High Spatial Frequencies (high + spatial_frequency)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

How the parallel channels of the retina contribute to depth processing

Peter H. Schiller
Abstract Reconstructing the third dimension in the visual scene from the two dimensional images that impinge on the retinal surface is one of the major tasks of the visual system. We have devised a visual display that makes it possible to study stereoscopic depth cues and motion parallax cues separately or in concert using rhesus macaques. By varying the spatial frequency of the display and its luminance and chrominance, it is possible to selectively activate channels that originate in the primate retina. Our results show that (i) the parasol system plays a central role in processing motion parallax cues; (ii) the midget system plays a central role in stereoscopic depth perception at high spatial frequencies, and (iii) red/green colour selective neurons can effectively process both cues but blue/yellow neurons cannot do so. [source]

Perceived blur in amblyopia

A. J. Simmers
Purpose:, It is well documented that visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in amblyopia are attenuated at high spatial frequencies: this would predict that amblyopes should perceive objects as blurred because they lack high spatial frequency information necessary to adequately represent sharp edges. In a series of experiments, we explored the representation of blur in amblyopia with blur discrimination and blur matching tasks. Methods:, Monocular blur discrimination thresholds were measured in a spatial 2-Alternative Force Choice procedure. The luminance profiles of the blurred edge were cumulative Gaussians with the standard deviation of the reference blurred edge being fixed at 1.88, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, or 60 min arc. Observers were required to discriminate which edge (right or left) appeared to be the less blurred. Observers also interocularly matched edges which were identical to those employed in the blur discrimination tasks, with the exception that they were viewed dichoptically at all times. Results:, Blur discriminination thresholds were elevated in both the amblyopic and fellow fixing eye but were within the normal range for interocular matching thresholds. Our results suggest that blur is veridically represented in the amblyopic visual system. Conclusions:, The surprising result here is that all amblyopes, even those with the most severe visual loss, veridically matched all blurred edges, including the sharpest ones. This implies that amblyopes are able to represent levels of blur that are defined by spatial structure beyond their resolution limit. These results also raise interesting questions about the mechanism by which blur is represented in the visual system. [source]

Spherical and irregular aberrations are important for the optimal performance of the human eye

Y. K. Nio
Contrast sensitivity measured psychophysically at different levels of defocus can be used to evaluate the eye optics. Possible parameters of spherical and irregular aberrations, e.g. relative modulation transfer (RMT), myopic shift, and depth of focus, can be determined from these measurements. The present paper compares measured results of RMT, myopic shift, and depth of focus with the theoretical results found in the two eye models described by Jansonius and Kooijman (1998). The RMT data in the present study agree with those found in other studies, e.g. Campbell and Green (1965) and Jansonius and Kooijman (1997). A new theoretical eye model using a spherical aberration intermediate between those of the eye models described by Jansonius and Kooijman (1998) and an irregular aberration with a typical S.D. of 0.3,0.5 D could adequately explain the measured RMT, myopic shift, and depth of focus data. Both spherical and irregular aberrations increased the depth of focus, but decreased the modulation transfer (MT) at high spatial frequencies at optimum focus. These aberrations, therefore, play an important role in the balance between acuity and depth of focus. [source]

Transverse chromatic aberration and colour-defined motion

Jocelyn Faubert
Summary A number of recent studies have explored the role of the chromatic system in motion processes using the isoluminance paradigm. A major concern when using such methodological procedures is potential artefacts produced by chromatic aberrations. In the present study we address the problem of optically induced luminance artefacts produced by transverse chromatic aberrations (TCA), which may contaminate the results obtained in chromatic motion-nulling experiments. Results show that different TCA levels artificially increase chromatic motion sensitivity values to varying degrees above 0.5 cpd for red/green gratings. The data also suggest the notion that naturally occurring TCA can decrease motion-nulling thresholds for chromatic gratings at high spatial frequencies. Furthermore, our data show that the motion-nulling paradigm for chromatic gratings may in fact be an efficient functional method for assessing the amount of TCA produced by optical factors. [source]

The value of contrast sensitivity in diagnosing central serous chorioretinopathy

S Plainis MSc PhD
A 39-year-old hyperopic male was referred for laser refractive treatment. In the course of the pre-operative evaluation he complained of a recent deterioration of vision. The suspicion of unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) was confirmed by contrast sensitivity testing and by ocular fundus examination. Contrast sensitivity (CS) for six spatial frequencies (1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 c/deg) was evaluated using Gabor patches of gratings projected on a high-resolution display by means of a stimulus generator card. Although VA remained unaltered, the pattern of contrast sensitivity function varied at different stages of CSCR: during the acute stage, performance at all spatial frequencies was depressed, while at two-month follow up, intermediate and high spatial frequencies were mainly affected. It is concluded that the level of visual deficit in CSCR cannot be evaluated by measuring visual acuity. History and contrast sensitivity can play a central role in setting the correct diagnosis and characterising its stage. [source]