Hippocampal Neurogenesis (hippocampal + neurogenesi)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Hippocampal Neurogenesis

  • adult hippocampal neurogenesi

  • Selected Abstracts

    Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, but not estradiol, enhance survival of new hippocampal neurons in adult male rats

    Mark D. Spritzer
    Abstract Past research suggested that androgens may play a role in the regulation of adult neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating androgen levels in male rats. Castrated or sham castrated male rats were injected with 5-Bromo-2,deoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gryus were visualized and phenotyped (neural or glial) using immunohistochemistry. Castrated males showed a significant decrease in 30-day cell survival within the dentate gyrus but there was no significant change in cell proliferation relative to control males, indicating that androgens positively affect cell survival, but not cell proliferation. To examine the role of testosterone on hippocampal cell survival, males were injected with testosterone s.c. for 30 days starting the day after BrdU injection. Higher doses (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) but not a lower dose (0.25 mg/kg) of testosterone resulted in a significant increase in neurogenesis relative to controls. We next tested the role of testosterone's two major metabolites, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol, upon neurogenesis. Thirty days of injections of DHT (0.25 and 0.50 mg/kg) but not estradiol (0.010 and 0.020 mg/kg) resulted in a significant increase in hippocampal neurogenesis. These results suggest that testosterone enhances hippocampal neurogenesis via increased cell survival in the dentate gyrus through an androgen-dependent mechanism. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007. [source]

    Prenatal stress reduces postnatal neurogenesis in rats selectively bred for high, but not low, anxiety: possible key role of placental 11,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2

    P. J. Lucassen
    Abstract Prenatal stress (PS) produces persistent abnormalities in anxiety-related behaviors, stress responsivity, susceptibility to psychopathology and hippocampal changes in adult offspring. The hippocampus shows a remarkable degree of structural plasticity, notably in response to stress and glucocorticoids. We hypothesized that PS would differentially affect hippocampal neurogenesis in rats selectively bred for genetic differences in anxiety-related behaviors and stress responsivity. Pregnant dams of high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) and low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) strains were stressed between days 5 and 20 of pregnancy. The survival of newly generated hippocampal cells was found to be significantly lower in 43-day-old HAB than in LAB male offspring of unstressed pregnancies. PS further reduced newly generated cell numbers only in HAB rats, and this was paralleled by a reduction in doublecortin-positive cell numbers, indicative of reduced neurogenesis. As maternal plasma corticosterone levels during PS were similar in both strains, we examined placental 11,-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11,-HSD2), which catalyses rapid inactivation of maternal corticosterone to inert 11-dehydrocorticosterone and thus serves as a physiological ,barrier' to maternal glucocorticoids. PS significantly increased placental 11,-HSD2 activity in LAB, but not HAB, rats. We conclude that PS differentially affects the number of surviving newly generated cells and neurogenesis in HAB and LAB rats. The high sensitivity of hippocampal neurogenesis to PS in HAB rats is paralleled by a failure to increase placental 11,-HSD2 activity after stress rather than by different maternal corticosterone responses. Hence, stress-induced placental 11,-HSD2 expression may be critical in protecting the fetal brain from maternal stress-induced effects on adult neurogenesis. [source]

    Doublecortin expression in the normal and epileptic adult human brain

    Y. W. J. Liu
    Abstract Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a neurological disorder associated with spontaneous recurrent complex partial seizures and hippocampal sclerosis. Although increased hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported in animal models of MTLE, increased neurogenesis has not been reported in the hippocampus of adult human MTLE cases. Here we showed that cells expressing doublecortin (Dcx), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in migrating neuroblasts, were present in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of the normal and MTLE adult human brain. In particular, increased numbers of Dcx-positive cells were observed in the epileptic compared with the normal temporal cortex. Importantly, 56% of Dcx-expressing cells in the epileptic temporal cortex coexpressed both the proliferative cell marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and early neuronal marker, TuJ1, suggesting that they may be newly generated neurons. A subpopulation of Dcx-positive cells in the epileptic temporal cortex also coexpressed the mature neuronal marker, NeuN, suggesting that epilepsy may promote the generation of new neurons in the temporal cortex. This study has identified, for the first time, a novel population of Dcx-positive cells in the adult human temporal cortex that can be upregulated by epilepsy and thus, raises the possibility that these cells may have functional significance in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. [source]

    Blockade of caspase-1 increases neurogenesis in the aged hippocampus

    Carmelina Gemma
    Abstract Adult hippocampal neurogenesis dramatically decreases with increasing age, and it has been proposed that this decline contributes to age-related memory deficits. Central inflammation contributes significantly to the decrease in neurogenesis associated with ageing. Interleukin-1, is a proinflammatory cytokine initially synthesized as an inactive precursor that is cleaved by caspase-1 to generate the biologically active mature form. Whether IL-1, affects neurogenesis in the aged hippocampus is unknown. Here we analysed cells positive for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU; 50 mg/kg) in animals in which cleavage of IL-1, was inhibited by the caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK (10 pmol). Aged (22 months) and young (4 months) rats received Ac-YVAD-CMK for 28 days intracerebroventricularly through a brain infusion cannula connected to an osmotic minipump. Starting on day 14, animals received a daily injection of BrdU for five consecutive days. Unbiased stereology analyses performed 10 days after the last injection of BrdU revealed that the total number of newborn cells generated over a 5-day period was higher in young rats than in aged rats. In addition, there was a 53% increase in the number of BrdU-labelled cells of the aged Ac-YVAD-CMK-treated rats compared to aged controls. Immunofluorescence studies were performed to identify the cellular phenotype of BrdU-labelled cells. The increase in BrdU-positive cells was not due to a change in the proportion of cells expressing neuronal or glial phenotypes in the subgranular zone. These findings demonstrate that the intracerebroventricular administration of Ac-YVAD-CMK reversed the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis associated with ageing. [source]

    Cognitive disorders and neurogenesis deficits in Huntington's disease mice are rescued by fluoxetine

    Helen E. Grote
    Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Affected individuals display progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms (including depression), leading to terminal decline. Given that transgenic HD mice have decreased hippocampal cell proliferation and that a deficit in neurogenesis has been postulated as an underlying cause of depression, we hypothesized that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in HD. Fluoxetine, a serotonin-reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression, is known to increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of wild-type mouse hippocampus. Here we show that hippocampal-dependent cognitive and depressive-like behavioural symptoms occur in HD mice, and that the administration of fluoxetine produces a marked improvement in these deficits. Furthermore, fluoxetine was found to rescue deficits of neurogenesis and volume loss in the dentate gyrus of HD mice. [source]

    Recruitment of the Sonic hedgehog signalling cascade in electroconvulsive seizure-mediated regulation of adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis

    Sunayana B. Banerjee
    Abstract Electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) induces structural remodelling in the adult mammalian brain, including an increase in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this increase in the proliferation of adult hippocampal progenitors are at present not well understood. We hypothesized that ECS may recruit the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway to mediate its effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as Shh is known to enhance the proliferation of neuronal progenitors and is expressed in the adult basal forebrain, a region that sends robust projections to the hippocampus. Here we demonstrate that the ECS-induced increase in proliferation of adult hippocampal progenitors was completely blocked in animals treated with cyclopamine, a pharmacological inhibitor of Shh signalling. Our results suggest that both acute and chronic ECS enhance Shh signalling in the adult hippocampus, as we observed a robust upregulation of Patched (Ptc) mRNA, a component of the Shh receptor complex and a downstream transcriptional target of Shh signalling. This increase was rapid and restricted to the dentate gyrus, where the adult hippocampal progenitors reside. In addition, both acute and chronic ECS decreased Smoothened (Smo) mRNA, the other component of the Shh receptor complex, selectively within the dentate gyrus. However, ECS did not appear to influence Shh expression within the basal forebrain, the site from which it has been suggested to be anterogradely transported to the hippocampus. Together, our findings demonstrate that ECS regulates the Shh signalling cascade and indicate that the Shh pathway may be an important mechanism through which ECS enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis. [source]

    Repeated restraint stress suppresses neurogenesis and induces biphasic PSA-NCAM expression in the adult rat dentate gyrus

    Kara Pham
    Abstract Chronic restraint stress has been shown to induce structural remodelling throughout the interconnected dentate gyrus-CA3 fields. To find out how this stressor affects the rate of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we subjected rats to acute or chronic restraint stress and assessed the proliferation, survival and differentiation of newly born cells in the dentate gyrus. We also examined polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression, a molecule normally expressed in immature neurons and important for morphological plasticity. The results show that acute restraint stress did not change either the proliferation of dentate gyrus precursor cells or the expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule, whereas 3 weeks of chronic restraint stress suppressed proliferation by 24% and increased polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule expression by 40%. The study was extended for an additional 3 weeks to trace the survival and development of the cells born after the initial 3 weeks of restraint. Rats subjected to 6 weeks of daily restraint stress exhibited suppressed cell proliferation and attenuated survival of the recently born cells after the extended time course, resulting in a 47% reduction of granule cell neurogenesis. Furthermore, 6 weeks of chronic stress significantly reduced the total number of granule cells by 13% and the granule cell layer volume by 5%. Expression of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule followed a biphasic time course, displaying a significant up-regulation after 3 weeks of daily restraint stress that was lost after 6 weeks of stress. These studies may help us understand the basis for hippocampal shrinkage and raise questions about the ultimate reversibility of the effects of chronic stress. [source]

    Genetic determinants of adult hippocampal neurogenesis correlate with acquisition, but not probe trial performance, in the water maze task

    G. Kempermann
    Abstract A number of reports have indicated that adult neurogenesis might be involved in hippocampal function. While increases in adult neurogenesis are paralleled by improvements on learning tasks and learning itself can promote the survival of newly generated neurons in the hippocampus, a causal link between learning processes and adult hippocampal neurogenesis is difficult to prove. Here, we addressed the related question of whether the baseline level of adult neurogenesis is predictive of performance on the water maze task as a test of hippocampal function. We used ten strains of recombinant inbred mice, based on C57BL/6, which are good learners and show high baseline levels of neurogenesis, and DBA/2, which are known to be poor learners and which exhibit low levels of adult neurogenesis. Two of these strains, BXD-2 and BXD-8, showed a 26-fold difference in the number of newly generated neurons per hippocampus. Over all strains, including the parental strains, there was a significant correlation between the number of new neurons generated in the dentate gyrus and parameters describing the acquisition of the water maze task (slope of the learning curves). Similar results were seen when the parental strains were not included in the analysis. There was no correlation between adult hippocampal neurogenesis and probe trial performance, performance on the rotarod, overall locomotor activity, and baseline serum corticosterone levels. This result supports the hypothesis that adult neurogenesis is involved in specific aspects of hippocampal function, particularly the acquisition of new information. [source]

    Hippocampal granule neuron production and population size are regulated by levels of bFGF

    Yinghong Cheng
    Abstract Numerous studies of the proliferative effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in culture, including neonatal and adult hippocampal precursors, suggest that the factor plays a ubiquitous and life-long role in neurogenesis. In contrast, in vivo, bFGF is devoid of effects on neurons in mature hippocampus, raising the possibility that bFGF exhibits developmental stage-specific activity in the complex animal environment. To define neurogenetic effects in the newborn, a single subcutaneous injection of bFGF (20 ng/gm) was administered to postnatal day 1 (P1) rats, and hippocampal DNA content was quantified: bFGF elicited an increase in total DNA throughout adulthood, by 48% at P4, 25% at P22, and 17% at P180, suggesting that bFGF increases hippocampal cell number. To define mechanisms, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected at P1 and mitotically labelled cells were assessed at P22: there was a twofold increase in BrdU-positive cells in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL), indicating that bFGF enhanced the generation of neurons, or neuronogenesis, from a cohort of precursors. Moreover, enhanced mitosis and survival led to a 33% increase in absolute GCL neuron number, suggesting that neuron production depends on environmental levels of bFGF. To evaluate this possibility, bFGF-knockout mice were analyzed: hippocampal DNA content was decreased at all ages examined (P3, ,42%; P21, ,28%; P360, ,18%), and total GCL neuron and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cell number were decreased by 30%, indicating that bFGF is necessary for normal hippocampal neurogenesis. We conclude that environmental levels of bFGF regulate neonatal hippocampal neurogenesis. As adult hippocampal neuronogenesis was unresponsive to bFGF manipulation in our previous study [Wagner, J.P., Black, I.B. & DiCicco-Bloom, E. (1999) J. Neurosci., 19, 6006], these observations suggest distinct, stage-specific roles of bFGF in the dentate gyrus granule cell lineage. [source]

    Enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in the absence of microglia T cell interaction and microglia activation in the murine running wheel model

    GLIA, Issue 10 2009
    Marta Olah
    Abstract Recently, activated microglia have been shown to be involved in the regulation of several aspects of neurogenesis under certain experimental conditions both in vitro and in vivo. A neurogenesis supportive microglia phenotype has been suggested to arise from the interaction of microglia with homing encephalitogenic T cells. However, a unified hypothesis regarding the exact nature of microglia activity that is supportive of neurogenesis is yet missing from the field. Our aim was to investigate the connection between microglia activity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis under physiological conditions. To address this question we compared the level of microglia activation in the hippocampus of mice, which had access to a running wheel for 10 days and that of sedentary controls. Suprisingly, despite elevated levels of proliferation of neural precursors and survival of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus microglia remained in a "resting" state morphologically, antigenically, and at the transcriptional level. Moreover, neither T cells nor MHCII expressing microglia were present in the hippocampal brain parenchyma. Though microglia in the dentate gyrus of the runners proliferated at a higher level than in the sedentary controls, this difference was also present in non-neurogenic sites. Therefore, our findings suggest that classical signs of microglia activation and microglia activation arising from interaction with T cells in particular are not a prerequisite for the activity-induced increase in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in C57Bl/6 mice. Thus, our results draw attention on the species and model differences that might exist regarding the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The antidepressant effects of running and escitalopram are associated with levels of hippocampal NPY and Y1 receptor but not cell proliferation in a rat model of depression

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 7 2010
    Astrid Bjørnebekk
    Abstract One hypothesis of depression is that it is caused by reduced neuronal plasticity including hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we compared the effects of three long-term antidepressant treatments: escitalopram, voluntary running, and their combination on hippocampal cell proliferation, NPY and the NPY-Y1 receptor mRNAs, targets assumed to be important for hippocampal plasticity and mood disorders. An animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat, was used and female rats were chosen because the majority of the depressed population is females. We investigated if these treatments were correlated to immobility, swimming, and climbing behaviors, which are associated with an overall, serotonergic-like and noradrenergic-like antidepressant response, in the Porsolt swim test (PST). Interestingly, while escitalopram, running and their combination increased the number of hippocampal BrdU immunoreactive cells, the antidepressant-like effect was only detected in the running group and the group with access both to running wheel and escitalopram. Hippocampal NPY mRNA and the NPY-Y1 receptor mRNA were elevated by running and the combined treatment. Moreover, correlations were detected between NPY mRNA levels and climbing and cell proliferation and NPY-Y1 receptor mRNA levels and swimming. Our results suggest that increased cell proliferation is not necessarily associated with an antidepressant effect. However, treatments that were associated with an antidepressant-like effect did regulate hippocampal levels of mRNAs encoding NPY and/or the NPY-Y1 receptor and support the notion that NPY can stimulate cell proliferation and induce an antidepressant-like response. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Voluntary exercise induces anxiety-like behavior in adult C57BL/6J mice correlating with hippocampal neurogenesis

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 3 2010
    Johannes Fuss
    Abstract Several studies investigated the effect of physical exercise on emotional behaviors in rodents; resulting findings however remain controversial. Despite the accepted notion that voluntary exercise alters behavior in the same manners as antidepressant drugs, several studies reported opposite or no effects at all. In an attempt to evaluate the effect of physical exercise on emotional behaviors and brain plasticity, we individually housed C57BL/6J male mice in cages equipped with a running wheel. Three weeks after continuous voluntary running we assessed their anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Tests included openfield, dark-light-box, elevated O-maze, learned helplessness, and forced swim test. We measured corticosterone metabolite levels in feces collected over a 24-h period and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several brain regions. Furthermore, cell proliferation and adult hippocampal neurogenesis were assessed using Ki67 and Doublecortin. Voluntary wheel running induced increased anxiety in the openfield, elevated O-maze, and dark-light-box and higher levels of excreted corticosterone metabolites. We did not observe any antidepressant effect of running despite a significant increase of hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF. These data are thus far the first to indicate that the effect of physical exercise in mice may be ambiguous. On one hand, the running-induced increase of neurogenesis and BDNF seems to be irrelevant in tests for depression-like behavior, at least in the present model where running activity exceeded previous reports. On the other hand, exercising mice display a more anxious phenotype and are exposed to higher levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone. Intriguingly, numbers of differentiating neurons correlate significantly with anxiety parameters in the openfield and dark-light-box. We therefore conclude that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a crucial player in the genesis of anxiety. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Stress differentially regulates the effects of voluntary exercise on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of mice

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 10 2009
    Timal S. Kannangara
    Abstract It has been well-established that cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus (DG) can be regulated by voluntary exercise. Recent evidence has suggested that the effects of voluntary exercise can in turn be influenced by environmental factors that regulate the amount of stress an animal is exposed to. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry to show that voluntary exercise produces a significant increase in cell proliferation in the adult mouse DG in both isolated and socially housed mice. This effect on proliferation translates into an increase in neurogenesis and neuronal branching of new neurons in the mice that exercised. Although social condition did not regulate proliferation in young adult mice, an effect of social housing could be observed in mice exposed to acute restraint stress. Surprisingly, only exercising mice housed in isolated conditions showed an increase in cellular proliferation following restraint stress, whereas socially housed, exercising mice, failed to show a significant increase in proliferation. These findings indicate that social housing may increase the effects of any stressful episodes on hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse DG. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Age effects on the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical activity and environmental enrichment in the APP23 mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 10 2009
    Sebastian Mirochnic
    Abstract An active lifestyle is to some degree protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the biological basis for this benefit is still far from clear. We hypothesize that physical and cognitive activity increase a reserve for plasticity by increasing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). We thus assessed how age affects the response to activity in the murine APP23 model of AD compared with wild type (WT) controls and studied the effects of physical exercise (RUN) and environmental enrichment (ENR) in comparison with standard housing (CTR) at two different ages (6 months and 18 months) and in both genotypes. At 18 months, both activity paradigms reduced the hippocampal human A,1-42/A,1-40 ratio when compared with CTR, despite a stable plaque load in the hippocampus. At this age, both RUN and ENR increased the number of newborn granule cells in the DG of APP23 mice when compared with CTR, whereas the levels of regulation were equivalent to those in WT mice under the same housing conditions. At 6 months, however, neurogenesis in ENR but not RUN mice responded like the WT. Quantifying the number of cells at the doublecortin-positive stage in relation to the number of cells on postmitotic stages we found that ENR overproportionally increased the number of the DCX-positive "late" progenitor cells, indicative of an increased potential to recruit even more new neurons. In summary, the biological substrates for activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis were preserved in the APP23 mice. We thus propose that in this model, ENR even more than RUN might contribute to a "neurogenic reserve" despite a stable plaque load and that age affects the outcome of an interaction based on "activity." © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gonadal hormone modulation of hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 3 2006
    Liisa A.M. Galea
    Abstract Gonadal hormones modulate neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult rodents in complex ways. Estradiol, the most potent estrogen, initially enhances and subsequently suppresses cell proliferation in the dentate gryus of adult female rodents. Much less is known about how estradiol modulates neurogenesis in the adult male rodent; however, recent evidence suggests that estradiol may have a moderate effect on cell proliferation but enhances cell survival in the DG of newly synthesized cells but only when estradiol is administered during a specific stage in the cell maturation cycle in the adult male rodent. Testosterone likely plays a role in adult neurogenesis, although there have been no direct studies to address this. However, pilot studies from our laboratory suggest that testosterone up-regulates cell survival but not cell proliferation in the DG of adult male rats. Progesterone appears to attenuate the estradiol-induced enhancement of cell proliferation. Neurosteroids such as allopregnalone decrease neurogenesis in adult rodents, while pregnancy and motherhood differentially regulate adult neurogenesis in the adult female rodent. Very few studies have investigated the effects of gonadal hormones on male rodents; however, studies have indicated that there is a gender difference in the response to hormone-regulated hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. Clearly, more work needs to be done to elucidate the effects of gonadal hormones on neurogenesis in the DG of both male and female rodents. © 2006 Wiley-Liss Inc. [source]

    A functional hypothesis for adult hippocampal neurogenesis: Avoidance of catastrophic interference in the dentate gyrus

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 3 2006
    Laurenz Wiskott
    Abstract The dentate gyrus is part of the hippocampal memory system and special in that it generates new neurons throughout life. Here we discuss the question of what the functional role of these new neurons might be. Our hypothesis is that they help the dentate gyrus to avoid the problem of catastrophic interference when adapting to new environments. We assume that old neurons are rather stable and preserve an optimal encoding learned for known environments while new neurons are plastic to adapt to those features that are qualitatively new in a new environment. A simple network simulation demonstrates that adding new plastic neurons is indeed a successful strategy for adaptation without catastrophic interference. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effect of aging on neurogenesis in the canine brain

    AGING CELL, Issue 3 2008
    Anton Pekcec
    Summary An age-dependent decline in hippocampal neurogenesis has been reported in laboratory rodents. Environmental enrichment proved to be a strong trigger of neurogenesis in young and aged laboratory rodents, which are generally kept in facilities with a paucity of environmental stimuli. These data raise the question whether an age-dependent decline in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis can also be observed in individuals exposed to diversified and varying surroundings. Therefore, we determined rates of canine hippocampal neurogenesis using post-mortem tissue from 37 nonlaboratory dogs that were exposed to a variety of environmental conditions throughout their life. Expression of the neuronal progenitor cell marker doublecortin clearly correlated with age. The analysis of doublecortin-labeled cells in dogs aged > 133 months indicated a 96% drop in the aged canine brain as compared to young adults. Expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the subgranular zone decreased until dogs were aged 85,132 months. In the aging canine brain amyloid-beta peptide deposits have been described that might resemble an early pathophysiological change in the course of human Alzheimer's disease. Comparison of Ki-67 and doublecortin expression in canine brain tissue with or without diffuse plaques revealed no differences. The data indicate that occurrence of diffuse plaques in the aging brain is not sufficient to trigger enhanced proliferation or enhanced neurogenesis such as described in human Alzheimer's disease. In addition, this study gives first proof that an age-dependent decline also dominates hippocampal neurogenesis rates in individuals living in diversified environments. [source]

    Neurogenesis in a rat model of age-related cognitive decline

    AGING CELL, Issue 4 2004
    J. L. Bizon
    Summary Age-related decrements in hippocampal neurogenesis have been suggested as a basis for learning impairment during aging. In the current study, a rodent model of age-related cognitive decline was used to evaluate neurogenesis in relation to hippocampal function. New hippocampal cell survival was assessed approximately 1 month after a series of intraperitoneal injections of 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Correlational analyses between individual measures of BrdU-positive cells and performance on the Morris water maze task provided no indication that this measure of neurogenesis was more preserved in aged rats with intact cognitive abilities. On the contrary, among aged rats, higher numbers of BrdU-positive cells in the granule cell layer were associated with a greater degree of impairment on the learning task. Double-labelling studies confirmed that the majority of the BrdU+ cells were of the neuronal phenotype; the proportion of differentiated neurons was not different across a broad range of cognitive abilities. These data demonstrate that aged rats that maintain cognitive function do so despite pronounced reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition, these findings suggest the interesting possibility that impaired hippocampal function is associated with greater survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons at advanced ages. [source]

    Targeting epileptogenesis-associated induction of neurogenesis by enzymatic depolysialylation of NCAM counteracts spatial learning dysfunction but fails to impact epilepsy development

    Anton Pekcec
    Abstract Polysialylation is a post-translational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which in the adult brain promotes structural changes in regions of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Because a variety of plastic changes including neurogenesis have been suggested to be functionally involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsies, it is of specific interest to define the impact of the polysialic acid (PSA)-NCAM system on development of this disease and associated comorbidities. Therefore, we studied the impact of transient enzymatic depolysialylation of NCAM on the pathophysiology in an electrically induced rat post-status epilepticus (SE) model. Loss of PSA counteracted the SE-induced increase in neurogenesis in a significant manner. This effect of endoneuraminidase (endoN) treatment on hippocampal neurogenesis did not impact the subsequent development of spontaneous seizures. In contrast, transient lack of PSA during SE and in the early phase of epileptogenesis exhibited a cognition sparing effect as revealed in the Morris water maze paradigm. In conclusion, our data do not support a central role of neurogenesis in the development of a hyperexcitable epileptic network. However, in view of the cognition-sparing effect, the transient modulation of the PSA-NCAM system seems to allow beneficial long-term disease modification, which might be mediated by the partial normalization of neurogenesis. [source]

    Environmental enrichment stimulates progenitor cell proliferation in the amygdala

    Hiroaki Okuda
    Abstract Enriched environments enhance hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic efficacy, and learning and memory functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that enriched environments can restore learning behavior and long-term memory after significant brain atrophy and neural loss. Emotional and anxiety-related behaviors were also improved by enriched stimuli, but the effect of enriched environments on the amygdala, one of the major emotion-related structures in the central nervous system, remains largely unknown. In this study, we have focused on the effects of an enriched environment on cell proliferation and differentiation in the murine amygdala. The enriched environment increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive (newborn) cell numbers in the amygdala, almost all of which, immediately after a 1-week period of enrichment, expressed the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker Olig2. Furthermore, enriched stimuli significantly suppressed cell death in the amygdala. Some of the BrdU-positive cells in mice exposed to the enriched environment, but none in animals housed in the standard environment, later differentiated into astrocytes. Our findings, taken together with previous behavioral studies, suggest that progenitor proliferation and differentiation in the amygdala may contribute to the beneficial aspects of environmental enrichment such as anxiolytic effects. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of insulin-like growth factor system genes during the early postnatal neurogenesis in the mouse hippocampus

    Jihui Zhang
    Abstract Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is essential to hippocampal neurogenesis and the neuronal response to hypoxia/ischemia injury. IGF (IGF-1 and -2) signaling is mediated primarily by the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) and modulated by six high-affinity binding proteins (IGFBP) and the type 2 IGF receptor (IGF-2R), collectively termed IGF system proteins. Defining the precise cells that express each is essential to understanding their roles. With the exception of IGFBP-1, we found that mouse hippocampus expresses mRNA for each of these proteins during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Compared to postnatal day 14 (P14), mRNA abundance at P5 was higher for IGF-1, IGFBP-2, -3, and -5 (by 71%, 108%, 100%, and 98%, respectively), lower for IGF-2, IGF-2R, and IGFBP-6 (by 65%, 78%, and 44%, respectively), and unchanged for IGF-1R and IGFBP-4. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM), we found that granule neurons and pyramidal neurons exhibited identical patterns of expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGF-2R, IGFBP-2, and -4, but did not express other IGF system genes. We then compared IGF system expression in mature granule neurons and their progenitors. Progenitors exhibited higher mRNA levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1R (by 130% and 86%, respectively), lower levels of IGF-2R (by 72%), and similar levels of IGFBP-4. Our data support a role for IGF in hippocampal neurogenesis and provide evidence that IGF actions are regulated within a defined in vivo milieu. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Exacerbated loss of cell survival, neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive (IR) cells, and serotonin-IR fiber lengths in the dorsal hippocampus of the aged flinders sensitive line "depressed" rat: Implications for the pathophysiology of depression?

    H. Husum
    Abstract Impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis has been proposed to provide a cellular basis for the development of major depression. Studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) may be involved in stimulating cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus. The Flinders-sensitive line (FSL) rat represents a genetic model of depression with characterized 5-HT and NPY abnormalities in the hippocampus. Consequently, it could be hypothesized that hippocampal neurogenesis in the FSL rat would be impaired. The present study examined the relationship among 1) number of BrdU-immunoreactive (IR) cells, 2) NPY-IR cells in the dentate gyrus, and 3) length of 5-HT-IR fibers in the dorsal hippocampus, as well as volume and number of 5-HT-IR cells in the dorsal raphé nucleus, in adult and aged FSL rats and control Flinders-resistant line (FRL) rats. Surprisingly, adult FSL rats had significantly more BrdU-IR and NPY-IR cells compared with adult FRL rats. However, aging caused an exacerbated loss of these cell types in the FSL strain compared with FRL. The aged FSL rats also had shortened 5-HT-IR fibers in the dorsal hippocampus, indicative of an impaired 5-HT innervation of this area, compared with FRL. These results suggest that, for "depressed" FSL rats, compared with FRL rats, aging is associated with an excacerbated loss of newly formed cells in addition to NPY-IR cells and 5-HT-IR dendrites in the hippocampus. These observations may be of relevance to the depression-like behavior of the FSL rat and, by inference, to the pathophysiology of depression. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    ,-tocopherol, an exogenous factor of adult hippocampal neurogenesis regulation

    Tiziana Cecchini
    Abstract In previous work, we found that adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rat is affected by vitamin E deficiency. Because vitamin E deficiency is a complex condition involving numerous biological systems, it is possible that its effect on postnatal new neuron production could be mediated by unknown changes in different factors that in turn play a role in this process. To clarify if vitamin E plays a direct role in regulating hippocampal neurogenesis, we studied the neurogenesis in adult control rats and in adult rats under supplementation with ,-tocopherol, the most important compound of vitamin E. The ,-tocopherol level in control and supplemented rats was monitored. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation and death was carried out and expression of immature neuron markers PSA-NCAM, TUC 4, and DCX was investigated in hippocampus dentate gyrus. ,-Tocopherol levels increased significantly in both plasma and brain after supplementation. Cell proliferation was inhibited in ,-tocopherol-supplemented rats, the number of dying cells was reduced, and the number of cells expressing the immature neuron markers was increased. The results obtained confirm and extend the idea that vitamin E is an exogenous factor playing a direct role in regulation of different steps of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Some hypotheses about the possible mechanisms underlying the complex action of ,-tocopherol, related to its antioxidant and molecule-specific non-antioxidant properties, are proposed and discussed. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Exercise Neuroprotection in a Rat Model of Binge Alcohol Consumption

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2010
    J. Leigh Leasure
    Background:, Excessive alcohol intake produces structural and functional deficits in corticolimbic pathways that are thought to underlie cognitive deficits in the alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Animal models of binge alcohol administration support the direct link of high levels of alcohol consumption and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and surrounding cortex. In contrast, voluntary wheel running enhances hippocampal neurogenesis and generally promotes the health of neurons. Methods:, We investigated whether voluntary exercise prior to binge alcohol exposure could protect against alcohol-induced cell loss. Female Long-Evans rats exercised voluntarily for 14 days before undergoing 4 days of binge alcohol consumption. Brains were harvested immediately after the last dose of alcohol and examined for various histological markers of neurodegeneration, including both cell death (FluoroJade B) and cell birth (Ki67) markers. Results:, Rats that exercised prior to binge exposure were significantly less behaviorally intoxicated, which was not a result of enhanced hepatic metabolism. Rats that exercised prior to binge alcohol consumption had reduced loss of dentate gyrus granule cells and fewer FluoroJade B positive cells in the dentate gyrus and associated entorhinal-perirhinal cortex compared to nonexercisers. However, exercise did not protect against cell death in the piriform cortex nor protect against alcohol-induced decreases in cell proliferation, evidenced by a similar alcohol-induced reduction in Ki67 labeled cells between exercise and sedentary rats. Conclusions:, We conclude that exercise can reduce behavioral sensitivity to ethanol intoxication and protect vulnerable brain areas from alcohol-induced cell death. Exercise neuroprotection of alcohol-induced brain damage has important implications in understanding the neurobiology of the AUDs as well as in developing novel treatment strategies. [source]

    Abstinence From Moderate Alcohol Self-Administration Alters Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Differentiation in Multiple Brain Regions of Male and Female P Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
    Jun He
    Background:, Acute and chronic ethanol exposure has been found to decrease hippocampal neurogenesis, reduce dendritic differentiation of new neurons, and increase cell death. Interestingly, abstinence from such treatment increases hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial genesis across several brain regions. The goal of the current investigation was to study cellular alterations on neuro- and cell-genesis during abstinence following alcohol self-administration using alcohol-preferring rats (P rats). Methods:, Male and female P rats were given the choice of drinking 10% alcohol in water or pure water for 7 weeks. Social interaction behavioral assessments were conducted at 5 hours upon removal of alcohol, followed by bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 150 mg/kg × 1/d × 14 d) injections to label proliferating cells. Animals were then killed 4 weeks later to conduct immunohistochemical and confocal analyses using antibodies against BrdU and other phenotypic markers (NeuN for mature neurons; Iba-1 for microglia; GFAP for astrocytes; and NG2 for oligodendrocyte progenitors). Results:, Mild alcohol withdrawal anxiety was detected by reduction in social interactions. The number of hippocampal BrdU+ cells was increased approximately 50% during alcohol abstinence (26 ± 2.8 in controls vs. 39 ± 4 in alcohol group). BrdU+ cells were also increased in the substantia nigra (SN) approximately 65% in the alcohol abstinent group (12 ± 1 in controls vs. 19 ± 1.5 in alcohol group). No gender differences were found. Confocal analyses indicated that approximately 75% of co-localization of BrdU+ cells with NeuN in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) resulting a net increase in neurogenesis in the alcohol abstinent group compared to controls. In cingulum, greater proportion of BrdU+ cells were co-localized with NG2 in the alcohol abstinent group indicating increased differentiation toward oligodendrocyte progenitors in both genders. However, the phenotype of the BrdU+ cells in SN and other brain regions were not identified by NeuN, Iba-1, GFAP, or NG2 suggesting that these BrdU+ cells probably remain in a nondifferentiated stage. Conclusions:, These data indicate that abstinence from moderate alcohol drinking increases hippocampal neurogenesis, cingulate NG2 differentiation, and SN undifferentiated cell proliferation in both males and females. Such cellular alteration during abstinence could contribute to the spontaneous partial restoration of cognitive deficits upon sobriety. [source]

    Relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder-like behavior and reduction of hippocampal 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine-positive cells after inescapable shock in rats

    Akihito Kikuchi md
    Aim:, Inescapable shocks (IS) have been reported to reduce the number of 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in hippocampus. Antidepressants prevent this reduction, and the role of neurogenesis in depression is now suggested. It has been reported, however, that the number of BrdU-positive cells was not different between the rats that developed learned helplessness and those that did not. This suggests that reduction of neurogenesis does not constitute a primary etiology of depression. It has been previously shown that IS can cause various post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behavioral changes in rats. The aim of the present was therefore to examined whether the reduction of BrdU-positive cells relates to any PTSD-like behavioral changes in this paradigm. Methods:, Rats were given either inescapable foot-shocks (IS) or not shocked (non-S) treatment in a shuttle box on day 1 and received BrdU injections once daily during the first week after IS/non-S treatment. On day 14, rats treated with IS and non-S were given an avoidance/escape test in the shuttle box and dorsal hippocampal SGZ were analyzed by BrdU immunohistochemistry. Results:, In accordance with previously reported results, IS loading resulted in fewer BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ). Furthermore, in the IS-treated group, the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal SGZ was negatively correlated at a significant level with several hyperactive behavioral parameters but not with hypoactive behavioral parameters. Earlier findings had indicated that chronic selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor administration, which is known to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, restored the increase in hypervigilant/hyperarousal behavior but did not attenuate the increase in numbing/avoidance behavior. Conclusion:, The regulatory mechanism responsible for the decreased proliferation and survival of cells in the hippocampus may be related to the pathogenic processes of hypervigilance/hyperarousal behaviors. [source]

    Regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis , implications for novel theories of major depression1

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1 2002
    Gerd Kempermann
    Major depression, whose biological origins have been difficult to grasp for decades, might result from a disturbance in neuronal plasticity. New theories begin to consider a fundamental role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in this loss of plasticity. Could depression and other mood disorders therefore be ,stem cell disorders'? In this review, the potential role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and of neuronal stem or progenitor cells in depression is discussed with regard to those aspects that are brought up by recent research on how adult hippocampal neurogenesis is regulated. What is known about this regulation today are mosaic pieces and indicates that regulation is complex and is modulated on several levels. Accordingly, emphasis is here laid on those regulatory feedback mechanisms and interdependencies that could help to explain how the pathogenic progression from a hypothesized disruptive cause can occur and lead to the complex clinical picture in mood disorders. While the ,neurogenic theory' of depression remains highly speculative today, it might stimulate the generation of sophisticated working hypotheses, useful animal experiments and the first step towards new therapeutic approaches. [source]