High Stage (high + stage)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

High ,-fetoprotein level correlates with high stage, early recurrence and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Significance of hepatitis virus infection, age, p53 and ,-catenin mutations

Shian-Yang Peng
Abstract ,-Fetoprotein (AFP) is often elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was to elucidate the significance and related factors of AFP elevation in HCC in 781 unifocal HCCs receiving curative hepatectomy. We showed that high AFP (> 200 ng/ml), which was associated with AFP mRNA expression in HCC (p = 0.00001), correlated with major clinicopathologic factors. Younger age (, 55 years; p = 0.00001), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum (p = 0.00001), p53 mutation (p = 0.008), large tumor (p = 0.00001), vascular invasion (p = 0.00001) and early tumor recurrence (p = 0.00001) were significant associates of high AFP, while anti-HCV in serum and ,- catenin mutation in HCC had less frequent high AFP (p = 0.013 and < 0.0001, respectively). We also showed that HCC with high AFP had a lower 10-year survival (p < 0.0001), particularly in large HCC (p < 0.0001). At univariate analysis, high AFP (p < 0.0001), HBsAg positivity (p = 0.05), p53 mutation (p = 0.0004), liver cirrhosis (p = 0.0094), large tumor (p = 0.0003), vascular invasion (p < 0.0001) and early recurrence (p < 0.0001) were significant unfavorable prognostic factors. In Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, high AFP remained a borderline significance (OR = 1.2; CI = 1.0,1.4) after adjustment for the effect of tumor size and tumor stage (p = 0.0821). Furthermore, the detection of AFP mRNA in the liver of AFP mRNA-positive HCC was associated with more frequent early recurrence (p = 0.0026) and might be a useful marker of intrahepatic spread. We therefore conclude that AFP elevation, more than a coincidental epiphenomenon, appears to contribute to vascular invasion and HCC progression and help to identify subsets of HCC patients with increased risk for early recurrence and poor prognosis after hepatectomy. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and haplotypes, interactions with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and prostate cancer risk

THE PROSTATE, Issue 9 2007
Bahar Mikhak
Abstract BACKGROUND The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is required for actions of vitamin D. The binding of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to the VDR on prostatic epithelial cells prompts the regulation of cancer-related genes. METHODS We conducted a nested case-control study in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study to investigate the role of the VDR Cdx2, Fok1, and Bsm1 gene polymorphisms and associated haplotypes and their interaction with plasma vitamin D metabolites in relation to prostate cancer (PC) risk. RESULTS No association was found between these SNPs or their associated haplotypes and all PC subtypes except that haplotype 2 (A-f-b) with Cdx2 A, Fok1 f, and Bsm1 b alleles and haplotype 3 (A-F-B) with Cdx2 A, Fok1 F and Bsm1 B alleles compared to the most common haplotype (A-F-b), were associated with reduced risk of aggressive PC (high stage or Gleason sum ,7; P,=,0.02), both with two alleles suspected of being low risk. Carriers of the variant Cdx2 A allele who were deficient in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (,15 ng/ml) compared to non-carriers with normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D, had a lower risk of total and poorly differentiated PCs (Gleason sum ,7) (P for interaction,=,0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D deficiency (,26 pg/ml) was associated with a threefold risk of poorly differentiated PC (P for interaction,=,0.01) when comparing carriers of the Cdx2 A allele to non-carriers with normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. CONCLUSION In this population of men, none of the VDR polymorphisms studied was associated with susceptibility to PC. Prostate 67: 911,923, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Association of interferon-, +874A polymorphism with the risk of developing cervical cancer in north-Indian population

R Gangwar
Objective, Interferon gamma (IFN -,) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine playing a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the first intron of the human IFN-, gene can influence the secretion of cytokine. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of IFN-, T/A gene polymorphism with the risk of cervical cancer. Design, Case,control study. Setting, Uttar Pradesh State in India. Sample, Two hundred cases with histologically proven cancer of the cervix and healthy controls (n = 230), age and ethnicity matched were recruited in this study. Methods, Genotyping was performed for bi-allelic +874 (T/A) polymorphism of IFN-, by amplification refractory mutation system method. Main outcome measures, Low producer IFN-, +874 AA genotype was associated with high risk for cervical cancer, which further modulated the increased risk in tobacco users. Results,IFN-, AA genotype which is low producer of IFN-, was associated with increased risk of cervical cancer (OR = 2.43, P = 0.003). Allele A was at 1.54-fold increased risk of cervical cancer (OR=1.54, P = 0.002). The AA genotype showed statistically significant risk with high stage (III + IV) of cervical cancer (OR = 4.99, P = 0.001). In tobacco users, AA genotype showed significantly increased susceptibility to cervical cancer (OR = 5.08, P = 0.010). Conclusion, Variation in IFN-, +874 AA genotype because of ethnicity in north-Indian population may represent an important susceptibility biomarker for cervical cancer risk as well as other diseases and should be explored further. [source]

Expression of epithelial membrane protein-2 is associated with endometrial adenocarcinoma of unfavorable outcome,

CANCER, Issue 1 2006
Madhuri Wadehra PhD
Abstract BACKGROUND Epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) is an estrus-regulated tetraspan protein that is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation. EMP2 controls surface levels of several classes of integrin and other cell-interaction molecules, and their trafficking to glycolipid-enriched lipid raft domains is important in receptor signaling. These features suggest that EMP2 may contribute to neoplastic traits of endometrial cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of EMP2 expression in endometrial neoplasms and its clinical significance. METHODS EMP2 immunophenotype, histologic diagnosis, grade, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, disease stage, and clinical follow-up were determined for 99 endometrial cancers. RESULTS Significant EMP2 expression (EMP2 positive) was observed in 12 of 99 cancers (9 endometrioid [6 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Grade 3], 1 serous, 1 mixed endometrioid and serous, and 1 mixed endometrioid and clear cell), and weak EMP2 expression was observed in 11 cancers. EMP2-positive tumors were more likely than others to be myometrium invasive, high stage, and recurrent, persistent, or fatal. The overall median survival for patients with EMP2-positive tumor was only 23 months, whereas the medial survival was not reached for patients with EMP2-weak and EMP2-negative tumors. The median disease-free interval was only 11 months for patients with EMP2-positive tumors and was not reached for patients with EMP2-weak and EMP2-negative tumors. A multivariate analysis of disease-free survival demonstrated independent, negative prognostic significance for EMP2 expression, high stage, and high-risk histologic subtypes. CONCLUSIONS EMP2 expression is a feature of some prognostically unfavorable endometrial cancers. Its utility for clinical decision making and its biologic role in endometrial cancer deserves further study in a larger series of patients. Cancer 2006. 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]

Searching cell-secreted proteomes for potential urinary bladder tumor markers

Chiao-Yun Lin
Abstract To search for biomarkers critical for bladder carcinoma diagnosis and prognosis, secreted proteomes of highly malignant U1 and pre-malignant U4 cell lines were initially analyzed. Proteins in the culture media of the U1 and U4 cell lines were systematically examined by SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF MS. Among them, expression of pro-u-plasminogen activator (pro-u-PA) was confirmed by Western blot analysis and further evaluated. In analyzing urine samples from bladder cancer patients and normal subjects, we established a statistically significant relationship between the low level and absence of pro-u-PA in urine with high stages and grades of the tumor samples. Constitutive expression of Ras dominant negative protein led to increased expression of pro-u-PA in culture media, indicating that the loss of pro-u-PA is associated with oncogenic transformation. Analysis of cancer-secreted proteomes can be a feasible, non-invasive and efficient strategy for searching potential bladder tumor biomarkers. Our work also has identified the loss of pro-u-PA in urine as potential marker of more advanced bladder carcinoma. [source]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in bladder cancer: the induction of MMP9 by epidermal growth factor and its detection in urine

J.E. Nutt
OBJECTIVES To investigate the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 in bladder cancer cell lines stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF), and to investigate the presence of gelatinases in the urine of patients with bladder tumours, in relation to the stage and grade of tumour and the EGF receptor (EGFR) status. PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS Conditioned media from cultured tumour cells were analysed by zymography. Urine samples from 28 patients with transitional cell carcinoma and 12 normal volunteers were also analysed. Western blotting was used to verify the bands of gelatinolytic activity. The EGFR status of the tumours was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS MMP9 was induced by EGF in the RT112 but not the RT4 bladder tumour cell line, whereas MMP2 production was unaffected by EGF. Gelatin zymography of urine samples from patients with bladder tumours showed high levels of MMP activity, with 78% positive for MMP9 and 28% positive for MMP2. The total gelatinolytic and MMP9 activity were significantly higher in patients with high-stage invasive tumours than in those with superficial tumours (P < 0.05), and were higher than in normal controls. Gelatinolytic activity at 130 and 200 kDa in urine was identified as MMP9 and MMP2. There was no significant relationship of urinary MMP9 activity to EGFR status of the tumour. CONCLUSION EGF induces MMP9 but not MMP2 in bladder cells. Analysis of urinary gelatinases is a useful noninvasive technique and both total gelatinase and MMP9 activity are associated with high stages of bladder tumours. [source]