High Spatial Resolution (high + spatial_resolution)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Application of QuickBird and aerial imagery to detect Pinus radiata in remnant vegetation

Abstract The invasion of Pinus radiata from long-term established plantations is contributing to the degradation of fragmented and isolated remnants of native vegetation. Within the south-east of South Australia, the 20 vegetation communities that occur within 500 m of a plantation edge are at risk, including nine state threatened communities. To plan effective mitigation strategies, the current extent and distribution of P. radiata needs to be ascertained. High spatial resolution, multispectral QuickBird imagery and aerial photography were used to classify P. radiata within eucalypt and acacia woodlands, melaleuca shrubland, modified pasture and an Eucalyptus globulus plantation. Unsupervised classification of aerial photography gave the best result showing reasonable conformity with the observed distribution of P. radiata at the site scale. However, the 9.4 ± 13.5 (SD) cover classified in the quadrats sampled for the accuracy assessment exceeded the 1.4 ± 2.4 (SD) P. radiata cover determined from an independent dataset. Only 30.1 ± 37.9% (SD) of trees within the quadrats and 9.40 ± 13.49% (SD) of their foliage cover were classified. Trees detected by partial classification of canopy were positively correlated with both tree height and canopy diameter. Overall, the low detection rates were attributed to insufficient spectral resolution. Using higher resolution imagery, together with an object-based image analysis or combination of multispectral and airborne digital image classification, restricted to large emergent adult trees using LiDAR analysis, is likely to improve adult P. radiata detection accuracy. [source]

Analysis of b -value calculations in diffusion weighted and diffusion tensor imaging

Daniel Güllmar
Abstract Diffusion weighted imaging has opened new diagnostic possibilities by using microscopic diffusion of water molecules as a means of image contrast. The directional dependence of diffusion has led to the development of diffusion tensor imaging, which allows us to characterize microscopic tissue geometry. The link between the measured NMR signal and the self-diffusion tensor is established by the so-called b matrices that depend on the gradient's direction, strength, and timing. However, in the calculation of b -matrix elements, the influence of imaging gradients on each element of the b matrix is often neglected. This may cause errors, which in turn leads to an incorrect extraction of diffusion coefficients. In cases where the imaging gradients are high (high spatial resolution), these errors may be substantial. Using a generic pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) imaging sequence, the effects of neglecting the imaging gradients on the b -matrix calculation are demonstrated. By measuring an isotropic phantom with this sequence it can be analytically as well as experimentally shown that large deviations in single b -matrix elements are generated. These deviations are obtained by applying the diffusion weighting in the readout direction of the imaging dimension in combination with relatively large imaging gradients. The systematic errors can be avoided by a full b -matrix calculation considering all the gradients of the sequence or by generating cross-term free signals using the geometric average of two diffusion weighted images with opposite polarity. The importance of calculating the exact b matrices by the proposed methods is based on the fact that more precise diffusion parameters are obtained for extracting correct property maps, such as fractional anisotropy, volume ratio, or conductivity tensor maps. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 25A: 53,66, 2005 [source]

Probing events with single molecule sensitivity in zebrafish and Drosophila embryos by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

Xianke Shi
Abstract Zebrafish and Drosophila are animal models widely used in developmental biology. High-resolution microscopy and live imaging techniques have allowed the investigation of biological processes down to the cellular level in these models. Here, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we show that even processes on a molecular level can be studied in these embryos. The two animal models provide different advantages and challenges. We first characterize their autofluorescence pattern and determine usable penetration depth for FCS especially in the case of zebrafish, where tissue thickness is an issue. Next, the applicability of FCS to study molecular processes is shown by the determination of blood flow velocities with high spatial resolution and the determination of diffusion coefficients of cytosolic and membrane-bound enhanced green fluorescent protein,labeled proteins in different cell types. This work provides an approach to study molecular processes in vivo and opens up the possibility to relate these molecular processes to developmental biology questions. Developmental Dynamics 238:3156,3167, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Botanical richness and endemicity patterns of Borneo derived from species distribution models

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2009
Niels Raes
This study provides a Borneo-wide, quantitative assessment of botanical richness and endemicity at a high spatial resolution, and based on actual collection data. To overcome the bias in collection effort, and to be able to predict the presence and absence of species, even for areas where no collections have been made, we constructed species distribution models (SDMs) for all species taxonomically revised in Flora Malesiana. Species richness and endemicity maps were based on 1439 significant SDMs. Mapping of the residuals of the richness-endemicity relationship identified areas with higher levels of endemicity than can be expected on the basis of species richness, the endemicity hotspots. We were able to identify one previously unknown region of high diversity, the high mountain peaks of East Kalimantan; and two additional endemicity hotspots, the Müller Mountains and the Sangkulirang peninsula. The areas of high diversity and endemicity were characterized by a relatively small range in annual temperature, but with seasonality in temperatures within that range. Furthermore, these areas were least affected by El Niño Southern Oscillation drought events. The endemicity hotspots were found in areas, which were ecologically distinct in altitude, edaphic conditions, annual precipitation, or a combination of these factors. These results can be used to guide conservation efforts of the highly threatened forests of Borneo. [source]

Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy as an In Vitro Technique for Measuring Convective Flow Rates Across Dentine and the Efficacy of Surface Blocking Treatments

Abstract Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is shown to be a powerful technique for both the measurement of local solution velocities through human dentine slices, in vitro, and for assessing quantitatively the effect of surface treatments on the flow process. SECM employs a small ultramicroelectrode (micron dimensions) as an imaging probe to provide information on the topography and transport characteristics of dentine, with high spatial resolution. In these studies the dentine sample is a membrane in a two compartment cell, which contains solutions of identical composition, including a redox active mediator (Fe(CN). In the absence of an applied pressure, the transport-limited current response at the probe electrode is due to diffusion of Fe(CN) to the UME, which depends on the probe to sample separation. Under an applied hydrostatic pressure, hydrodynamic flow across the sample enhances mass transport to the UME. With this methodology it was possible to accurately measure effective fluid velocities, by recording tip currents with and without pressure, and assess the efficacy of potential flow retarding agents for the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. For native dentine, the solution velocity was found to vary dramatically with location on the sample. The application of a glycerol monooleate - base paste treatment to the surface of dentine was found to lower local flow velocities significantly. This electroanalytical methodology is simple to implement and is generally applicable to assessing the efficacy and mode of action of a wide variety of potential fluid flow retarding agents. [source]

Coordinated Development of Yeast Colonies: An Experimental Analysis of the Adaptation to Different Nutrient Concentrations , Part 1

T. Walther
Abstract The development of yeast colonies on solid agar substrates served as a model system to investigate the growth of higher fungi in a heterogeneous environment. Applying a new analytical technique , which was based on the estimation of the intensity of transmitted light from microscopic images taken along the colony radius , cell-density distributions inside fungal mycelia were measured at an extremely high spatial resolution. Using this method, the adaptation of yeast colonies to the limitation of different nutrients was investigated. Under conditions of carbon or nitrogen limitation, populations of the dimorphic model yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida boidinii underwent a transition in their morphology from solid colony to mycelial colony patterns. When grown under conditions that induced the mycelial morphology, colonies extended linearly at a constant rate irrespective of the initial nutrient concentration. In general, the cell density within the population declined at higher degrees of limitation. Nitrogen-limited colonies of both model yeasts, as well as carbon-limited Y.,lipolytica colonies proceeded to extend until the growth field was finally covered by the population. Under these conditions, areas of fairly constant cell densities were formed during the growth process. Only carbon-limited C.,boidinii colonies stopped extending at a final diameter which was small when compared to the size of the growth field, and formed a cell-density profile which was monotonically declining. The observed differences in the final colony diameter, and in the cell-density profile morphology indicated the presence of different regulatory mechanisms that ruled the colony development of the model yeasts. The presented monitoring technique for the biomass distribution inside fungal populations provided the basis for a quantitative and non-invasive description of mycelial development. [source]

Clinical application of transcranial colour-coded duplex sonography , a review

Stephan G. Zipper
Transcranial colour-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) is a new and non-invasive ultrasound application that combines both imaging of intracranial vessels and parenchymal structures at a high spatial resolution. This manuscript reviews the clinical applications of TCCS with focus on its diagnostic abilities in acute stroke patients. Furthermore, new experimental imaging techniques are discussed. [source]

Resolving biogeochemical phenomena at high spatial resolution through electron microscopy

GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
First page of article [source]

Living under an atomic force microscope

GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
An optimized approach for in vivo investigations on surface alterations towards biomineral nucleation on cyanobacterial cells
ABSTRACT An approach for long-term in vivo investigations on cyanobacterial cell surface changes at high spatial resolution by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was developed in this study. Until recently, changes of bacterial cell surfaces due to changes of the chemical environment could neither be investigated in situ nor in vivo. However, in vivo investigations give insights into kinetics of cell response to environmental changes and mineral nucleation at the cell's surface. Continuously cultured cyanobacteria of the representative freshwater strain Synechococcus leopoliensis (PCC 7942) were washed and artificially immobilized on poly-l-lysine-coated glass slides. Both immobilization and environmental conditions were optimized in order to facilitate long-term experiments (> 100 h) with living cells. AFM samples were investigated in situ in two different solutions: Culture medium was used for cultivation experiments and nutrient-free NaHCO3/CaCl2 solutions (supersaturated with respect to calcite) for long-term characterizations of the changes in cell surface topography. Cell viability under these conditions was investigated by AFM, TEM and epifluorescence microscopy, independently. No indications for extended starvation were found within the relevant timescales. Analysing the influence of Ca2+ on the surface of S. leopoliensis, we found significant changes compared to a Ca-free solution. Few hours after CaCl2 was added to the circumfluent solution, small protuberances were observed on the cell surface. These are promising results to environmental scientists for a wide range of applications, as cell response to environmental changes can now be monitored online and in vivo at timescales, which are relevant for natural processes. Most especially studies of biomineralization and mineral nucleation on bacterial cell surfaces will profit from this new approach. [source]

Noninvasive Semiconductor Field Imaging: Imaging the Electric-Field Distribution in Organic Devices by Confocal Electroreflectance Microscopy (Adv. Funct.

Noninvasive methods for diagnosis of organic devices are based on optical probes. At Politecnico di Milano, M. Celebrano et al. have developed a new method to optically map the electric field inside organic planar devices, as described on page 1180. Their technique involves the combination of electroreflectance spectroscopy with confocal microscopy to achieve high spatial resolution. The cover image shows an artistic impression of the optical probing of a CuPcF16 -based device. [source]

Application of High Spatial Resolution Laser Ablation ICP-MS to Crystal-Melt Trace Element Partition Coefficient Determination

Maurizio Petrelli
ICP-MS; ablation laser; éléments en trace; figure de mérite; coefficients de partage entre cristal et liquide In this contribution we evaluate the capabilities of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) using a 12 ,m spot size. Precision, accuracy and detection limits were assessed on the USGS BCR-2G reference material. We demonstrate that the 12 ,m LA-ICP-MS analyses of experimentally-grown amphibole and garnet are in excellent agreement with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) trace element determinations on the same crystals. The 12 ,m spot size configuration was subsequently used to determine trace element crystal-melt partition coefficients (Dc/m) for a wide range of trace elements in amphibole in equilibrium with a basanitic melt. The following strategy to determine accurately and evaluate Dc/m is proposed. One or more major elements determined previously by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was used to ensure consistency between EPMA and the composition of the aerosol produced by the laser ablation. Measured Dc/m values were successively evaluated using the lattice strain model. The use of this strategy significantly improved the precision and accuracy of Dc/m determination when a LA-ICP-MS configuration with a high spatial resolution was employed. Dans cet article nous évaluons les potentialités de l'ablation laser couplée à un spectromètre de masse à plasma induit (LA-ICP-MS) en travaillant avec un diamètre d'impact de 12 ,m. Précision, justesse et limites de détections sont évaluées sur le matériau de référence BCR-2G de l'USGS. Nous démontrons que les analyses LA-ICP-MS faites avec un diamètre de 12 ,m sur les amphiboles et des grenats synthétiques sont en excellent accord avec les déterminations d'éléments en trace effectuées sur les mêmes cristaux par sonde ionique (SIMS). Ce diamètre d'impact de 12 ,m a donc été sélectionné pour déterminer les coefficients de partage cristal/liquide (Dc/m) pour un grand nombre d'éléments en trace dans une amphibole en équilibre avec un liquide basanitique. Nous proposons la stratégie d'analyse suivante, qui assure une détermination exacte des coefficients de partage Dc/m. Un ou plusieurs des éléments majeurs déterminés auparavant par microsonde électronique (EMPA) est utilisé pour garantir la consistance des données entre EMPA et la composition de l'aérosol produit par l'ablation laser. Les Dc/m mesurés sont ensuite évalués en utilisant le modèle de contrainte de réseau. L'utilisation de cette stratégie améliore de manière significative la précision et la justesse des déterminations de Dc/m quand elle est couplée à l'utilisation d'un système LA-ICP-MS de grande résolution spatiale. [source]

Strain Mapping at the Atomic Scale in Highly Mismatched Heterointerfaces,

M. Sánchez
Abstract A complete characterization of dislocation network in a highly mismatched interface with high spatial resolution has been performed. The interface between InN quantum dots and a (0001) GaN substrate contains three noninteracting sets of regularly-spaced misfit dislocations lying along <110> directions. The network has a "Star of David" form, with each star bounding a hexagonal region which is pseudomorphic. These misfit dislocations form a threading dislocation network at the island edges due to free surface forces. [source]

Spatially Selective Functionalization of Conducting Polymers by "Electroclick" Chemistry

Thomas Steen Hansen
Conducting polymer microelectrodes can electrochemically generate the catalyst required for their own functionalization by "click chemistry" with high spatial resolution. Interdigitated microelectrodes prepared from an azide-containing conducting polymer are selectively functionalized in sequence by two alkyne-modified fluorophores by control of the applied potentials. [source]

Methods for retrieving hydrologically significant surface parameters from remote sensing: a review for applications to east Asia region

Bunkei Matsushita
Abstract As human populations and resource use continue to increase, water quality and water resource management will become major problems. With its advantages of large area coverage, high spatial resolution, frequent update and consistent quality, remote sensing has been widely used for hydrological studies and water resources management. This paper focuses on three potential functions of remote sensing for hydrological analysis in east Asia: (1) monitoring water quality in turbid lakes; (2) extracting impervious surface areas (ISAs) from watersheds and (3) estimating evapotranspiration in semi-arid areas. Reviewing the results of the above three topics, it becomes clear that the ability of the current remote sensing technique is still limited in terms of its use in hydrological simulations. An alternative to improving the sensors is developing effective algorithms to compensate for the limitations of current satellite sensors. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Operational performance of current synthetic aperture radar sensors in mapping soil surface characteristics in agricultural environments: application to hydrological and erosion modelling

Nicolas Baghdadi
Abstract Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors are often used to characterize the surface of bare soils in agricultural environments. They enable the soil moisture and roughness to be estimated with constraints linked to the configurations of the sensors (polarization, incidence angle and radar wavelength). These key soil characteristics are necessary for different applications, such as hydrology and risk prediction. This article reviews the potential of currently operational SAR sensors and those planned for the near future to characterize soil surface as a function of users' needs. It details what it is possible to achieve in terms of mapping soil moisture and roughness by specifying optimal radar configurations and the precision associated with the estimation of soil surface characteristics. The summary carried out for the present article shows that mapping soil moisture is optimal with SAR sensors at low incidence angles (<35 ). This configuration, which enables an estimated moisture accuracy greater than 6% is possible several times a month taking into account all the current and future sensors. Concerning soil roughness, it is best mapped using three classes (smooth, moderately rough, and rough). Such mapping requires high-incidence data, which is possible with certain current sensors (RADARSAT-1 and ASAR both in band C). When L-band sensors (ALOS) become available, this mapping accuracy should improve because the sensitivity of the radar signal to Soil Surface Characteristics (SSC) increases with wavelength. Finally, the polarimetric mode of certain imminent sensors (ALOS, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, etc.), and the possibility of acquiring data at very high spatial resolution (metre scale), offer great potential in terms of improving the quality of SSC mapping. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Analysis and objective mapping of extreme daily rainfall in Catalonia

M. Carmen Casas
Abstract The main objective of this study is to determine the maximum daily precipitation in Catalonia for several established return periods with a high spatial resolution. For this purpose, the maximum daily rainfall annual series from 145 pluviometric stations of the Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM) (Spanish Weather Service) in Catalonia have been analyzed. Using the L-moments method of Hosking, every series has been fitted by the extreme value distribution function of Gumbel. From this fitting, the maximum daily precipitation for each of the pluviometric stations corresponding to return periods between 2 and 500 years, have been determined. Applying the Cressman method, the spatial analysis of these values has been achieved. Monthly precipitation climatological data, obtained from the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques, have been used as the initial field for the analysis. The maximum daily precipitation at 1 km2 spatial resolution on Catalonia has been objectively determined by the method employed, and structures with wavelength longer than approximately 35 km can be identified. The results show that places where the maximum daily precipitation values are expected are the zone of Guilleries in the Transversal Range, in the highest zones of the Catalan Pyrenees and Cape Creus zone at the northeastern end of Catalonia and in the south, around the Prelittoral Mountain Range between the Mountains of Prades and Montsià. A good fit between the distribution of minimum values and the driest Catalan areas has been found, the lowest values being on the western end of the Central Basin. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

A synoptic-scale climate analysis of anomalous snow water equivalent over the Northern Great Plains of the USA

Andrew Grundstein
Abstract The Northern Great Plains is a region where variations in seasonal snow accumulation can have a dramatic affect on regional hydrology. In the past, one of the problems in studying snow hydrology has been obtaining information of sufficiently high temporal and spatial resolution on the water content of the snowpack. This project used a hybrid climatology of snow water equivalent (SWE) that incorporated both model and observed data. This climatology has a long time series (49 years) and a high spatial resolution (1° × 1°) sufficient for use in a climatic analysis. The long and complete time series of SWE generated in this project allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the meteorological and climate forcing mechanisms that influence the amount of SWE. The five largest (high SWE) and five smallest SWE (low SWE) accumulations on 1 March were examined. High SWE years received greater snowfall and fewer accumulated melting degree days throughout the season. Large SWE accumulations at the end of the season, however, were not always associated with deep snowpacks early in the season. Also, all five high SWE years had above normal snowfall in February. Years with small or no SWE had below-average snowfall but greater than average accumulated melting degree days. A synoptic analysis examined both atmospheric circulation and air mass frequencies to assess impacts on ablation and snowfall. A distinct difference in the frequency of different air mass during high SWE versus low SWE years was evident. High SWE years were characterized by substantially greater intrusions of the coldest and driest air mass type (dry polar). Low SWE years, in contrast, had a greater frequency of more moderate air masses (dry moderate and moist moderate). In years with above average SWE, negative departures in November,December,January,February composite 700 hPa field were evident across the continental USA and indicate a greater frequency of troughing across the study area. Low SWE years were characterized by a ridging pattern that reduced the likelihood of precipitation and may have aided in the intrusion of more moderate air masses. Copyright © 2003 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

A drought climatology for Europe

Benjamin Lloyd-Hughes
Abstract We present a high spatial resolution, multi-temporal climatology for the incidence of 20th century European drought. The climatology provides, for a given location or region, the time series of drought strength, the number, the mean duration, and the maximum duration of droughts of a given intensity, and the trend in drought incidence. The drought climatology is based on monthly standardized precipitation indices (SPIs) calculated on a 0.5° grid over the European region 35,70 °N and 35 °E,10 °W at time scales of 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months for the period 1901,99. The standardized property facilitates the quantitative comparison of drought incidence at different locations and over different time scales. The standardization procedure (probability transformation) has been tested rigorously assuming normal, log,normal, and gamma statistics for precipitation. Near equivalence is demonstrated between the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) and SPIs on time scales of 9 to 12 months. The mean number and duration by grid cell of extreme European drought events (SPI , ,2) on a time scale of 12 months is 6 ± 2 months and 27 ± 8 months respectively. The mean maximum drought duration is 48 ± 17 months. Trends in SPI and PDSI values indicate that the proportion of Europe experiencing extreme and/or moderate drought conditions has changed insignificantly during the 20th century. We hope the climatology will provide a useful resource for assessing both the regional vulnerability to drought and the seasonal predictability of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2002 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

The benefits of rapid 3D fMRI

Martin A. Lindquist
Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides the ability to image blood dynamics through the entire brain with a high spatial resolution. However, the temporal resolution is much slower than the underlying neuronal activity one seeks to infer. Recent developments in rapid imaging allow 3D fMRI studies to be performed at a temporal resolution of 100 ms; a 10-fold increase compared to standard approaches. This increase in temporal resolution offers a number of potential benefits. First, it allows the focus of analysis to be shifted from changes in blood flow taking place 5,8 s after neuronal activity to more transient changes taking place immediately following activation. We argue that studying these changes provides valuable information about the relative timing of activation across different regions of the brain, which is crucial for inferring brain pathways. Second, rapid imaging allows for the efficient modeling of physiological artifacts without problems with aliasing; something that is difficult at standard resolutions. We illustrate how removal of these artifacts provides the increase in signal-to-noise ratio required for studying the subtle changes in oxygenation we are interested in. Finally, we show how high temporal resolution data provides the opportunity to focus the analysis on the rate of change in oxygenation rather than the level of oxygenation as is the current practice. The price of performing rapid imaging studies is a decrease in spatial resolution. However, we argue that the resolution is still comparable to the effective resolution used in most fMRI studies. We illustrate our approach using two fMRI data sets. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 20, 14,22, 2010 [source]

A time-domain approach for wideband modeling of electronic packages

Sedki M. Riad
Abstract This article presents a technique for wideband modeling and characterization of electronic packages. The modeling approach presented is based on time-domain reflectometry techniques (TDRs). The time-domain approach is capable of directly identifying the various contributions (reflections) from different discontinuities of the structure with a relatively high spatial resolution. Consequently, this makes it possible to isolate the effect of different discontinuities over the bandwidth of the package. This technique has been successfully applied to several packages, two of which are demonstrated in this article. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2005. [source]

Visualization of alveolar recruitment in a porcine model of unilateral lung lavage using 3He-MRI

Background: In the acute respiratory distress syndrome potentially recruitable lung volume is currently discussed. 3He-magnetic resonance imaging (3He-MRI) offers the possibility to visualize alveolar recruitment directly. Methods: With the approval of the state animal care committee, unilateral lung damage was induced in seven anesthetized pigs by saline lavage of the right lungs. The left lung served as an intraindividual control (healthy lung). Unilateral lung damage was confirmed by conventional proton MRI and spiral-CT scanning. The total aerated lung volume was determined both at a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 0 and 10 mbar from three-dimensionally reconstructed 3He images, both for healthy and damaged lungs. The fractional increase of aerated volume in damaged and healthy lungs, followed by a PEEP increase from 0 to 10 mbar, was compared. Results: Aerated gas space was visualized with a high spatial resolution in the three-dimensionally reconstructed 3He-MR images, and aeration defects in the lavaged lung matched the regional distribution of atelectasis in proton MRI. After recruitment and PEEP increase, the aerated volume increased significantly both in healthy lungs from 415 ml [270,445] (median [min,max]) to 481 ml [347,523] and in lavaged lungs from 264 ml [71,424] to 424 ml [129,520]. The fractional increase in lavaged lungs was significantly larger than that in healthy lungs (healthy: 17% [11,38] vs. lavage: 42% [14,90] (P=0.031). Conclusion: The 3He-MRI signal might offer an experimental approach to discriminate atelectatic vs. poor aerated lung areas in a lung damage animal model. Our results confirm the presence of potential recruitable lung volume by either alveolar collapse or alveolar flooding, in accordance with previous reports by computed tomography. [source]

Microarchitectural and Physical Changes During Fetal Growth in Human Vertebral Bone,

S Nuzzo
Abstract The ossification process in human vertebra during the early stage of its formation was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray microtomography (,CT) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France. Twenty-two samples taken from vertebral ossification centers of human fetal bone (gestational age ranging between 16 and 26 weeks) were investigated. The analysis of three-dimensional images at high spatial resolution (,10 and ,2 ,m) allows a detailed quantitative description of bone microarchitecture. A denser trabecular network was found in fetal bone compared with that of adult bone. The images evidenced a global isotropic structure clearly composed of two regions: a central region (trabecular bone) and a peripheral region (immature bone). XRD experiments evidenced hydroxyapatite-like crystalline structure in the mineral phase at any fetal age after 16 weeks. Interestingly, the analysis of XRD patterns highlighted the evolution of crystalline structure of mineralized bone as a function of age involving the growth of the hydroxyapatite crystallites. [source]

A Tissue-Specific Model of Reentry in the Right Atrial Appendage

Introduction: Atrial fibrillation is prevalent in the elderly and contributes to mortality in congestive heart failure. Development of computer models of atrial electrical activation that incorporate realistic structures provides a means of investigating the mechanisms that initiate and maintain reentrant atrial arrhythmia. As a step toward this, we have developed a model of the right atrial appendage (RAA) including detailed geometry of the pectinate muscles (PM) and crista terminalis (CT) with high spatial resolution, as well as complete fiber architecture. Methods and Results: Detailed structural images of a pig RAA were acquired using a semiautomated extended-volume imaging system. The generally accepted anisotropic ratio of 10:1 was adopted in the computer model. To deal with the regional action potential duration heterogeneity in the RAA, a Courtemanche cell model and a Luo-Rudy cell model were used for the CT and PM, respectively. Activation through the CT and PM network was adequately reproduced with acceptable accuracy using reduced-order computer models. Using a train of reducing cycle length stimuli applied to a CT/PM junction, we observed functional block both parallel with and perpendicular to the axis of the CT. Conclusion: With stimulation from the CT at the junction of a PM, we conclude: (a) that conduction block within the CT is due to a reduced safety factor; and (b) that unidirectional block and reentry within the CT is due to its high anisotropy. Regional differences in effective refractive period do not explain the observed conduction block. [source]

Functional and molecular MR imaging of angiogenesis: Seeing the target, seeing it work

Michal NeemanArticle first published online: 16 JAN 200
Abstract Intensive research over the last years led to the discovery of multiple molecular pathways and intricate regulatory network controlling the growth and regression of blood vessels in general and angiogenesis in particular. The difficulties in elucidation of the regulation of angiogenesis, stems from the inherent complexity due to participation of many cell types, under a dominant impact of physiological and environmental effects of flow, perfusion, and oxygenation. Major advances were achieved with the use of sophisticated transgenic mice models engineered so as to provide spatially and temporally controlled expression of specific factors alone or in combination. In vivo analysis of these models frequently requires the use of non-invasive imaging modalities for measurement of functional parameters of the vasculature along with dynamic molecular information. Optical methods are extensively applied for the study of angiogenesis [Brown et al., 2001] but provide very limited tissue penetration. MRI offers the advantage of being non-invasive with uniform and relatively high spatial resolution for deep tissues. Multiple MRI approaches for monitoring angiogenesis were developed over the last years, each looking at a particular step in the process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the clinical, pharmaceutical, and biological needs for imaging of angiogenesis, and to critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of functional and molecular imaging for monitoring angiogenesis. The inherent problem of validation of different measures of angiogenesis, and the advantages and limitations associated with application of MRI based methods, as surrogates for other measurements of angiogenesis will be discussed. The terms molecular imaging and functional imaging are frequently loosely defined with a significant overlap between the two. For the sake of this paper we will apply a narrower definition of both terms, where molecular imaging will apply to methods directed towards detection of specific biological molecules that participate directly in (regulation of) a physiological process; while functional imaging will be used to describe those methods that aim to detect the physiological response to a defined (molecular) stimulus. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. 39: 11,17, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Transverse relaxation time (T2) mapping in the brain with off-resonance correction using phase-cycled steady-state free precession imaging

Sean C.L. Deoni PhD
Abstract Purpose To investigate a new approach for more completely accounting for off-resonance affects in the DESPOT2 (driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T2) mapping technique. Materials and Methods The DESPOT2 method derives T2 information from fully balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) images acquired over multiple flip angles. Off-resonance affects, which present as bands of altered signal intensity throughout the bSSFP images, results in erroneous T2 values in the corresponding calculated maps. Radiofrequency (RF) phase-cycling, in which the phase of the RF pulse is incremented along the pulse train, offers a potential method for eliminating these artifacts. In this work we present a general method, referred to as DESPOT2, with full modeling (DESPOT2-FM), for deriving T2, as well as off-resonance frequency, from dual flip angle bSSFP data acquired with two RF phase increments. Results The method is demonstrated in vivo through the acquisition of whole-brain, 1 mm3 isotropic T2 maps at 3T and shown to provide near artifact-free maps, even in areas with steep susceptibility-induced gradients. Conclusion DESPOT2-FM offers an efficient method for acquiring high spatial resolution, whole-brain T2 maps at 3T with high precision and free of artifact. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:411,417. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Measurement of deep gray matter perfusion using a segmented true,fast imaging with steady-state precession (True-FISP) arterial spin-labeling (ASL) method at 3T

Elan J. Grossman MS
Abstract Purpose To study the feasibility of using the MRI technique of segmented true,fast imaging with steady-state precession arterial spin-labeling (True-FISP ASL) for the noninvasive measurement and quantification of local perfusion in cerebral deep gray matter at 3T. Materials and Methods A flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation was used in which the echo-planar imaging (EPI) readout was replaced with a segmented True-FISP data acquisition strategy. The absolute perfusion for six selected regions of deep gray matter (left and right thalamus, putamen, and caudate) were calculated in 11 healthy human subjects (six male, five female; mean age = 35.5 years ± 9.9). Results Preliminary measurements of the average absolute perfusion values at the six selected regions of deep gray matter are in agreement with published values for mean absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) baselines acquired from healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET). Conclusion Segmented True-FISP ASL is a practical and quantitative technique suitable to measure local tissue perfusion in cerebral deep gray matter at a high spatial resolution without the susceptibility artifacts commonly associated with EPI-based methods of ASL. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1425,1431. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Constraints on the early metamorphic evolution of Broken Hill, Australia, from in situ U-Pb dating and REE geochemistry of monazite

Abstract The Broken Hill Pb-Zn deposit, New South Wales Australia, is hosted in granulite facies gneisses of the Southern Curnamona Province (SCP) that have long been known to record a polydeformational and polymetamorphic history. The details of this potentially prolonged tectonothermal history have remained poorly understood because of a historical emphasis on conventional (i.e. grain mount) U-Pb zircon geochronology to reveal details of the sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic history of the rock that crops out in the vicinity of the city of Broken Hill. An alternative approach to unravelling the metamorphic history of the granulite facies gneisses in and around Broken Hill is to date accessory minerals, such as monazite, that participate in sub-solidus metamorphic reactions. We have taken advantage of the high spatial resolution and high sensitivity afforded by SHRIMP monazite geochronology to reconstruct the early history of the metamorphic rocks at Broken Hill. In contrast to previous studies, in situ analysis of monazite grains preserved in their original textural context in polished thin sections is used. Guided by electron microprobe X-ray maps, SHRIMP U-Pb dates for three distinct monazite compositional domains record pulses of monazite growth at c. 1657 Ma, c.1630 Ma and c.1602 Ma. It is demonstrated that these ages correspond to monazite growth during lower amphibolite facies, upper amphibolite facies and granulite facies metamorphism, respectively. It is speculated that this progressive heating of the SCP crust may have been driven by inversion of the upper crust during the Olarian Orogeny that was pre-heated by magmatic underplating at c.1657 Ma. [source]

A study of the human hair structure with a Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscope

Summary We have observed the internal structure of human hair shafts with a transmission Zernike phase contrast hard X-ray microscope. Due to the high spatial resolution and the high contrast of the microscope, we could image scales, macrofibrils, medulla and melanin without staining. The structure of a black hair shaft is compared with that of a white one. [source]

Femur window,a new approach to microcirculation of living bone in situ

N. Hansen-Algenstaedt
Abstract Background: The processes of osteogenesis, bone remodelling, fracture repair and metastasis to bone are determined by complex sequential interactions involving cellular and microcirculatory parameters. Consequently studies targeting the analysis of microcirculatory parameters on such processes should mostly respect these complex conditions. However these conditions could not yet be achieved in vitro and therefore techniques that allow a long-term observation of functional and structural parameters of microcirculation in bone in vivo at a high spatial resolution are needed to monitor dynamic events, such as fracture healing, bone remodelling and tumor metastasis. Methods: We developed a bone chamber implant (femur window) for long-term intravital microscopy of pre-existing bone and its microcirculation at an orthotopic site in mice preserving the mechanical properties of bone. After bone chamber implantation vascular density, vessel diameter, vessel perfusion, vascular permeability and leukocyte-endothelial interactions (LEIs) in femoral bone tissue of c57-black mice (n = 11) were measured quantitatively over 12 days using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore a model for bone defect healing and bone metastasis in the femur window was tested. Results: Microvascular permeability and LEIs showed initially high values after chamber implantation followed by a significant decrease to a steady state at day 6 and 12, whereas structural parameters remained unaltered. Bone defect healing and tumor growth was observed over 12 and 90 days respectively. Conclusion: The new femur window design allows a long-term analysis of structural and functional properties of bone and its microcirculation quantitatively at a high spatial resolution. Altered functional parameters of microcirculation after surgical procedures and their time dependent return to a steady state underline the necessity of long-term observations to achieve unaltered microcirculatory parameters. Dissection of the complex interactions between bone and microcirculation enables us to evaluate physiological and pathological processes of bone and may give new insights especially in dynamic events e.g. fracture healing, bone remodeling and tumor metastasis. © 2005 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Comparison of Raman spectroscopic methods for the determination of supercooled and liquid water temperature

Dubravko Risovi
Abstract Raman spectroscopy provides an efficient method for non-contact determination of liquid water temperature with high spatial resolution. It can be also used for remote in situ determination of subsurface water temperature. The method is based on temperature-dependent changes of the molecular OH stretching band in the Raman spectra of liquid water. These in turn are attributed to a decrease in intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions with increase in temperature. Here, the results of an experimental study employing three different approaches in the determination of temperature from recorded OH stretching band in the Raman spectra of liquid and supercooled water are presented and discussed. The first two methods are based on deconvolution of the spectral band into Gaussian components whose intensities and associated specific spectral markers are temperature dependent, and the third approach is based on Raman difference spectroscopy (RDS). The presented measurements were conducted on distilled and deionized supercooled and liquid water in the temperature range between ,12.5 and +32.5 °C. The results are compared in terms of linearity of response, sensitivity and accuracy. It is shown that the method based on RDS even in the supercooled temperature range provides better accuracy (the standard deviation from the true temperature is ±0.4 K) and linearity in temperature determination than more complicated methods based on Gaussian deconvolution of the OH stretching band. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]