High Support (high + support)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Cost-Effectiveness of Supported Employment for People with Severe Intellectual Disabilities and High Support Needs: a Pilot Study

Julia Shearn
The costs and outcomes of supporting seven people with severe intellectual disabilities and high support needs in part-time employment were compared with those of a Special Needs Unit (SNU) of a day centre, both within-subject and against an equal-sized comparison group. The income of those employed was described. Direct observation of the employment activities and representative SNU activities were undertaken to assess participant engagement in activity and receipt of assistance, social contact in general and social contact from people other than paid staff. Costs of providing service support were calculated taking account of staff : service user ratios, staff identities and wage rates and service-administrative and management overheads. Employment was associated with greater receipt of assistance, higher task-related engagement in activity and more social contact from people other than paid staff. SNU activities were associated with greater receipt of social contact. Supporting people in employment was more expensive than in the SNU. Cost-effectiveness ratios of producing assistance and engagement in activities were equivalent across the comparative contexts. The SNU was more cost-effective in producing social involvement; employment in producing social contact from people other than paid staff. [source]

Structured after-school activities as a moderator of depressed mood for adolescents with detached relations to their parents

Joseph L. Mahoney
This study investigated whether participation in structured after-school activities moderates the association between detached parent,adolescent relationships and adolescent depressed mood. A representative sample of 539 14-year-olds and their parents were assessed concerning adolescent participation in after-school activities, the parent,adolescent relationship, and adolescent depressed mood. Results showed that adolescents with detached relations to their parents reported high levels of depressed mood. Adolescents who participated in after-school activities reported low levels of depressed mood compared to adolescents not participating in such activities; however, this was primarily true of participants who perceived high support from their activity leader. Support from after-school activity leaders was particularly important for a subgroup of youth characterized by highly detached relations to their parents. Although girls reported higher levels of depressed mood than did boys, the associated benefits of perceived support from an activity leader were consistent across gender. 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Comparative Analysis of Employment Services for People with Disabilities in Australia, Finland, and Sweden

James O'Brien
Abstract, Described and discussed are comparative employment policies and programs for people with intellectual and other disabilities in Australia, Finland, and Sweden. The dominant economic and social policies of many Western countries are such that they continue to place considerable pressure on the development and maintenance of employment programs for people with intellectual and physical disabilities, particularly for those with high support needs. The authors note that these policies often result in tension between the simultaneous achievement of person-centered principles for people with disabilities and a desire for improved service efficiencies and accountability. In addition, a concern raised by specialists in all three countries is the demise of low skilled jobs, which traditionally have attracted people with intellectual disabilities. It is proposed that improving the level of education and training available for people with intellectual disabilities may improve their employment opportunities. In this vein, key aspects of these countries' respective support programs were identified as an aid to policy-makers and service providers reconciling the disparities between employment needs and opportunities. [source]

University Commercialization Strategies in the Development of Regional Bioclusters,

Shiri M. Breznitz
To analyze university contribution to economic development, the present study examines universities' technology transfer policies and their associated economic development impact. The article examines how a university defines itself as part of a region as well as what activities, if any, do university commercialization strategies in context of their regional environment affect spin-off activity. Furthermore, this study explores the ways universities contribute to regional economic development by examining existing theories and analyzing universities' relationships with both government and industry in two regions. This study draws from Roberts and Malone's (1996) selectivity,support typology and highlights this article's argument by comparing the commercialization strategies of world-class universities strategies in the development of regional biotechnology clusters in Massachusetts and in Connecticut. This article investigates the notion of whether universities can differently influence the economic development processes of the while still having successful commercial outcomes. These findings build on previous research (Clarysse et al., 2005; Degroof and Roberts, 2004; Powers and McDougall, 2005), which argues that low support,low selectivity policies may be more suitable to entrepreneurially developed environments, whereas high support,high selectivity policies are more efficient in entrepreneurially underdeveloped environments. Masachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is located in a strong technopole region, whereby many of its support structures for spin-off formation are provided by the regional infrastructure of the Cambridge,Boston region. In contrast, Yale University, which has an underdeveloped entrepreneurial context, has had to take a more proactive role in providing incubation capabilities to their spin-off projects. This finding supports a contingent based perspective of academic entrepreneurship, whereby low support,low selectivity policies are more fitted to entrepreneurially developed environments, whereas high support,high selectivity policies are more efficient in entrepreneurially underdeveloped environments. [source]

Inclusion , the heart of the matter: trainee teachers' perceptions of a parent's journey

Chris Forlin
The importance of parental choice, and parents' participation in educational processes, continue to be highlighted in strategies, acts and policies around the world. Partnership with parents is given an even higher profile in relation to educational opportunities for children with special needs. Yet many trainee teachers have only limited understandings of the impact on family life of a child with special needs; are uncertain how best to work with parents; and are not confident about the choices that parents may wish to make for their children. In this article, Chris Forlin, Visiting Professor at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, and Treena Hopewell, MEd student at Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, report the responses of a group of fourth year trainee teachers after listening to the story of a mother of a child with high support needs. Their discussion focuses on three themes emerging from the reflective comments written by the trainee teachers after the session: empathy, understanding and personal growth. Chris Forlin and Treena Hopewell review the value of this approach as a means of establishing in trainee teachers a greater desire to work more collaboratively with parents and family members. They also provide excerpts from the mother's story to enable readers to experience the passionate spirit of the storyteller; to further appreciate the needs of parents; and to understand their desire for greater participation in decisions regarding their children. [source]

Phylogeny of Nerillidae (Polychaeta, Annelida) as inferred from combined 18S rDNA and morphological data

CLADISTICS, Issue 2 2005
Katrine Worsaae
A phylogeny of the meiofaunal polychaete family Nerillidae based on morphological, molecular and combined data is presented here. The data sets comprise nearly complete sequences of 18S rDNA and 40 morphological characters of 17 taxa. Sequences were analyzed simultaneously with the morphological data by direct optimization in the program POY, with a variety of parameter sets (costs of gaps: transversions: transitions). Three outgroups were selected from the major polychaete group Aciculata and one from Scolecida. The 13 nerillid species from 11 genera were monophyletic in all analyses with very high support, and three new apomorphies for Nerillidae are identified. The topology of the ingroup varied according to the various parameter settings. Reducing the number of outgroups to one decreased the variance among the phylogenetic hypotheses. The congruence among these was tested and a parameter set, with equal weights (222) and extension gap weighted 1, yielded minimum incongruence (ILD). Several terminal clades of the combined analysis were highly supported, as well as the position of Leptonerilla prospera as sister terminal to the other nerillids. The evolution of morphological characters such as segment numbers, chaetae, appendages and ciliation are traced and discussed. A regressive pathway within Nerillidae is indicated for several characters, however, generally implying several convergent losses. Numerous genera are shown to require revision. The Willi Hennig Society 2005. [source]