), shell length (0.14 mm day,1), total wet weight (0.04 g day,1) and dry weight of meat biomass (0.024 g day,1). For all shell dimensions, the lowest growth rates occurred with Diets 2 (P. sp. C56 alone) and 3 (P. sp. C50 alone). These results highlight the importance of testing microalgal diets for bivalve spat rather than just relying on published nutritional values. [source]

Growth and survival of first-feeding spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor Olafsen) at various temperature regimes

Tove K Hansen
Abstract In order to define temperature regimes that could benefit successful production of spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor) juveniles, experiments with offspring from two different females were carried out. The larvae were fed a new formulated feed or a commercial start-feed for marine fish, both of which have given high survival rates. In the first experiment newly hatched larvae were fed at constant 6 C, 8 C, 10 C and 12 C as well as at ambient seawater temperature (2.9,4.5 C) during 63 days. High survival, 90% to 96%, was registered at ambient and most constant temperature regimes, whereas in the 12 C groups survival was reduced to 80%. Growth rate (SGR) was very low, 1.8% day,1, at the low ambient temperatures. Growth rate was positively correlated with temperature and varied between 3.1% day,1 to 4.7% day,1, from 6 C to 12 C. In the second experiment, set up to include potential detrimental temperatures and study beneficial effects of a more restricted, elevated first-feeding temperature regime, the larvae were fed at constant 8 C, 10 C, 12 C, 14 C and 16 C until 30 days post hatch, followed by constant 8 C for the next 33 days. In this experiment, low survival, 25% and 2.0%, was registered at 63 days post hatch when larvae were reared initially at 14 C and 16 C respectively. The survival of the larvae at the other temperature regimes varied from 47% to 64%, highest survival rate (64%) was found at 8 C. The lowest specific growth rate, 2.6% day,1, was noted in the 16 C group. At constant 8 C to 14 C (regulated to 8 C), the SGR varied from 4.45% day,1 to 5.13% day,1. The larvae grew faster in the experiment when initially comparable temperatures (8 C, 10 C and 12 C) were regulated to constant 8 C after 30 days compared with the first experiment where feeding was carried out at the same constant temperatures (8 C, 10 C and 12 C) during the whole experimental period. [source]

Overwintering performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) broodfish and seed at ambient temperatures in northern Vietnam

N C Dan
Two experiments (E1 and E2) to assess the performance of tilapia broodstock and tilapia sex-reversed fry in overwintering were conducted at the Research Institute for Aquaculture No.1 (RIA-1) in the cold seasons of 1995,96 and 1996,97. Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) broodstock of the Thai, GIFT, Egypt and Viet strains were overwintered in deep and shallow ponds, as well as in deep and shallow hapas suspended in a single deep pond for evaluation of the influence of overwintering systems on the survival and growth of fish. Large (> 1 g) and small (< 1 g) tilapia seed were overwintered in deep hapas-in-ponds for comparison of their performance. In 1995,96, the coldest pond water temperature was 10,11 C, and survival of tilapia broodfish overwintered in deep and shallow hapas-in-ponds was 99.6,100%. This was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than fish stocked in deep and shallow ponds (74.4,90%). The survival rate of larger monosex tilapia fry was 54%, which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of smaller fry (33.4%). In 1996,97, the lowest pond water temperature was 15.8 C, and fry showed similarly high survival rates in all treatments (97,100%). There was no significant difference between fry in the two size classes. The results of this study clearly indicate that hapas-in-ponds are useful for reducing the risk and improving the survival of tilapia broodstock and fry in the cold season. Differences in the decline in ambient temperatures year on year mean that the need for special overwintering conditions varies. Hapas-in-ponds are a low-cost overwintering method that can be one of the appropriate strategies for tilapia seed production under the variable, cool temperature regimes in northern Vietnam. [source]