High Redshift (high + redshift)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

GEMINI 3D spectroscopy of BAL + IR + Fe ii QSOs , I. Decoupling the BAL, QSO, starburst, NLR, supergiant bubbles and galactic wind in Mrk 231

S. Lipari
ABSTRACT In this paper we present the first results of a study of BAL QSOs (at low and high redshift), based on very deep Gemini GMOS integral field spectroscopy. In particular, the results obtained for the nearest BAL IR,QSO Mrk 231 are presented. For the nuclear region of Mrk 231, the QSO and host galaxy components were modelled, using a new technique of decoupling 3D spectra. From this study, the following main results were found: (i) in the pure host galaxy spectrum an extreme nuclear starburst component was clearly observed, as a very strong increase in the flux, at the blue wavelengths; (ii) the BAL system I is observed in the spectrum of the host galaxy; (iii) in the clean/pure QSO emission spectrum, only broad lines were detected. 3D GMOS individual spectra (specially in the near-infrared Ca ii triplet) and maps confirm the presence of an extreme and young nuclear starburst (8 < age < 15 Myr), which was detected in a ring or toroid with a radius r= 0.3 arcsec , 200 pc, around the core of the nucleus. The extreme continuum blue component was detected only to the south of the core of the nucleus. This area is coincident with the region where we previously suggested that the galactic wind is cleaning the nuclear dust. Very deep 3D spectra and maps clearly show that the BAL systems I and II , in the strong ,absorption lines' Na iD,5889,95 and Ca ii K,3933 , are extended (reaching ,1.4,1.6 arcsec , 1.2,1.3 kpc, from the nucleus) and clearly elongated at the position angle (PA) close to the radio jet PA, which suggest that the BAL systems I and II are ,both' associated with the radio jet. The physical properties of the four expanding nuclear bubbles were analysed, using the GMOS 3D spectra and maps. In particular, we found strong multiple LINER/OF emission-line systems and Wolf,Rayet features in the main knots of the more external super bubble S1 (r= 3.0 kpc). The kinematics of these knots , and the internal bubbles , suggest that they are associated with an area of rupture of the shell S1 (at the south-west). In addition, in the more internal superbubble S4 and close to the core of the nucleus (for r < 0.7 arcsec , 0.6 kpc), two similar narrow emission-line systems were detected, with strong [S ii] and [O i] emission and ,V,,200 km s,1. These results suggest that an important part of the nuclear NLR is generated by the OF process and the associated low-velocity ionizing shocks. Finally, the nature of the composite BAL systems and very extended OF process , of 50 kpc , in Mrk 231 (and similar QSOs) are discussed. In addition, the ,composite hyperwind scenario' (already proposed for BALs) is suggested for the origin of giant Ly, blobs. The importance of study the end phases of Mrk 231, and similar evolving elliptical galaxies and QSOs (i.e. galaxy remnants) is discussed. [source]

Is AGN feedback necessary to form red elliptical galaxies?

A. Khalatyan
ABSTRACT We have used the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code gadget-2 to simulate the formation of an elliptical galaxy in a group-size cosmological dark matter halo with mass Mhalo, 3 × 1012 h,1 M, at z= 0. The use of a stellar population synthesis model has allowed us to compute magnitudes, colours and surface brightness profiles. We have included a model to follow the growth of a central black hole and we have compared the results of simulations with and without feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have studied the interplay between cold gas accretion and merging in the development of galactic morphologies, the link between colour and morphology evolution, the effect of AGN feedback on the photometry of early-type galaxies, the redshift evolution in the properties of quasar hosts, and the impact of AGN winds on the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We have found that the early phases of galaxy formation are driven by the accretion of cold filamentary flows, which form a disc galaxy at the centre of the dark matter halo. Disc star formation rates in this mode of galaxy growth are about as high as the peak star formation rates attained at a later epoch in galaxy mergers. When the dark matter halo is sufficiently massive to support the propagation of a stable shock, the gas in the filaments is heated to the virial temperature, cold accretion is shut down, and the star formation rate begins to decline. Mergers transform the spiral galaxy into an elliptical one, but they also reactivate star formation by bringing gas into the galaxy. Without a mechanism that removes gas from the merger remnants, the galaxy ends up with blue colours, which are atypical for its elliptical morphology. We have demonstrated that AGN feedback can solve this problem even with a fairly low heating efficiency. Our simulations support a picture where AGN feedback is important for quenching star formation in the remnant of wet mergers and for moving them to the red sequence. This picture is consistent with recent observational results, which suggest that AGN hosts are galaxies in migration from the blue cloud to the red sequence on the colour,magnitude diagram. However, we have also seen a transition in the properties of AGN hosts from blue and star forming at z, 2 to mainly red and dead at z, 0. Ongoing merging is the primary but not the only triggering mechanism for luminous AGN activity. Quenching by AGN is only effective after the cold filaments have dried out, since otherwise the galaxy is constantly replenished with gas. AGN feedback also contributes to raising the entropy of the hot IGM by removing low-entropy tails vulnerable to developing cooling flows. We have also demonstrated that AGN winds are potentially important for the metal enrichment of the IGM a high redshift. [source]

Galaxy growth in the concordance ,CDM cosmology

Q. Guo
ABSTRACT We use galaxy and dark halo data from the public database for the Millennium Simulation to study the growth of galaxies in the De Lucia et al. model for galaxy formation. Previous work has shown this model to reproduce many aspects of the systematic properties and the clustering of real galaxies, both in the nearby universe and at high redshift. It assumes the stellar masses of galaxies to increase through three processes, major mergers, the accretion of smaller satellite systems and star formation. We show the relative importance of these three modes to be a strong function of stellar mass and redshift. Galaxy growth through major mergers depends strongly on stellar mass, but only weakly on redshift. Except for massive systems, minor mergers contribute more to galaxy growth than major mergers at all redshifts and stellar masses. For galaxies significantly less massive than the Milky Way, star formation dominates the growth at all epochs. For galaxies significantly more massive than the Milky Way, growth through mergers is the dominant process at all epochs. At a stellar mass of 6 × 1010 M,, about that of the Milk Way, star formation dominates at z > 1 and mergers at later times. At every stellar mass, the growth rates through star formation increase rapidly with increasing redshift. Specific star formation rates are the decreasing function of stellar mass not only at z= 0 but also at all higher redshifts. For comparison, we carry out a similar analysis of the growth of dark matter haloes. In contrast to the galaxies, growth rates depend strongly on redshift, but only weakly on mass. They agree qualitatively with analytic predictions for halo growth. [source]

Black hole growth in hierarchical galaxy formation

Rowena K. Malbon
ABSTRACT We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on ,CDM proposed by Baugh et al. Our black hole model has one free parameter, which we set by matching the observed zero-point of the local correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity. We present predictions for the evolution with redshift of the relationships between black hole mass and bulge properties. Our simulations reproduce the evolution of the optical luminosity function of quasars. We study the demographics of the black hole population and address the issue of how black holes acquire their mass. We find that the direct accretion of cold gas during starbursts is an important growth mechanism for lower mass black holes and at high redshift. On the other hand, the re-assembly of pre-existing black hole mass into larger units via merging dominates the growth of more massive black holes at low redshift. This prediction could be tested by future gravitational wave experiments. As redshift decreases, progressively less massive black holes have the highest fractional growth rates, in line with recent claims of ,downsizing' in quasar activity. [source]

Imaging and spectroscopy of ultrasteep spectrum radio sources,

Carlos G. Bornancini
ABSTRACT We present a sample of 40 ultrasteep spectrum (USS; ,,, 1.3, S,,,,) radio sources selected from the Westerbork in the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) catalogue. The USS sources have been imaged in K band at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) and with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal. We also present VLT, Keck and William Herschel Telescope (WHT) optical spectroscopy of 14 targets selection from four different USS samples. For 12 sources, we have been able to determine the redshifts, including four new radio galaxies at z > 3. We find that most of our USS sources have predominantly small (<6 arcsec) radio sizes and faint magnitudes (K, 18). The mean K -band counterpart magnitude is . The expected redshift distribution estimated using the Hubble K,z diagram has a mean of , which is higher than the predicted redshift obtained for the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey,NRAO VLA Sky Survey (SUMSS,NVSS) sample and the expected redshift obtained in the 6C** survey. The compact USS sample analysed here may contain a higher fraction of galaxies which are high redshift and/or are heavily obscured by dust. Using the 74, 352 and 1400 MHz flux densities of a subsample, we construct a radio colour,colour diagram. We find that all but one of our USS sources have a strong tendency to flatten below 352 MHz. We also find that the highest redshift source from this paper (at z= 3.84) does not show evidence for spectral flattening down to 151 MHz. This suggests that very low frequency selected USS samples will likely be more efficient to find high redshift galaxies. [source]

The DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey: evolution of the colour,density relation at 0.4 < z < 1.35

Michael C. Cooper
ABSTRACT Using a sample of 19 464 galaxies drawn from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, we study the relationship between galaxy colour and environment at 0.4 < z < 1.35. We find that the fraction of galaxies on the red sequence depends strongly on local environment out to z > 1, being larger in regions of greater galaxy density. At all epochs probed, we also find a small population of red, morphologically early-type galaxies residing in regions of low measured overdensity. The observed correlations between the red fraction and local overdensity are highly significant, with the trend at z > 1 detected at a greater than 5, level. Over the entire redshift regime studied, we find that the colour,density relation evolves continuously, with red galaxies more strongly favouring overdense regions at low z relative to their red-sequence counterparts at high redshift. At z, 1.3, the red fraction only weakly correlates with overdensity, implying that any colour dependence to the clustering of ,L* galaxies at that epoch must be small. Our findings add weight to existing evidence that the build-up of galaxies on the red sequence has occurred preferentially in overdense environments (i.e. galaxy groups) at z, 1.5. Furthermore, we identify the epoch (z, 2) at which typical ,L* galaxies began quenching and moved on to the red sequence in significant number. The strength of the observed evolutionary trends at 0 < z < 1.35 suggests that the correlations observed locally, such as the morphology,density and colour,density relations, are the result of environment-driven mechanisms (i.e. ,nurture') and do not appear to have been imprinted (by ,nature') upon the galaxy population during their epoch of formation. [source]

The halo mass function from the dark ages through the present day

Darren S. Reed
ABSTRACT We use an array of high-resolution N -body simulations to determine the mass function of dark matter haloes at redshifts 10,30. We develop a new method for compensating for the effects of finite simulation volume that allows us to find an approximation to the true ,global' mass function. By simulating a wide range of volumes at different mass resolution, we calculate the abundance of haloes of mass 105,12 h,1 M,. This enables us to predict accurately the abundance of the haloes that host the sources that reionize the Universe. In particular, we focus on the small mass haloes (,105.5,6 h,1 M,) likely to harbour Population III stars where gas cools by molecular hydrogen emission, early galaxies in which baryons cool by atomic hydrogen emission at a virial temperature of ,104K (,107.5,8 h,1 M,), and massive galaxies that may be observable at redshift ,10. When we combine our data with simulations that include high-mass haloes at low redshift, we find that the best fit to the halo mass function depends not only on the linear overdensity, as is commonly assumed in analytic models, but also on the slope of the linear power spectrum at the scale of the halo mass. The Press,Schechter model gives a poor fit to the halo mass function in the simulations at all epochs; the Sheth-Tormen model gives a better match, but still overpredicts the abundance of rare objects at all times by up to 50 per cent. Finally, we consider the consequences of the recently released WMAP 3-yr cosmological parameters. These lead to much less structure at high redshift, reducing the number of z= 10,mini-haloes' by more than a factor of two and the number of z= 30 galaxy hosts by nearly four orders of magnitude. Code to generate our best-fitting halo mass function may be downloaded from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/Research/PublicDownloads/genmf_readme.html. [source]

Cosmic evolution of metal densities: the enrichment of the intergalactic medium

F. Calura
ABSTRACT By means of chemo-photometric models for galaxies of different morphological types, we have carried out a detailed study of the history of element production by spheroidal and dwarf irregular galaxies. Spheroidal galaxies suffer a strong and intense star formation episode at early times. In dwarf irregulars, the star formation rate (SFR) proceeds at a low regime but continuously. Both galactic types enrich the intergalactic medium (IGM) with metals by means of galactic winds. We have assumed that the galaxy number density is fixed and normalized to the value of the optical luminosity function observed in the local Universe. Our models allow us to investigate in detail how the metal fractions locked up in stars in spheroids and dwarf irregulars, those present in the interstellar medium (ISM) and those ejected into the IGM have changed with cosmic time. By relaxing the instantaneous recycling approximation and taking into account stellar lifetimes, for the first time we have studied the evolution of the chemical abundance ratios in the IGM and compared our predictions with a set of observations by various authors. Our results indicate that the bulk of the IGM enrichment is due to spheroids, with dwarf irregular galaxies playing a negligible role. Our predictions grossly account for the [O/H] observed in the IGM at high redshift, but overestimate the [C/H]. Furthermore, it appears hard to reproduce the abundance ratios observed in the high-redshift IGM. Some possible explanations are discussed in the text. This is the first attempt to study the abundance ratios in the IGM by means of detailed chemical evolution models which take into account the stellar lifetimes. Numerical simulations adopting our chemical evolution prescriptions could be useful to improve our understanding of the IGM chemical enrichment. [source]

The properties of Ly, emitting galaxies in hierarchical galaxy formation models

M. Le Delliou
ABSTRACT We present detailed predictions for the properties of Ly,-emitting galaxies in the framework of the , cold dark matter cosmology, calculated using the semi-analytical galaxy formation model galform. We explore a model that assumes a top-heavy initial mass function in starbursts and that has previously been shown to explain the sub-millimetre number counts and the luminosity function of Lyman-break galaxies at high redshift. We show that this model, with the simple assumption that a fixed fraction of Ly, photons escape from each galaxy, is remarkably successful at explaining the observed luminosity function of Ly, emitters (LAEs) over the redshift range 3 < z < 6.6. We also examine the distribution of Ly, equivalent widths and the broad-band continuum magnitudes of emitters, which are in good agreement with the available observations. We look more deeply into the nature of LAEs, presenting predictions for fundamental properties such as the stellar mass and radius of the emitting galaxy and the mass of the host dark matter halo. The model predicts that the clustering of LAEs at high redshifts should be strongly biased relative to the dark matter, in agreement with observational estimates. We also present predictions for the luminosity function of LAEs at z > 7, a redshift range that is starting to be be probed by near-infrared surveys and using new instruments such as the Dark Ages Z Lyman Explorer (DAzLE). [source]

The evolution of the cluster X-ray scaling relations in the Wide Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey sample at 0.6 < z < 1.0

B. J. Maughan
ABSTRACT The X-ray properties of a sample of 11 high-redshift (0.6 < z < 1.0) clusters observed with Chandra and/or XMM,Newton are used to investigate the evolution of the cluster scaling relations. The observed evolution in the normalization of the L,T, M,T, Mg,T and M,L relations is consistent with simple self-similar predictions, in which the properties of clusters reflect the properties of the Universe at their redshift of observation. Under the assumption that the model of self-similar evolution is correct and that the local systems formed via a single spherical collapse, the high-redshift L,T relation is consistent with the high- z clusters having virialized at a significantly higher redshift than the local systems. The data are also consistent with the more realistic scenario of clusters forming via the continuous accretion of material. The slope of the L,T relation at high redshift (B= 3.32 ± 0.37) is consistent with the local relation, and significantly steeper than the self-similar prediction of B= 2. This suggests that the same non-gravitational processes are responsible for steepening the local and high- z relations, possibly occurring universally at z, 1 or in the early stages of the cluster formation, prior to their observation. The properties of the intracluster medium at high redshift are found to be similar to those in the local Universe. The mean surface-brightness profile slope for the sample is ,= 0.66 ± 0.05, the mean gas mass fractions within R2500(z) and R200(z) are 0.069 ± 0.012 and 0.11 ± 0.02, respectively, and the mean metallicity of the sample is 0.28 ± 0.11 Z,. [source]

Spin temperatures and covering factors for H i 21-cm absorption in damped Lyman , systems

S. J. Curran
ABSTRACT We investigate the practice of assigning high spin temperatures to damped Lyman , absorption systems (DLAs) not detected in H i 21-cm absorption. In particular, Kanekar & Chengalur have attributed the mix of 21-cm detections and non-detections in low-redshift (zabs, 2.04) DLAs to a mix of spin temperatures, while the non-detections at high redshift were attributed to high spin temperatures. Below zabs= 0.9, where some of the DLA host galaxy morphologies are known, we find that 21-cm absorption is normally detected towards large radio sources when the absorber is known to be associated with a large intermediate (spiral) galaxy. Furthermore, at these redshifts, only one of the six 21-cm non-detections has an optical identification and these DLAs tend to lie along the sight-lines to the largest background radio continuum sources. For these and many of the high-redshift DLAs occulting large radio continua, we therefore expect covering factors of less than the assumed/estimated value of unity. This would have the effect of introducing a range of spin temperatures considerably narrower than the current range of ,Ts, 9000 K, while still supporting the hypothesis that the high-redshift DLA sample comprises a larger proportion of compact galaxies than the low-redshift sample. [source]

The 2dF QSO Redshift Survey , XIV.

Structure, evolution from the two-point correlation function
ABSTRACT In this paper we present a clustering analysis of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) using over 20 000 objects from the final catalogue of the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ), measuring the redshift-space two-point correlation function, ,(s). When averaged over the redshift range 0.3 < z < 2.2 we find that ,(s) is flat on small scales, steepening on scales above ,25 h,1 Mpc. In a WMAP/2dF cosmology (,m= 0.27, ,,= 0.73) we find a best-fitting power law with s0= 5.48+0.42,0.48 h,1 Mpc and ,= 1.20 ± 0.10 on scales s= 1 to 25 h,1 Mpc. We demonstrate that non-linear redshift-space distortions have a significant effect on the QSO ,(s) at scales less than ,10 h,1 Mpc. A cold dark matter model assuming WMAP/2dF cosmological parameters is a good description of the QSO ,(s) after accounting for non-linear clustering and redshift-space distortions, and allowing for a linear bias at the mean redshift of bQ(z= 1.35) = 2.02 ± 0.07. We subdivide the 2QZ into 10 redshift intervals with effective redshifts from z= 0.53 to 2.48. We find a significant increase in clustering amplitude at high redshift in the WMAP/2dF cosmology. The QSO clustering amplitude increases with redshift such that the integrated correlation function, , within 20 h,1 Mpc is and . We derive the QSO bias and find it to be a strong function of redshift with bQ(z= 0.53) = 1.13 ± 0.18 and bQ(z= 2.48) = 4.24 ± 0.53. We use these bias values to derive the mean dark matter halo (DMH) mass occupied by the QSOs. At all redshifts 2QZ QSOs inhabit approximately the same mass DMHs with MDH= (3.0 ± 1.6) × 1012 h,1 M,, which is close to the characteristic mass in the Press,Schechter mass function, M*, at z= 0. These results imply that L*Q QSOs at z, 0 should be largely unbiased. If the relation between black hole (BH) mass and MDH or host velocity dispersion does not evolve, then we find that the accretion efficiency (L/LEdd) for L*Q QSOs is approximately constant with redshift. Thus the fading of the QSO population from z, 2 to ,0 appears to be due to less massive BHs being active at low redshift. We apply different methods to estimate, tQ, the active lifetime of QSOs and constrain tQ to be in the range 4 × 106,6 × 108 yr at z, 2. We test for any luminosity dependence of QSO clustering by measuring ,(s) as a function of apparent magnitude (equivalent to luminosity relative to L*Q). However, we find no significant evidence of luminosity-dependent clustering from this data set. [source]

Submillimetre observations of z > 6 quasars

Ian Robson
ABSTRACT We report on submillimetre (submm) observations of three high-redshift quasars (z > 6) made using the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Only one of the sample was detected (>10, significance) at 850 ,m , SDSS J1148+5251 (z= 6.43). It was also detected at 450 ,m (>3, significance), one of the few quasars at z > 4 for which this has been the case. In combination with existing millimetric data, the 850- and 450-,m detections allow us to place limits on the temperature of the submm-emitting dust. The dust temperature is of no trivial importance given the high redshift of the source, since a cold temperature would signify a large mass of dust to be synthesized in the little time available (as an extreme upper limit in only 0.9 Gyr since z=,). We find, however, that the combined millimetre and submm data for the source cannot simply be characterized using the single-temperature greybody fit that has been used at lower redshifts. We discuss the results of the observing and modelling, and speculate as to the origin of the deviations. [source]

Entropy injection as a global feedback mechanism

S. Peng Oh
ABSTRACT Both pre-heating of the intergalactic medium and radiative cooling of low entropy gas have been proposed to explain the deviation from self-similarity in the cluster LX,TX relation and the observed entropy floor in these systems. However, severe overcooling of gas in groups is necessary for radiative cooling alone to explain the observations. Non-gravitational entropy injection must therefore still be important in these systems. We point out that, on scales of groups and below, gas heated to the required entropy floor cannot cool in a Hubble time, regardless of its subsequent adiabatic compression. Pre-heating therefore shuts off the gas supply to galaxies, and should be an important global feedback mechanism for galaxy formation. Constraints on global gas cooling can be placed from the joint evolution of the comoving star formation rate and neutral gas density. Pre-heating at high redshift can be ruled out; however, the data do not rule out passive gas consumption without inflow as z, 2. Because for pre-heated gas tcool > tdyn, we speculate that pre-heating could play a role in determining the Hubble sequence; at a given mass scale, high , peaks in the density field collapse early to form ellipticals, while low , peaks collapse late and quiescently accrete pre-heated gas to form spirals. The entropy produced by large-scale shock-heating of the intergalatic medium is significant only at late times, z < 1, and cannot produce these effects. [source]

Deep radio imaging of the SCUBA 8-mJy survey fields: submillimetre source identifications and redshift distribution

R. J. Ivison
Abstract The SCUBA 8-mJy survey is the largest submillimetre (submm) extragalactic mapping survey undertaken to date, covering 260 arcmin2 to a 4 , detection limit of ,8 mJy at 850 ,m, centred on the Lockman Hole and ELAIS N2 regions. Here, we present the results of new 1.4-GHz imaging of these fields, of the depth and resolution necessary to reliably identify radio counterparts for 18 of 30 submm sources, with possible detections of a further 25 per cent. Armed with this greatly improved positional information, we present and analyse new optical, near-infrared (near-IR) and XMM,Newton X-ray imaging to identify optical/IR host galaxies to half of the submm-selected sources in those fields. As many as 15 per cent of the submm sources detected at 1.4 GHz are resolved by the 1.4-arcsec beam and a further 25 per cent have more than one radio counterpart, suggesting that radio and submm emission arise from extended starbursts and that interactions are common. We note that less than a quarter of the submm-selected sample would have been recovered by targeting optically faint radio sources, underlining the selective nature of such surveys. At least 60 per cent of the radio-confirmed optical/IR host galaxies appear to be morphologically distorted; many are composite systems , red galaxies with relatively blue companions; just over one half are found to be very red (I , K > 3.3) or extremely red (I , K > 4); contrary to popular belief, most are sufficiently bright to be tackled with spectrographs on 8-m telescopes. We find one submm source which is associated with the steep-spectrum lobe of a radio galaxy, at least two more with flatter radio spectra typical of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN), one of them variable. The latter is amongst four sources (,15 per cent of the full sample) with X-ray emission consistent with obscured AGN, though the AGN would need to be Compton thick to power the observed far-IR luminosity. We exploit our well-matched radio and submm data to estimate the median redshift of the S850,m , 8 mJy submm galaxy population. If the radio/far-IR correlation holds at high redshift, and our sample is unbiased, we derive a conservative limit of ,z, ,2.0, or ,2.4 using spectral templates more representative of known submm galaxies. [source]

Setting new constraints on the age of the Universe

Ignacio Ferreras
There are three independent techniques for determining the age of the Universe: via cosmochronology of long-lived radioactive nuclei, via stellar modelling and population synthesis of the oldest stellar populations, and, most recently, via the precision cosmology that has become feasible with the mapping of the acoustic peaks in the cosmic microwave background. We demonstrate that all three methods give completely consistent results, and enable us to set rigorous bounds on the maximum and minimum ages that are allowed for the Universe. We present new constraints on the age of the Universe by performing a multiband colour analysis of bright cluster ellipticals over a large redshift range , which allows us to infer the ages of their stellar populations over a wide range of possible formation redshifts and metallicities. Applying a prior to Hubble's constant of we find the age of the Universe to be (1,), in agreement with the estimates from Type Ia supernovae, as well as with the latest uranium decay estimates, which yield an age for the Milky Way of . If we combine the results from cluster ellipticals with the analysis of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background and with the observations of Type Ia supernovae at high redshift, we find a similar age: . Without the assumption of any priors, universes older than 18 Gyr are ruled out by the data at the 90 per cent confidence level. [source]

The nature of high-redshift galaxies

Rachel S. Somerville
Using semi-analytic models of galaxy formation set within the cold dark matter (CDM) merging hierarchy, we investigate several scenarios for the nature of the high-redshift ) Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs). We consider a ,collisional starburst' model in which bursts of star formation are triggered by galaxy,galaxy mergers, and find that a significant fraction of LBGs are predicted to be starbursts. This model reproduces the observed comoving number density of bright LBGs as a function of redshift and the observed luminosity function at and with a reasonable amount of dust extinction. Model galaxies at have star formation rates, half-light radii, colours and internal velocity dispersions that are in good agreement with the data. Global quantities such as the star formation rate density and cold gas and metal content of the Universe as a function of redshift also agree well. Two ,quiescent' models without starbursts are also investigated. In one, the star formation efficiency in galaxies remains constant with redshift, while in the other, it scales inversely with disc dynamical time, and thus increases rapidly with redshift. The first quiescent model is strongly ruled out, as it does not produce enough high-redshift galaxies once realistic dust extinction is accounted for. The second quiescent model fits marginally, but underproduces cold gas and very bright galaxies at high redshift. A general conclusion is that star formation at high redshift must be more efficient than locally. The collisional starburst model appears to accomplish this naturally without violating other observational constraints. [source]

A search for the submillimetre counterparts to Lyman break galaxies

Scott C. Chapman
We have carried out targeted submillimetre observations as part of a programme to explore the connection between the rest-frame ultraviolet and far-infrared properties of star-forming galaxies at high redshift, which is currently poorly understood. On the one hand, the Lyman break technique is very effective at selecting galaxies. On the other, ,blank-field' imaging in the submillimetre seems to turn up sources routinely, amongst which some are star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. Already much work has been done searching for optical identifications of objects detected using the SCUBA instrument. Here we have taken the opposite approach, performing submillimetre photometry for a sample of Lyman break galaxies, the ultraviolet properties of which imply high star formation rates. The total signal from our Lyman break sample is undetected in the submillimetre, at an rms level of ,0.5 mJy, which implies that the population of Lyman break galaxies does not constitute a large part of the recently detected blank-field submillimetre sources. However, our one detection suggests that with reasonable SCUBA integrations we might expect to detect those few Lyman break galaxies that are far-infrared brightest. [source]

Disc formation and the origin of clumpy galaxies at high redshift

Oscar Agertz
ABSTRACT Observations of high-redshift galaxies have revealed a multitude of large clumpy rapidly star-forming galaxies. Their formation scenario and their link to present-day spirals are still unknown. In this Letter, we perform adaptive mesh refinement simulations of disc formation in a cosmological context that are unrivalled in terms of mass and spatial resolution. We find that the so-called ,chain-galaxies' and ,clump-clusters' are a natural outcome of early epochs of enhanced gas accretion from cold dense streams as well as tidally and ram-pressured stripped material from minor mergers and satellites. Through interaction with the hot halo gas, this freshly accreted cold gas settles into a large disc-like system, not necessarily aligned to an older stellar component, that undergoes fragmentation and subsequent star formation, forming large clumps in the mass range 107,109 M,. Galaxy formation is a complex process at this important epoch when most of the central baryons are being acquired through a range of different mechanisms , we highlight that a rapid mass loading epoch is required to fuel the fragmentation taking place in the massive arms in the outskirts of extended discs, an accretion mode that occurs naturally in the hierarchical assembly process at early epochs. [source]

Evidence for a large fraction of Compton-thick quasars at high redshift

Alejo Martínez-Sansigre
ABSTRACT Using mid-infrared and radio selection criteria, we pre-select a sample of candidate high-redshift type 2 quasars in the Subaru XMM,Newton Deep Field (SXDF). To filter out starburst contaminants, we use a Bayesian method to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 24-,m and the B -band, obtain photometric redshifts, and identify the best candidates for high- z type 2 quasars. This leaves us with 12 zphot, 1.7 type 2 quasar candidates in an area ,0.8 deg2, of which only two have secure X-ray detections. The two detected sources have estimated column densities NH, 2 & 3 × 1027 m,2, i.e. heavily obscured but Compton-thin quasars. Given the large bolometric luminosities and redshifts of the undetected objects, the lack of X-ray detections suggests extreme absorbing columns NH, 1028 m,2 are typical. We have found evidence for a population of ,Compton-thick' high-redshift type 2 quasars, at least comparable to, and probably larger than, the type 1 quasar population, although spectroscopic confirmation of their active galactic nuclei nature is important. [source]

Metallicity and kinematical clues to the formation of the Local Group

R.F.G. Wyse
Abstract The kinematics and elemental abundances of resolved stars in the nearby Universe can be used to infer conditions at high redshift, trace how galaxies evolve and constrain the nature of dark matter. This approach is complementary to direct study of systems at high redshift, but I will show that analysis of individual stars allows one to break degeneracies, such as between star formation rate and stellar Initial Mass Function, that complicate the analysis of unresolved, distant galaxies (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Most supermassive black hole growth is obscured by dust

A. Martínez-Sansigre
Abstract We present an alternative method to X-ray surveys for hunting down the high-redshift type-2 quasar population, using Spitzer and VLA data on the Spitzer First Look Survey. By demanding objects to be bright at 24 µm but faint at 3.6 µm, and combining this with a radio criterion, we find 21 type-2 radio-quiet quasar candidates at the epoch at which the quasar activity peaked. Optical spectroscopy with the WHT confirmed 10 of these objects to be type-2s with 1.4 , z , 4.2 while the rest are blank. There is no evidence for contamination in our sample, and we postulate that our 11 blank-spectrum candidates are obscured by kpc-scale dust as opposed to dust from a torus around the accretion disk. By carefully modelling our selection criteria, we conclude that, at high redshift, 50,80% of the supermassive black hole growth is obscured by dust. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Resolving the source populations that contribute to the X-ray background: The 2 Ms Chandra Deep Field-North Survey

D. M. Alexander
Abstract With , 2 Ms of exposure, the Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N) survey provides the deepest view of the Universe in the 0.5,8.0 keV band. Five hundred and three (503) X-ray sources are detected down to on-axis 0.5,2.0 keV and 2,8 keV flux limits of , 1.5 × 10,17 erg cm,2 s,1 and , 1.0 × 10,16 erg cm,2 s,1, respectively. These flux limits correspond to L0.5,8.0 keV, 3 × 1041 erg s,1 at z = 1 and L0.5,8.0 keV, 2 × 1043 erg s,1 at z = 6; thus this survey is sensitive enough to detect starburst galaxies out to moderate redshift and Seyfert galaxies out to high redshift. We present the X-ray observations, describe the broad diversity of X-ray selected sources, and review the prospects for deeper exposures. [source]

HI , the window to the early universe in X-rays

J. Kerp
Abstract A detailed understanding of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) is of high importance for the next generation of X-ray telescopes, which will focus on early universe objects. Because of their high redshift the characteristic X-ray emission of the early universe objects will be observable in the soft X-ray energy domain below E = 1 keV. In this energy regime the photoelectric absorption of the galactic interstellar medium attenuates the X-ray emission most strongly. The confusion with the spatially highly variable galactic soft X-ray emission might be an additional severe problem to disentangle the emission of the early universe object and the SXRB. We present the cross correlation of the Leiden/Dwingeloo HI 21-cm line survey with the ROSAT all-sky survey. The analyses disclose the existence of a single temperature plasma within the Milky Way halo. The strength of the photoelectric absorption is quantitatively traced by the distribution of the HI emission across the whole sky. Both findings in combination open the window to the highly redshift early universe objects. [source]

The distribution of ejected subhaloes and its implication for halo assembly bias

Huiyuan Wang
ABSTRACT Using a high-resolution cosmological N -body simulation, we identify the ejected population of subhaloes, which are haloes at redshift z= 0 but were once contained in more massive ,host' haloes at high redshifts. The fraction of the ejected subhaloes in the total halo population of the same mass ranges from 9 to 4 per cent for halo masses from ,1011 to ,1012 h,1 M,. Most of the ejected subhaloes are distributed within four times the virial radius of their hosts. These ejected subhaloes have distinct velocity distribution around their hosts in comparison to normal haloes. The number of subhaloes ejected from a host of given mass increases with the assembly redshift of the host. Ejected subhaloes in general reside in high-density regions, and have a much higher bias parameter than normal haloes of the same mass. They also have earlier assembly times, so that they contribute to the assembly bias of dark matter haloes seen in cosmological simulations. However, the assembly bias is not dominated by the ejected population, indicating that large-scale environmental effects on normal haloes are the main source for the assembly bias. [source]

The baryonic and dark matter properties of high-redshift gravitationally lensed disc galaxies

P. Salucci
ABSTRACT We present a detailed study of the structural properties of four gravitationally lensed disc galaxies at z= 1. Modelling the rotation curves on sub-kpc scales, we derive the values for the disc mass, the reference dark matter density and core radius, and the angular momentum per unit mass. The derived models suggest that the rotation curve profile and amplitude are best fitted with a dark matter component similar to those of local spiral galaxies. The stellar component also has a similar length-scale, but with substantially smaller masses than similarly luminous disc galaxies in the local Universe. Comparing the average dark matter density inside the optical radius, we find that the disc galaxies at z= 1 have larger densities (by up to a factor of ,7) than similar disc galaxies in the local Universe. Furthermore, the angular momentum per unit mass versus reference velocity is well matched to the local relation, suggesting that the angular momentum of the disc remains constant between high redshifts and the present day. Though statistically limited, these observations point towards a spirals' formation scenario in which stellar discs are slowly grown by the accretion of angular momentum conserving material. [source]

The mass assembly of fossil groups of galaxies in the Millennium simulation

Ali Dariush
ABSTRACT The evolution of present-day fossil galaxy groups is studied in the Millennium simulation. Using the corresponding Millennium gas simulation and semi-analytic galaxy catalogues, we select fossil groups at redshift zero according to the conventional observational criteria, and trace the haloes corresponding to these groups backwards in time, extracting the associated dark matter, gas and galaxy properties. The space density of the fossils from this study is remarkably close to the observed estimates and various possibilities for the remaining discrepancy are discussed. The fraction of X-ray bright systems which are fossils appears to be in reasonable agreement with observations, and the simulations predict that fossil systems will be found in significant numbers (3,4 per cent of the population) even in quite rich clusters. We find that fossils assemble a higher fraction of their mass at high redshifts, compared to non-fossil groups, with the ratio of the currently assembled halo mass to final mass, at any epoch, being about 10,20 per cent higher for fossils. This supports the paradigm whereby fossils represent undisturbed, early-forming systems in which large galaxies have merged to form a single dominant elliptical. [source]

The first appearance of the red sequence of galaxies in proto-clusters at 2 ,z, 3

Tadayuki Kodama
ABSTRACT We explore the evolved galaxy population in the proto-clusters around four high- z radio galaxies at 2 ,z, 3 based on wide-field near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Three of the four fields are known proto-clusters as demonstrated by overdensities of line-emitting galaxies at the same redshifts as the radio galaxies found by narrow-band surveys and spectroscopic follow-up observations. We imaged the fields of three targets (PKS 1138,262, USS 0943,242 and MRC 0316,257) to a depth of Ks, 22 (Vega magnitude, 5,) over a 4 × 7 arcmin2 area centred on the radio galaxies with a new wide-field NIR camera, Multi-Object Infra-Red Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS), on the Subaru Telescope. Another target (USS 1558,003) was observed with Son of ISAAC on the New technology Telescope (NTT) to a depth of Ks= 20.5 (5,) over a 5 × 5 arcmin2 area. We apply colour cuts in J,Ks and/or JHKs in order to exclusively search for galaxies located at high redshifts: z > 2. To the 5, limiting magnitudes, we see a significant excess of NIR-selected galaxies by a factor of 2 to 3 compared to those found in the field of GOODS-South. The spatial distribution of these NIR-selected galaxies is not uniform and traces structures similar to those of emission-line galaxies, although the samples of NIR-selected galaxies and emitters show little overlap, from which we conclude that the former tend to be an evolved population with much higher stellar mass than the latter, young and active emitters. We focus on the NIR colour,magnitude sequence of the evolved population and find that the bright-end (Mstars > 1011 M,) of the red sequence is well populated by z, 2 but much less so in the z, 3 proto-clusters. This may imply that the bright-end of the colour,magnitude sequence first appeared between z= 3 and 2, an era coinciding with the appearance of sub-mm galaxies and the peak of the cosmic star formation rate. Our observations show that during the same epoch, massive galaxies are forming in high-density environments by vigorous star formation and assembly. [source]

The properties of Ly, emitting galaxies in hierarchical galaxy formation models

M. Le Delliou
ABSTRACT We present detailed predictions for the properties of Ly,-emitting galaxies in the framework of the , cold dark matter cosmology, calculated using the semi-analytical galaxy formation model galform. We explore a model that assumes a top-heavy initial mass function in starbursts and that has previously been shown to explain the sub-millimetre number counts and the luminosity function of Lyman-break galaxies at high redshift. We show that this model, with the simple assumption that a fixed fraction of Ly, photons escape from each galaxy, is remarkably successful at explaining the observed luminosity function of Ly, emitters (LAEs) over the redshift range 3 < z < 6.6. We also examine the distribution of Ly, equivalent widths and the broad-band continuum magnitudes of emitters, which are in good agreement with the available observations. We look more deeply into the nature of LAEs, presenting predictions for fundamental properties such as the stellar mass and radius of the emitting galaxy and the mass of the host dark matter halo. The model predicts that the clustering of LAEs at high redshifts should be strongly biased relative to the dark matter, in agreement with observational estimates. We also present predictions for the luminosity function of LAEs at z > 7, a redshift range that is starting to be be probed by near-infrared surveys and using new instruments such as the Dark Ages Z Lyman Explorer (DAzLE). [source]

The possible detection of high-redshift Type II QSOs in deep fields

Avery Meiksin
ABSTRACT The colours of high-redshift Type II quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are synthesized from observations of moderate-redshift systems. It is shown that Type II QSOs are comparable to starbursts at matching the colours of z850 -dropouts and i775 -drops in the Hubble UltraDeep Field, and more naturally account for the bluest objects detected. Type II QSOs may also account for some of the i775 -drops detected in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. It is shown that by combining imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, it will be possible to clearly separate Type II QSOs from Type I QSOs and starbursts based on their colours. Similarly, it is shown that the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) ZYJ filters may be used to discriminate high-redshift Type II QSOs from other objects. If Type II QSOs are prevalent at high redshifts, then active galactic nuclei (AGNs) may be major contributors to the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium. [source]