High Status (high + status)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Perceived legitimacy of intergroup status differences: its prediction by relative ingroup prototypicality

Ulrike Weber
Research demonstrates that the perceived legitimacy of intergroup status differences has profound effects on intergroup attitudes, emotions and behavior. However, there has only been little intergroup research that predicts the perception of legitimacy. We hypothesize that the perception of legitimate or illegitime status relations depends upon the perceived relative prototypicality of the ingroup for the inclusive category. Since the prototype of the inclusive category provides a normative comparison standard for subgroup evaluation, similarity to this standard (i.e. prototypicality) should be positively evaluated and used to justify high status. A first study in a natural intergroup context (N,=,67) offered correlational data in support of the predicted relationship. The second study (N,=,60), using Germans as ingroup with Poles as outgroup and Europe as inclusive category, demonstrated that the link between prototypicality and legitimacy is contingent upon the valence of the inclusive category. In order to elucidate the causal direction, the third study manipulated relative prototypicality in an artificial intergroup context (N,=,94) and introduced status as a moderator variable. Overall, we found strong support for the hypothesis that legitimacy is related to prototypicality and that this relation is moderated by ingroup status and valence of the inclusive category. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Women and Work in the Information Age

Celia Stanworth
Widespread social transformation and new class structures are predicted with the coming of the ,information age', but there is disagreement about the likely outcomes for work and em-ployment patterns. Mainstream writing on the information age, both from the functionalist and Marxist traditions, tends not to consider likely consequences for women, but recent feminist research on gender and technology, treating technology as masculine culture, offers a useful framework for further research. This article argues that the information age may lead to some areas of convergence between the sexes in their experience of future work, but men may continue to defend areas of competence and to dominate the high status and powerful occupational positions of the future. [source]

A high status burial from Ripon Cathedral, North Yorkshire, England: differential diagnosis of a chest deformity

S. Groves
Abstract Excavations beneath the crossing at Ripon Cathedral in North Yorkshire recently revealed a burial radiocarbon dated to the late 15th century AD. The burial was that of a young adult female; the location of the grave suggests a person of relatively high status. The very well preserved skeleton revealed abnormal changes to the bones of the thoracic cavity including anterior bowing of the sternum, flattening of the spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae three to nine against the processes below each one, and changes to the ribs that suggested anterior displacement of the rib cage. The skeletal changes are described and differential diagnoses presented. Treatment to an underlying chest deformity, ,pectus carinatum', is thought to be the underlying cause of the skeletal changes; this study may lend direct insight into the concepts of body image in the Medieval period. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Psychobiogeography: meanings of nature and motivations for a democratized conservation ethic

Stephen Trudgill
The language of ecosystem science is pervaded by value-laden terms such as pristine, fragile, disturbance, balance, dominance and alien species. Such terms have high status and are often used in the rhetoric of the conservation ethic. Here, I consider the possibility of the use of less value-laden terms such as change, increase, decrease and so on. This would distinguish between values and perceived trends or states and leave ecosystem science to deal with what is verifiable. However, I also consider the opposite point of view, in that the value-laden terms, like ,the balance of nature', relate to how a wide range of people feel about nature and are effective emotive motivators of the conservation ethic in society, providing a common language for a discourse between ecosystem scientists and other people. [source]

The non-fiction reading habits of young successful boy readers: forming connections between masculinity and reading

LITERACY, Issue 1 2004
Susannah Smith
The reading experiences of six young successful boy readers were studied over a two-year period. In this article, their non-fiction reading is analysed and ways in which the boys make positive connections between masculinity and reading are identified. The boys' non-fiction reading centres on typical boy interest areas and hobbies (for example, football, space, dinosaurs) and, through their reading, they have become experts on these areas. This has earned them respect from their peers, particularly other boys, and a high status, hegemonic masculine identity in the classroom. Thus, for this group of boys, unlike many other boys, masculinity and reading are compatible; in this particular version of masculinity, reading is a desirable pursuit. [source]

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Danish school children

S. Krue
Summary In 14 Danish municipalities physicians have gathered weight and height data from 7541 9th grade students (86.7% of all students in 9th grade participating). Overall 25.2% of the population were overweight (body mass index > 90th percentile). Boys were more frequently overweight than girls (29.3% vs. 21.1%) (P < 0.05). 14.1% of the boys and 8.2% of the girls were obese (body mass index > 97th percentile). Categorizing the participating municipalities by socioeconomic status students in municipalities with low status had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than students in municipalities with high status. Overweight and obesity among Danish school children is a major concern and there are significant social differences in the prevalence of overweight. [source]

Testing three evolutionary models of the demographic transition: Patterns of fertility and age at marriage in urban South India

Mary K. Shenk
Over the last three decades many authors have addressed the demographic transition from the perspective of evolutionary theory. Some authors have emphasized parental investment factors such as the costs of raising children, others have emphasized the effects of mortality and other forms of risk, and others have emphasized the biased transmission of cultural norms from people of high status. Yet the literature says little about the relative strengths of each of these types of motivations or about which ones are more likely to serve as the primary impetus for large-scale demographic change. In this paper, I examine how each of these factors has influenced the demographic transition in urban South India during the course of the 20th century using two measures of fertility transition: number of surviving children and age at marriage. I find that investment-related, risk-related, and cultural transmission predictors all have significant individual effects on the outcome variables, which persist when they are entered in combination. When the three types of predictors are compared, however, investment-related models appear to provide more robust explanations for patterns in both fertility and age of marriage. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Migration to the Medieval Middle East with the Crusades

Piers D. Mitchell
Abstract During the 12th and 13th centuries thousands of people moved from Europe to the Middle East to fight, undertake pilgrimage, or settle and make a new life. The aim of this research is to investigate two populations from the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, by determining who was born in Europe and who came from the Middle East. Oxygen and strontium stable isotope analyses were conducted on the enamel of teeth from skeletal remains excavated from Crusader contexts. Twenty individuals from the coastal city of Caesarea (10 high status and 10 low status), and two local Near Eastern Christian farmers from the village of Parvum Gerinum (Tel Jezreel) were analyzed as a control sample. Results were compared with known geographic values for oxygen and strontium isotopes. The population of the city of Caesarea appears to have been dominated by European-born individuals (probably 19/20, but at least 13/20), with few locals. This was surprising as a much higher proportion of locals were expected. Both controls from the farming village of Parvum Gerinum had spent their childhood in the area of the village, which matches our understanding of limited mobility among poor Medieval farmers. This is the first time that stable isotope analysis has been applied to the study of the migration of peoples between Medieval Europe and the Middle East at the time of the crusades. In view of these findings, we must now rethink past estimations of population social structure in Levantine coastal Medieval cities during the Crusader period. Am J Phys Anthropol 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Senescence and serration: a new twist to an old tale

P Minoo
Abstract Interest in the role of oncogene-induced senescence in tumorigenesis is mounting. Raf-associated senescence in cutaneous nevi has been advanced as an example of this process occurring in the context of a human tumour. In this model, conversion from a senescent nevus to a malignant melanoma is accompanied by loss of expression of p16. Serrated polyps of the colorectum may provide a further example of oncogene-induced senescence. BRAF and KRAS mutation may initiate different pathways of senescence-associated serrated neoplasia in the colorectum, the former linked to CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-high (CIMP1) and microsatellite instability (MSI)-high status and the latter with CIMP-low (CIMP2) and MSI-low status. The role of methylation in both Raf- and Ras-associated pathways is to drive tumorigenesis by silencing pro-apoptotic and cell cycle inhibitory genes. Both pathways are associated with mutation of Ras-induced senescence 1 (RIS1), but the biological role of RIS1 requires further elucidation. Copyright 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Ground penetrating radar survey over a Roman building at Groundwell Ridge, Blunsdon St Andrew, Swindon, UK

N. T. Linford
Abstract A ground penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was conducted over well-preserved building remains revealed during a previous geophysical survey (1996) covering an apparent complex of Roman activity discovered at Groundwell Ridge to the north of Swindon, UK. Despite unfavourable, clay-rich soil conditions, the GPR survey provided a detailed plan of the Roman remains to a depth of approximately 1,m, confirming their survival in the very near surface. The GPR results complement the previous earth resistance and magnetic surveys and, together, the data suggest the presence of a high status Roman building, possibly incorporating thermoremanent features, for instance associated with a hypocaust system. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]