Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Hierarchy

  • competitive hierarchy
  • dominance hierarchy
  • genetic hierarchy
  • organizational hierarchy
  • political hierarchy
  • power hierarchy
  • regulatory hierarchy
  • resulting hierarchy
  • size hierarchy
  • social hierarchy
  • spatial hierarchy
  • status hierarchy
  • urban hierarchy

  • Terms modified by Hierarchy

  • hierarchy process

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT:,Findings from this study challenge the conventional wisdom about the motivations for local growth control. Using data of California ballot box growth controls merged with city level demographic and housing data from the U.S. Census Bureau, logit models are estimated to test four hypotheses for why communities mobilize against growth. Of the four hypotheses, growth pressures, community status, metropolitan hierarchy, and strategic interaction, the only hypothesis that was strongly supported by the logistic regression analyses was strategic interaction. Support for the strategic interaction hypothesis reveals that jurisdictions located in regions where growth control policies are more abundant have a higher probability of mobilizing against growth. In other words, jurisdictions' growth control policies influence the growth decisions made by neighboring jurisdictions within the same region. One of the most surprising findings in the logistic regression analyses is that low-income suburbs are significantly more likely to mobilize against growth than high-income suburbs. These results refute the commonly held belief that growth control is strictly a concern of elite communities and suggest that residents of low-income suburbs may be turning to the ballot box to control growth because their communities are the locations of choice for noxious land uses. [source]

    Enhancing Bounding Volumes using Support Plane Mappings for Collision Detection

    Athanasios Vogiannou
    Abstract In this paper we present a new method for improving the performance of the widely used Bounding Volume Hierarchies for collision detection. The major contribution of our work is a culling algorithm that serves as a generalization of the Separating Axis Theorem for non parallel axes, based on the well-known concept of support planes. We also provide a rigorous definition of support plane mappings and implementation details regarding the application of the proposed method to commonly used bounding volumes. The paper describes the theoretical foundation and an overall evaluation of the proposed algorithm. It demonstrates its high culling efficiency and in its application, significant improvement of timing performance with different types of bounding volumes and support plane mappings for rigid body simulations. [source]

    Shallow Bounding Volume Hierarchies for Fast SIMD Ray Tracing of Incoherent Rays

    H. Dammertz
    Abstract Photorealistic image synthesis is a computationally demanding task that relies on ray tracing for the evaluation of integrals. Rendering time is dominated by tracing long paths that are very incoherent by construction. We therefore investigate the use of SIMD instructions to accelerate incoherent rays. SIMD is used in the hierarchy construction, the tree traversal and the leaf intersection. This is achieved by increasing the arity of acceleration structures, which also reduces memory requirements. We show that the resulting hierarchies can be built quickly and are smaller than acceleration structures known so far while at the same time outperforming them for incoherent rays. Our new acceleration structure speeds up ray tracing by a factor of 1.6 to 2.0 compared to a highly optimized bounding interval hierarchy implementation, and 1.3 to 1.6 compared to an efficient kd-tree. At the same time, the memory requirements are reduced by 10,50%. Additionally we show how a caching mechanism in conjunction with this memory efficient hierarchy can be used to speed up shadow rays in a global illumination algorithm without increasing the memory footprint. This optimization decreased the number of traversal steps up to 50%. [source]

    Automatic Creation of Object Hierarchies for Radiosity Clustering

    Gordon Müller
    Using object clusters for hierarchical radiosity greatly improves the efficiency and thus usability of radiosity computations. By eliminating the quadratic starting phase very large scenes containing about 100k polygons can be handled efficiently. Although the main algorithm extends rather easily to using object clusters, the creation of ,good' object hierarchies is a difficult task both in terms of construction time and in the way how surfaces or objects are grouped to clusters. The quality of an object hierarchy for clustering depends on its ability to accurately simulate the hierarchy of the energy flow in a given scene. Additionally it should support visibility computations by providing efficient ray acceleration techniques. In this paper we will present a new approach of building hierarchies of object clusters. Our hybrid structuring algorithm provides accuracy and speed by combining a highly optimized bounding volume hierarchy together with uniform spatial subdivisions for nodes with regular object densities. The algorithm works without user intervention and is well suited for a wide variety of scenes. First results of using these hierarchies in a radiosity clustering environment are very promising and will be presented here. The combination of very deep hierarchies (we use a binary tree) together with an efficient ray acceleration structure shifts the computational effort away from form factor and visibility calculation towards accurately propagating the energy through the hierarchy. We will show how an efficient single pass gathering can be used to minimize traversal costs. [source]

    Coordination and Motivation in Flat Hierarchies: The Impact of the Adjudication Culture

    ECONOMICA, Issue 288 2005
    Rabindra Nath Chakraborty
    This paper considers a variation of the partnership game with imperfect public information, in which teams are semi-autonomous. The only hierarchical intervention in teamwork is when a superior is called in by a team member to adjudicate alleged cases of free-riding or unjustified lateral punishment (flat hierarchy) according to publicly known adjudicative rules (adjudication culture), using for statistical inference a publicly known organizational norm for teamwork cooperation. It is shown that it is advantageous to set a non-elitist organizational teamwork norm. Furthermore, fairness in adjudication is valuable for economic reasons alone. [source]

    Impact of Environmental Disturbance on the Stability and Benefits of Individual Status within Dominance Hierarchies

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    Lynne U. Sneddon
    Changes in environmental conditions affect social interactions and thus may modify an individual's competitive ability within a social group. We subjected three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, housed in groups of four individuals, to environmental perturbations to assess the impact on dominance hierarchy stability. Hierarchy stability decreased during increased turbulence or lowered water levels (,simulated drought') whereas control hierarchies became more stable in a constant environment. The dominant individual either became more aggressive and remained dominant during the environmental manipulation or was usurped by a lower rank member. Only simulated drought affected rates of aggression where levels of aggression were higher after the water level was dropped which may be the result of an increased encounter rate in these conditions. When there were large size differences between the group members, the dominant individual performed the greatest amount of aggression and ate the largest proportion of food and there was little aggressive behaviour from the lower ranks. In groups of similar-sized individuals, aggression was much higher. The benefit of being dominant was to gain weight over the experimental period whereas ranks 2 and 3 lost weight. The lowest rank, 4, actually gained weight over the experimental period. This study suggests that it would benefit an individual to be dominant, highly aggressive and gain weight or be submissive, avoid aggressive interactions and, by sneakily obtaining access to food, also gain weight. Altering environmental conditions has a profound effect on social behaviour in this study. [source]

    Should service user involvement be consigned to history?

    A critical realist perspective
    Service user involvement in the UK healthcare agenda is now widely expected. Historically, service user groups have been increasingly successful in their demands for greater involvement. Hierarchies of involvement exist that include consultation and partnership working. Psychiatry is an archetypal arena in terms of power and control. The traditional view of interpreting the place of service users within this arena is that the service user is at the bottom of this hierarchy; involvement allows transcendence of the power hierarchy. Critical realist theory is offered as an alternative approach to understanding these complex relationships. It is argued that contemporary models of involvement perpetuate and sustain the power positions of the dominant discourse within psychiatry. It is suggested that a critical realism perspective, offers a model that does not kowtow to the dominant discourse but rather recognizes that service users now possess power, especially in terms of being able to provide services that statutory services providers now require. Is it time for service users to call the tune, and, in doing so, establish a power position outside the traditional hierarchy of power? [source]

    Hierarchies in , -spaces and applications

    Victor L. Selivanov
    Abstract We establish some results on the Borel and difference hierarchies in , -spaces. Such spaces are the topological counterpart of the algebraic directed-complete partial orderings. E.g., we prove analogs of the Hausdorff Theorem relating the difference and Borel hierarchies and of the Lavrentyev Theorem on the non-collapse of the difference hierarchy. Some of our results generalize results of A. Tang for the space P,. We also sketch some older applications of these hierarchies and present a new application to the question of characterizing the , -ary Boolean operations generating a given level of the Wadge hierarchy from the open sets. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Multiscale structure in sedimentary basins

    BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 2 2004
    S. A. Stewart
    Hierarchies of superimposed structures are found in maps of geological horizons in sedimentary basins. Mapping based on three-dimensional (3D) seismic data includes structures that range in scale from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Extraction of structures from these maps without a priori knowledge of scale and shape is analogous to pattern recognition problems that have been widely researched in disciplines outside of Geoscience. A number of these lessons are integrated and applied within a geological context here. We describe a method for generating multiscale representations from two-dimensional sections and 3D surfaces, and illustrate how superimposed geological structures can be topologically analysed. Multiscale analysis is done in two stages , generation of scale-space as a geometrical attribute, followed by identification of significant scale-space objects. Results indicate that Gaussian filtering is a more robust method than conventional moving average filtering for deriving multiscale geological structure. We introduce the concept of natural scales for identifying the most significant scales in a geological cross section. In three dimensions, scale-dependent structures are identified via an analogous process as discrete topological entities within a four-dimensional scale-space cube. Motivation for this work is to take advantage of the completeness of seismic data coverage to see ,beyond the outcrop' and yield multiscale geological structure. Applications include identifying artefacts, scale-specific features and large-scale structural domains, facilitating multiscale structural attribute mapping for reservoir characterisation, and a novel approach to fold structure classification. [source]

    Importance of Body Size in Determining Dominance Hierarchies among Diverse Tropical Frugivores1

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 1 2005
    Aaron R. French
    ABSTRACT Most studies examining dominance hierarchies have focused at the intraspecific level. While some examples of interspecific hierarchies have been noted, these have usually been limited to a few species in the same taxonomic group that utilize resources in similar ways. Here, we examine evidence for dominance interference competition among vertebrates comprising a diverse frugivore community, including 19 species of birds, squirrels, and primates in a mature Central African rainforest. A total of 38 fruiting trees from 18 species were observed for 2058 h to record dominance interactions between foraging vertebrates. We show that interference competition occurs within and between taxonomically diverse species of vertebrates at fruiting trees. The resulting cross-taxonomic dominance hierarchy includes larger vertebrates, such as primates and hornbills, as well as smaller ones, such as squirrels and parrots. Within this hierarchy, the dominance rank of each species is highly correlated with body mass, and is shown to significantly affect the number of fruits removed from a given tree. Because a majority of tropical tree species depend on vertebrates to disperse their seeds, and particular vertebrates may preferentially disperse the seeds of specific tree species, results may have important conservation implications for the maintenance of tree diversity in regions where populations of larger frugivores have been depressed or extirpated. [source]

    Phylogenetic Species, Nested Hierarchies, and Character Fixation

    CLADISTICS, Issue 4 2000
    Paul Z. Goldstein
    Cladistic mechanics and ramifications of various species concepts rooted in phylogenetic theory are explored. Published discussions of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC) have been hampered by persistent misconceptions surrounding its ontology and applicability, and by confusion of various incompatible versions of species concepts claiming to follow from Hennig's (1966), Phylogenetic Systematics, Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana work. Especially problematic are topology- or tree-based versions of species diagnosis, which render diagnoses dependent on relationships depicted as hierarchically structured regardless of any lack of underlying hierarchy. Because the applicability of concepts such as monophyly, paraphyly, and polyphyly rests ultimately on the underlying hierarchical distribution of characters, representations of tokogenetic or reticulating systems as nested hierarchies are necessarily inaccurate. And since hierarchical representations,even if accurate,of nonrecombining genetic elements need not coincide with the organisms that bear them, tree-based diagnoses are further hampered, except potentially as retrospective tools. The relationship between tree-based species delineations and the criterion of character fixation is explored. Fixation of characters by which one identifies phylogenetic species is further distinguished from the fixation of character state differences, and the implications of that distinction are explored with reference to the interpretation of speciation events. It is demonstrated that character fixation in alternative species need not coincide with the achievement of reciprocal monophyly. While the PSC retains shortcomings, some of the more frequently criticized aspects of the PSC are functions of sampling that are no more problematic than for any basic systematic endeavor. [source]

    A Hierarchical Topology-Based Model for Handling Complex Indoor Scenes

    D. Fradin
    Abstract This paper presents a topology-based representation dedicated to complex indoor scenes. It accounts for memory management and performances during modelling, visualization and lighting simulation. We propose to enlarge a topological model (called generalized maps) with multipartition and hierarchy. Multipartition allows the user to group objects together according to semantics. Hierarchy provides a coarse-to-fine description of the environment. The topological model we propose has been used for devising a modeller prototype and generating efficient data structure in the context of visualization, global illumination and 1 GHz wave propagation simulation. We presently handle buildings composed of up to one billion triangles. [source]

    "The Devil's Apostle": Jonas King's Trial against the Greek Hierarchy in 1852 and the Pressure to Extend U.S. Protection for American Missionaries Overseas

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 5 2009
    Angelo Repousis
    First page of article [source]

    Naked Mole-Rat is Sensitive to Social Hierarchy Encoded in Antiphonal Vocalization

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 9 2009
    Shigeto Yosida
    The maintenance of social relationships is critical for group-dwelling species. Social animals often exhibit behaviors such as antiphonal vocalizations that reduce conflict and maintain affiliations. Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) have a complex hierarchical society comparable to that of bees and ants. They are also known for their extensive vocal repertoire, which may have evolved in the absence of visual cues. The most frequent vocalization used by naked mole-rats is the soft chirp (SC). It has an antiphonal nature and may function in rank identification and in maintaining affiliations. Relative body weight differences, which are directly related to social rank, are positively correlated with SC emission rates. SCs are elicited from either physical touch or the SC of another conspecific, and other cues might contribute to SC utterance. In the current study, we examined whether an SC alone was able to elicit SC responses. Specifically, we presented artificial SC-like sounds and determined whether the response rate was modulated by the acoustic properties of the stimulus. An analysis of response latency revealed that animals responded to the audio stimuli, and a single audio stimulus could elicit responses from two animals. Thus, antiphony in naked mole-rats may occur among three or more animals. We also found that animals were able to discriminate the acoustic properties of the stimulus and responded more frequently to audio stimuli resembling SCs from large animals than to those resembling SCs from small animals. Therefore, naked mole-rats may be able to judge social relationships (dominant or subordinate) based solely on SCs. The constraints of subterranean habitats and increased social complexity may have led to the evolution of this communication system. [source]

    Hierarchy and Specialisation: on the institutional integration of higher education systems1

    Ivar Bleiklie
    First page of article [source]

    Hierarchy of eosinophil chemoattractants: role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    Petra Schratl
    Abstract Several chemoattractants can regulate the recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation, but the hierarchy among them is unknown. We observed here that eosinophil chemotaxis towards eotaxin or 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) was amplified up to sixfold in the presence of prostaglandin (PG) D2. This effect was only seen in eosinophils, and not in neutrophils or basophils. Pretreatment with the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2) antagonist ramatroban prevented the PGD2 enhancement of eosinophil migrations. In contrast, eotaxin or 5-oxo-ETE inhibited the migration of eosinophils towards PGD2. 5-oxo-ETE enhanced the chemotaxis to eotaxin, while eotaxin had no effect on 5-oxo-ETE-induced migration. 5-oxo-ETE induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by SB-202190 converted the effect of 5-oxo-ETE on the chemotaxis to PGD2 from inhibition to enhancement. The presence of blood or plasma markedly decreased the sensitivity of eosinophils to eotaxin or 5-oxo-ETE, while responses to PGD2 were unaltered. In conclusion, PGD2 might be an initial chemoattractant, since it maintains its potency in the circulation and augments the responsiveness of eosinophils to other chemoattractants. In contrast, eotaxin seems to be an end-point chemoattractant, since it has reduced efficacy in blood and is capable of down-modulating eosinophil responsiveness to other chemoattractants. [source]

    Towards a Hierarchy of Legal Acts in the European Union?

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 6 2005
    Procedures, Simplification of Legal Instruments
    There is however a clear suggestion of such hierarchy in the sequence in which the newly created legal instruments are listed in Article I-33(1) and in the organisation of the subsequent Articles I-34 to I-37 of the European Constitution. In this contribution, the (lost) logic behind the Union's current set of legal instruments is analysed, followed by an examination of the reform of the system of legal instruments carried out in the European Constitution. Lastly, an attempt is made to answer the question as to whether this reform amounts to the establishment of a genuine hierarchy of legal acts in the Union. [source]

    Embodying Gender, Work and Organization: Solidarity, Cool Loyalties and Contested Hierarchy in a Masculinist Occupation

    Lee F. MonaghanArticle first published online: 21 MAY 200
    Despite a ,somatic turn' in the social sciences, there remains a dearth of theoretically informed research on male working bodies, the embodied doings of masculinities independent of biological sex and intra,gendered workplace relations. This is unfortunate because embodiment is thoroughly implicated in major social divisions, including gender domination in institutional contexts. Using an embodied sociological perspective and data generated during an ethnography of British nightclub and pub security work, this article goes some way towards embodying the social study of plural masculinities, work and organization. Exploring worker solidarity, cool loyalties and contested hierarchy in this risky masculinist occupation hopefully makes several contributions to the literature. Furthering the (theoretically informed) empirical study of masculinities and socially embedded bodies, the article sensitizes other researchers to gendered/embodied processes possibly taking a more diluted form in other work settings. [source]

    Hierarchy of interactive functions in father-mother-baby three-way games

    France Frascarolo
    Abstract In developmental research, the family has mainly been studied through dyadic interaction. Three-way interactions have received less attention, partly because of their complexity. This difficulty may be overcome by distinguishing between four hierarchically embedded functions in three-way interactions: (1) participation (inclusion of all participants), (2) organization (partners keeping to their roles), (3) focalization (sharing a common focus) and (4) affective contact (being in tune). We document this hierarchical model on a sample of 80 families observed in the Lausanne Trilogue Play situation across four different sites. Hierarchy between functions was demonstrated by means of Guttman scalability coefficient. Given the importance of the child's development in a threesome, the pertinence of this model for family assessment is discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    Andrea Bialocerkowski PhD MAppSc(Phty) GradDipPublicHealth
    Executive summary Background, Obstetric brachial plexus palsy, a complication of childbirth, occurs in 1,3 per 1000 live births internationally. Traction and/or compression of the brachial plexus is thought to be the primary mechanism of injury and this may occur in utero, during the descent through the birth canal or during delivery. This results in a spectrum of injuries that vary in severity, extent of damage and functional use of the affected upper limb. Most infants receive treatment, such as conservative management (physiotherapy, occupational therapy) or surgery; however, there is controversy regarding the most appropriate form of management. To date, no synthesised evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of primary conservative management for obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Objectives, The objective of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence that investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Search strategy, A systematic literature search was performed using 14 databases: TRIP, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, Proquest 5000, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Expanded Academic ASAP, Meditext, Science Direct, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Open Archives Initiative Search Engine, Australian Digital Thesis Program. Those studies that were reported in English and published over the last decade (July 1992 to June 2003) were included in this review. Selection criteria, Quantitative studies that investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were eligible for inclusion in this review. This excluded studies that solely investigated the effect of primary surgery for these infants, management of secondary deformities and the investigation of the effects of pharmacological agents, such as botulinum toxin. Data collection and analysis, Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study for inclusion into the review, the study design used and its methodological quality. Where any disagreement occurred, consensus was reached by discussion. Studies were assessed for clinical homogeneity by considering populations, interventions and outcomes. Where heterogeneity was present, synthesis was undertaken in a narrative format. Results, Eight studies were included in the review. Most were ranked low on the Hierarchy of Evidence (no randomised controlled trials were found), and had only fair methodological quality. Conservative management was variable and could consist of active or passive exercise, splints or traction. All studies lacked a clear description of what constituted conservative management, which would not allow the treatment to be replicated in the clinical setting. A variety of outcome instruments were used, none of which had evidence of validity, reliability or sensitivity to detect change. Furthermore, less severely affected infants were selected to receive conservative management. Therefore, it is difficult to draw conclusions regarding the effectiveness of conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Conclusions, There is scant, inconclusive evidence regarding the effectiveness of primary conservative intervention for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Further research should be directed to develop outcome instruments with sound psychometric properties for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and their families. These outcome instruments should then be used in well-designed comparative studies. [source]

    Hierarchy of equations in the generalized density functional theory

    Á. NagyArticle first published online: 28 NOV 200
    Abstract Functional relations and equations of hierarchy in the generalized density functional theory (DFT) are derived from coordinate scaling and adiabatic connection. Local and nonlocal solutions for the noninteracting kinetic energy, exchange energy, correlation energy, and the kinetic energy correction functionals are presented. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2006 [source]

    Insights Into U.S. Racial Hierarchy: Racial Profiling, News Sources, and September 11

    David Domke
    The events of September 11, 2001, seem likely to have reverberating implications for U.S. race relations, in particular the relative hierarchy of differing racial and ethnic groups. With this in mind, in this study the researchers focused on the manner in which "racial profiling" was talked about,by government and societal leaders, nongovernment opinion leaders, and average citizens,in several leading U.S. news outlets for the 5 months prior to September 11 and for the 5 months afterward. The findings indicate that (a) citizens increased markedly as sources in news coverage after September 11; (b) Arab Americans spoke from more favorable positions of status than African Americans; and (c) racial minorities may face a situation in which they de facto "compete" with other minorities for space in news coverage. The authors discuss implications for the role of news media in race relations. [source]

    The Sexual Politics of Cooking: A Feminist Analysis of Culinary Hierarchy in Western Culture

    Vicki A. Swinbank
    It is often assumed that culinary influence has been ,top down', that is, that haute cuisine and professional cooking by male chefs has influenced popular cooking, especially once literacy became commonplace, and particularly with the publication of cookery books directed at the middle,class ,housewife'. Whilst it is certainly true that professional cooking has influenced domestic cooking as a ,trickle,down' effect, there is an area of serious neglect or oversight , namely, the denial or ignoring of the culinary influence in the other direction, that is, the influence of female domestic cooking on haute cuisine. [source]

    Changes in the Hierarchy of Value References Associated With Flying in Space

    Peter Suedfeld
    ABSTRACT One hundred twenty-five astronaut autobiographies, interviews, and oral histories were content analyzed and scored for references to values (Schwartz, 1992). The current study extended methods tested in 2 pilot studies of space veterans from many nations, of both sexes, and with different experiences within the history of human spaceflight. Value references reflected a high degree of concern with individualism, with Achievement, Enjoyment, and Self-direction ranked highest. There were relatively few value differences across demographic categories, demonstrating the impact of the spaceflight experience. After returning, the astronauts showed increased concern with Universalism, Spirituality, and Power (social recognition), a broadened set of references to values oriented toward the collective good. [source]

    Hierarchy of the non-covalent interactions in the alanine-based secondary structures.

    DFT study of the frequency shifts, electron-density features
    Abstract The alanine (Ala)-based cluster models of C5, C7, and C10 H-bonds are studied at the DFT/B3LYP level. CPMD/BLYP simulations of the infinite polyalanine , -helix (C13 H-bond) and the two-stranded , -sheets are performed. Combined use of frequency shifts and electron-density features enable us to detect and describe quantitatively the non-covalent interactions (H-bonds) defining the intrinsic properties of Ala-based secondary structures. The energies of the primary NHO H-bonds are decreasing in the following way: C13,>,C5,,,C7,>,C10. The energies of the secondary NHO, N,HN, and HH interactions are comparable to those of the primary H-bonds (,4.5,kcal/mol). Side chain,backbone CHO interaction is found to be the weakest non-covalent interaction in the considered species. Its energy is ,0.5,kcal/mol in the infinite polyalanine , -helix. Quantum-topological electron-density analysis is found to be a powerful tool for the detection of secondary non-covalent interactions (COHC and HH) and bifurcated H-bonds, while the frequency shift study is useful for the identification and characterization of primary or secondary H-bonds of the NHO type. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    AAPHD President's Remarks at the Opening Session: Maslow's Hierarchy Applied to the American Association of Public Health Dentistry

    Jane Weintraub DDS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Establishment and Defeat of Hierarchy: Inalienable Possessions and the History of Collective Prestige Structures in the Pueblo Southwest

    ABSTRACT The role of social valuables in establishing and defeating hierarchies in prestate societies is explored through the use of Annette Weiner's concept of "inalienable possessions." Inalienable possessions are objects made to be kept (not exchanged), have symbolic and economic power that cannot be transferred, and are often used to authenticate the ritual authority of corporate groups. Ethnographic examples from Zuni are used to understand the range of individually and collectively owned inalienable objects in Pueblo societies. I then use three classes of these objects from archaeological contexts to gain insight into the history of collective prestige structures in the Southwest. I argue that inalienable goods are more useful than shape prestige goods for understanding the role of social valuables in many nonstate societies, especially those in which inequalities are based on ritual knowledge. [source]

    Culture Matters in the Neolithic Transition and Emergence of Hierarchy in Thy, Denmark: Distinguished Lecture

    Abstract How did the emergence of hierarchical social structure that followed the domestication of plants and animals in the Neolithic actually come about? I suggest that material media were instrumental in this transformation, as culture was changed by incorporating such newmedia as landscape constructions and elaborate prestige objects. During the Neolithic transition in Thy, Denmark, local corporate groups formed, and, subsequently, Bronze Age chieftains came to power. Shifts in material culture suggest possible connections to these institutional changes, namely the materialization of property rights by burial monuments and permanent domestic architecture and the centralization of power through the controlled production of wealth objects. I conclude that, as part of social process, the nature of culture has been transformed by incorporating material culture with specific characteristics of scale, permanency, and control that were vital to institutional change. [source]

    Logics of Hierarchy: The Organization of Empires, States and Military Occupations by Alexander Cooley


    Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior

    Carol R. Ember
    Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Christopher Boehm. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.292 pp. [source]