Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Headache

  • cervicogenic headache
  • chronic cluster headache
  • chronic daily headache
  • chronic headache
  • chronic tension-type headache
  • cluster headache
  • daily headache
  • dural puncture headache
  • episodic tension-type headache
  • migraine headache
  • orthostatic headache
  • post dural puncture headache
  • post-dural puncture headache
  • postdural puncture headache
  • posttraumatic headache
  • primary headache
  • puncture headache
  • recurrent headache
  • severe headache
  • tension-type headache

  • Terms modified by Headache

  • headache and migraine
  • headache attack
  • headache center
  • headache characteristic
  • headache clinic
  • headache day
  • headache diagnosis
  • headache disorders
  • headache frequency
  • headache history
  • headache intensity
  • headache medication
  • headache pain
  • headache patient
  • headache pattern
  • headache recurrence
  • headache relief
  • headache response
  • headache severity
  • headache society
  • headache society criterioN
  • headache specialist
  • headache syndrome
  • headache trigger
  • headache type

  • Selected Abstracts


    HEADACHE, Issue 10 2004
    Article first published online: 10 NOV 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Stephan Frank
    First page of article [source]

    Chronic post-traumatic headache after head injuryin children and adolescents

    Charlotte Kirk MBChB MRCPCH BSc
    This was a prospective, observational study of children aged 3 to 15 years admitted to hospital with head injury (HI). Demographic data and information on the nature of the HI, and history of premorbid headache were collected. A structured telephone questionnaire was used to interview parents and children 2 months after injury and at 4-monthly intervals for up to 3 years, if headache was reported. One hundred and ninety children were admitted with HI. Data were available on 117 children (81 males, 36 females; mean age 8y 5mo [SD 3y 1mo]). HI was minor in 93 patients and significant in the rest. Minor HI was defined as a closed injury, no loss of consciousness, and a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13 to 15. Significant HI was associated with loss of consciousness for >30 minutes, GCS of <13, and post-traumatic amnesia for >48 hours. Eight children (five males, three females; mean age 10y 7mo [SD 2y]) reported chronic post-traumatic headache (CPTH). Five children had episodic tension-type headache and three had migraine with or without aura. Headache resolved over 3 to 27 months in all except one child who was lost to follow-up. Premorbid headache in three children transformed in frequency and type following HI. These patients were excluded from the study. CPTH is common after minor and significant HI. It has the clinical features of tension-type headache and migraine and has a good prognosis. [source]

    Clinical Pearls: Headache and Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy

    Steven Dorsey MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Handbook of Headache , second edition

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Headache attributed to spontaneous low CSF pressure: report of three cases responsive to corticosteroids

    S. Gentile
    The therapy of headache attributed to spontaneous low CSF pressure (previously defined as spontaneous intracranial hypotension) is still a matter of debate. Epidural blood patch is considered the most effective treatment. However, pharmacological strategies may be considered before blood patch. We report three patients with headache attributed to spontaneous low CSF pressure that were successfully treated with oral prednisone. Additional studies may be useful to prove the effectiveness of corticosteroids in this syndrome. [source]

    Post-Dural Puncture Headache: Part II , Prevention, Management, and Prognosis

    HEADACHE, Issue 9 2010
    David Bezov MD
    Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a frequent complication of lumbar puncture, performed for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes or accidentally, as a complication of epidural anesthesia. As PDPH can be disabling, clinicians who perform these procedures should be familiar with strategies for preventing this disorder. Since the best preventative measures sometimes fail, clinicians should also be familiar with the therapeutic approaches for PDPH. Herein, we review the procedure-related risk factors for PDPH, the prognosis of PDPH and the studies of PDPH treatment. We divide the therapeutic approach to PDPH into 4 stages: conservative management, aggressive medical management, conventional invasive treatments, and the very rarely employed less conventional invasive treatments and provide management algorithm to facilitate treatment. [source]

    Research Submission: Chronic Headache and Comorbibities: A Two-Phase, Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
    Ariovaldo Da Silva Jr MD
    Background., Studies using resources of a public family health program to estimate the prevalence of chronic daily headaches (CDH) are lacking. Objectives., To estimate the 1-year prevalence of CDH, as well as the presence of associated psychiatric and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) comorbidities, on the entire population of a city representative of the rural area of Brazil. Methods., This was a cross-sectional, population-based, 2-phase study. In the first phase, health agents interviewed all individuals older than 10 years, in a rural area of Brazil. In the second stage, all individuals who reported headaches on 4 or more days per week were then evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. CDH were classified according to the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-2). Medication overuse headache was diagnosed, as per the ICHD-2, after detoxification trials. Psychiatric comorbidities and TMD were diagnosed based on the DSM-IV and on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders criteria, respectively. Results., A total of 1631 subjects participated in the direct interviews. Of them, 57 (3.6%) had CDH. Chronic migraine was the most common of the CDH (21, 36.8%). Chronic tension-type headache (10, 17.5%), medication overuse headache (13, 22.8%) and probable medication overuse headache (10, 17.5%) were also common. Psychiatric disorders were observed in 38 (67.3%) of the CDH subjects. TMD were seen in 33 (58.1)% of them. Conclusions., The prevalence of CDH in the rural area of Brazil is similar to what has been reported in previous studies. A significant proportion of them have psychiatric comorbidities and/or TMD. In this sample, comorbidities were as frequent as reported in convenience samples from tertiary headache centers. (Headache 2010;50:1306-1312) [source]

    Research Submission: Mixture Analysis of Age at Onset in Migraine Without Aura: Evidence for Three Subgroups

    HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
    Carlo Asuni MD
    (Headache 2010;50:1313-1319) Objective. , To verify the presence of different age at onset (AAO) subgroups of patients in a sample of patients with migraine without aura (MWA) and compare clinical correlates among them. Background., MWA is a long-lasting disease whose prognosis has not yet been fully investigated. Patients may present complete remission, partial clinical remission, persistence and progression (migraine attack frequency and disability may increase over time leading to chronic migraine). Limited evidence exists regarding the identification of risk factors or predictors which might influence migraine prognosis. AAO has been proven a useful tool in the investigation of the clinical, biological, and genetic characteristics able to influence the prognosis of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. AAO distribution was studied using mixture analysis, a statistical approach that breaks down the empirical AAO distribution observed into a mixture of normal components. Methods., A sample of 334 outpatients affected by MWA, recruited in a clinical genetic study at our Headache Center from 2004 to 2008, was enrolled for this study. Diagnosis was made according to International Headache Society criteria 2004. AAO distribution in patients was studied using mixture analysis. Chi-square test was used to compare clinical correlates among identified subgroups. Logistic regression was performed in order to correct for effect of possible confounders. Results., Mixture analysis broke up the observed distribution of AAO into 3 normal theoretical distributions. Informational criteria clearly showed a better 3-component model rather than the 2-component one. An early-onset (,7 years of age), an intermediate-onset (,8 and ,22), and a late-onset group (,23) were identified. Comparison of clinical correlates among subgroups by means of chi-square test showed a statistically significant result for migraine frequency (,2 = 7.41, P = .02). Considering the frequency of migraine attacks as a main outcome, the regression model showed a higher AAO is associated with low frequency (odds ratio = 0.95; P = .02). Conclusions., The significant association between AAO and attack frequency found in our study supports the hypothesis that AAO could act as a predictor factor able to influence prognosis. AAO could represent a phenotype suitable for identifying MWA susceptibility genes. [source]

    Brief Communications: An Analysis of Migraine Triggers in a Clinic-Based Population

    HEADACHE, Issue 8 2010
    Diane Andress-Rothrock MS
    Background., Many migraineurs report attack "triggers," but relatively few published data exist regarding the relative prevalences of individual triggers, variations related to gender, duration of migraine or migraine subtype, or the existence of any regional variations in the prevalences and distributions of triggers. Objective., We sought to determine the prevalence and types of migraine triggers in our clinic population, to determine what influence gender, migraine subtype, or duration of migraine might have on the prevalences and types of triggers reported and to compare our findings with data derived from surveys we previously had conducted involving 2 clinic-based populations and 1 general population sample from other regions of the USA. Methods., We evaluated 200 consecutive new migraine patients referred to our clinic. All patients specifically were queried as to whether they had noted any of 7 specific factors to serve consistently as migraine attack triggers and additionally were surveyed as to whether they might have "other" triggers not listed on the intake questionnaire. Among the other data collected and analyzed were age, gender, age at time of migraine onset, and migraine subtype (ie, episodic vs chronic). Actively cycling females who reported menses as a trigger were questioned as to whether their menstrual migraine (MM) attacks differed from their non-menstrual migraines and, if so, how they differed. Results., One hundred and eighty-two patients (91%) reported at least 1 migraine trigger, and 165 (82.5%) reported multiple triggers. The most common trigger reported (59%) was "emotional stress," followed by "too much or little sleep" (53.5%), "odors" (46.5%), and "missing meals" (39%). Females or subjects of either gender with chronic migraine were no more likely than males or subjects with episodic migraine to report triggers or multiple triggers. Similarly, longer exposure to migraine did not correlate with a higher likelihood of reporting a trigger or multiple triggers. Fifty-three (62%) of 85 actively cycling females reported menses as a trigger, and of the 51 with menstrually related migraine, 34 (67%) reported their MM to be more severe, more refractory to symptomatic therapy or of longer duration than their non-menstrual attacks; 13 (24.5%) of the 53 women with apparent MM reported their MM to be at least occasionally manifested as status migrainosus. The prevalence and type of triggers reported by this predominantly white female population were similar to those reported by clinic-based populations in San Diego, California and Mobile, Alabama, and in a population-based sample of Hispanics in San Diego County. Conclusions., A large majority of migraineurs report migraine attack triggers, and the triggers most commonly reported include emotional stress, a disrupted sleep pattern, and various odors. These findings do not appear to vary according to geographic region or race/ethnicity. Among the triggers, MM appears inclined to provoke headache that is more severe, less amenable to treatment, or longer in duration than headaches that occur at other times during the cycle. (Headache 2010;50:1366-1370) [source]

    Electrical Stimulation of Sphenopalatine Ganglion for Acute Treatment of Cluster Headaches

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2010
    Mehdi Ansarinia MD
    (Headache 2010;50:1164-1174) Introduction., Cluster headaches (CH) are primary headaches marked by repeated short-lasting attacks of severe, unilateral head pain and associated autonomic symptoms. Despite aggressive management with medications, oxygen therapy, nerve blocks, as well as various lesioning and neurostimulation therapies, a number of patients are incapacitated and suffering. The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of CH and has been a target for blocks, lesioning, and other surgical approaches. For this reason, it was selected as a target for an acute neurostimulation study. Methods., Six patients with refractory chronic CH were treated with short-term (up to 1 hour) electrical stimulation of the SPG during an acute CH. Headaches were spontaneously present at the time of stimulation or were triggered with agents known to trigger clusters headache in each patient. A standard percutaneous infrazygomatic approach was used to place a needle at the ipsilateral SPG in the pterygopalatine fossa under fluoroscopic guidance. Electrical stimulation was performed using a temporary stimulating electrode. Stimulation was performed at various settings during maximal headache intensity. Results., Five patients had CH during the initial evaluation. Three returned 3 months later for a second evaluation. There were 18 acute and distinct CH attacks with clinically maximal visual analog scale (VAS) intensity of 8 (out of 10) and above. SPG stimulation resulted in complete resolution of the headache in 11 attacks, partial resolution (>50% VAS reduction) in 3, and minimal to no relief in 4 attacks. Associated autonomic features of CH were resolved in each responder. Pain relief was noted within several minutes of stimulation. Conclusion., Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation can be effective in relieving acute severe CH pain and associated autonomic features. Chronic long-term outcome studies are needed to determine the utility of SPG stimulation for management and prevention of CH. [source]

    Atypical Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension With a Head-Shaking Headache

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2010
    Hung Youl Seok MD
    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is typically characterized by orthostatic headache; however, various atypical manifestations of SIH have been reported recently. We report here the case of a 46-year-old man with headache secondary to SIH, which was nonorthostatic, triggered only when the patient shook his head. We suggest that SIH should be suspected in patients with headache induced by head-shaking, even without orthostatic features, especially when the headache is accompanied by other symptoms commonly associated with SIH. [source]

    Sleep and Headache: The Clinical Relationship

    HEADACHE, Issue 7 2010
    Dimos D. Mitsikostas MD
    First page of article [source]

    Shorter Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Cells Associated With Migraine in Women

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
    Hua Ren PhD
    (Headache 2010;50:965-972) Objective., To evaluate relative telomere length of female migraine patients. Background., Migraine is a debilitating disorder affecting 6-28% of the population. Studies on the mechanisms of migraine have demonstrated genetic causes but the pathophysiology and subcellular effects of the disease remain poorly understood. Shortened telomere length is associated with age-related or chronic diseases, and induced stresses. Migraine attacks may impart significant stress on cellular function, thus this study investigates a correlation between shortening of telomeres and migraine. Methods., Relative telomere length was measured using a previously described quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. A regression analysis was performed to assess differences in mean relative telomere length between migraine patients and healthy controls. Results., The leukocyte telomeres of a cohort of 142 Caucasian female migraine subjects aged 18-77 years and 143 matched 17-77-year-old healthy control Caucasian women were examined. A significantly shorter relative telomere length was observed in the migraine group compared with the control group after adjusting for age and body mass index (P = .001). In addition, age of onset was observed to associate with the loss of relative telomere length, especially at early age of onset (<17 years old). No association was observed between relative telomere length and the severity and frequency of migraine attacks and the duration of migraine. Conclusion., Telomeres are shorter in migraine patients and there is more variation in telomere length in migraine patients. [source]

    Suboccipital Nerve Blocks for Suppression of Chronic Migraine: Safety, Efficacy, and Predictors of Outcome

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
    Silvia Weibelt RN
    (Headache 2010;50:1041-1044) Background., Approximately 1 in 50 Americans is afflicted by chronic migraine (CM). Many patients with CM describe cervicogenic headache. Options for treating CM effectively are at present quite limited. Objective., To determine the safety and efficacy of occipital nerve blocks (ONBs) used to treat cervicogenic chronic migraine (CCM) and to identify variables predictive of a positive treatment response. Methods., Using a uniform dose and injection paradigm, we performed ONBs consecutively on a series of patients presenting with CCM. Patients were stratified according to specific findings found to be present or absent on physical examination. A positive treatment outcome was defined as a 50% or greater reduction in headache days per month over the 30 days following treatment relative to the 30-day pre-treatment baseline. We used a 5-point Likert scale as one of the secondary outcome variables. Results., We treated 150 consecutive patients with unilateral (37) or bilateral (113) ONBs. At the 1-month follow-up visit 78 (52%) exhibited evidence of a positive treatment response according to the primary outcome variable, and 90 (60%) reported their headache disorder to be "better" (44; 29%) or "much better" (46; 30%). A total of 8 (5%) patients reported adverse events within the ensuing 72 hours, and 3 (2%) experienced adverse events that reversed spontaneously but required emergent evaluation and management. Conclusion., For suppression of CCM, ONBs may offer an attractive alternative to orally administered prophylactic therapy. [source]

    Brain Apparent Water Diffusion Coefficient Magnetic Resonance Image During a Prolonged Visual Aura

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2010
    Robert Belvís MD
    (Headache 2010;50:1045-1049) Background., Reversible changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) weighted in diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent water diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps have been reported in acute stroke, epilepsy, eclampsia, and hypoglycemia, but they are contradictory regarding to migraine aura. Objective., A 41-year-old woman with known basilar migraine for 5 years consulted about a persistent visual aura (visual snow phenomenon) plus bilateral paresthesias in the extremities for 4 days. The headache was treated with success with 10 mg of wafer rizatriptan and 600 mg of ibuprophen. Methods., The neurologic and ophthalmologic examination were normal. An urgent brain MRI detected no lesions in T1, T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and DWI, but an abnormal signal appeared in the left occipital lobe in ADC and (r)ADC maps. The brain MRI angiography, carotid ultrasound study, transesophageal echocardiography, 24-hour cardiac Holter monitoring, and thrombophilia study were normal. Results., A new brain MRI 8 days after did not show any previous lesion in the same sequences. Conclusions., We present a patient with migraine and transitory abnormal signals in the ADC map of an occipital region during persistent visual aura. The clinical-radiological relationship is congruent. Some similar cases have showed these MRI signals during the aura, suggesting cytotoxic edema, without ischemic lesions in the MRI controls. Theses ADC images probably appear in complex auras. [source]

    Headache Triggers in the US Military

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2010
    Brett J. Theeler MD
    (Headache 2010;50:790-794) Background., Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. Objective., The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. Methods., A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. Results., A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Conclusion., Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military. [source]

    Long-Term, Open-Label Safety Study of Oral Almotriptan 12.5 mg for the Acute Treatment of Migraine in Adolescents

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2010
    Frank Berenson MD
    (Headache 2010;50:795-807) Objectives., This study evaluated the long-term safety of oral almotriptan 12.5 mg for the treatment of multiple migraine episodes in adolescents over a 12-month period. Efficacy outcomes were assessed as a secondary objective. Methods., Adolescent migraineurs aged 12-17 years were enrolled in this 12-month, open-label study (Study ID CR002827). Patients were instructed to record their assessments on paper headache records whenever they experienced a migraine headache that they treated with study medication. Safety was assessed descriptively and assessments included adverse event (AE) recording, change in laboratory values, vital signs, and electrocardiogram parameters. Efficacy outcomes were assessed descriptively and outcomes included rates for 2- and 24-hour pain relief and sustained pain relief, 2- and 24-hour pain-free and sustained pain-free, and presence of migraine-associated symptoms of photophobia, phonophobia, nausea and vomiting. Results., Overall, 67.1% of patients reported ,1 AE over the course of the trial, 7.6% had an AE judged by the study investigator to be related to treatment with almotriptan, 2.4% discontinued because of an AE, and 1.9% reported serious AEs. The most commonly reported treatment-related AEs (occurring in ,1% of patients) were nausea (1.4%) and somnolence (1.4%). Pain relief responses for treated migraines of moderate or severe intensity at baseline were 61.7% and 68.6%, at 2 and 24 hours, respectively; the sustained pain relief rate was 55.5%. Pain-free responses were reported for 40.5% of all treated migraines at 2 hours and 65.9% of treated migraines at 24 hours; the sustained pain-free rate was 38.4%. The proportion of migraines that achieved the pain relief, sustained pain relief, pain-free and sustained pain-free endpoints were similar in the 12- to 14-year and 15- to 17-year age groups. Treating with almotriptan 12.5 mg when headache pain was mild was associated with higher rates of pain relief and pain-free at 2 and 24 hours, and sustained pain relief and sustained pain-free, compared with treatment initiated when pain was severe. Conclusions., Almotriptan 12.5 mg was well tolerated in this adolescent population over a 12-month period. No unexpected safety or tolerability concerns were revealed over the course of this study. The results are consistent with almotriptan 12.5 mg being effective for the acute treatment of pain and symptoms associated with migraine in both younger and older adolescents. [source]

    The Sexagenarian with Unrelenting Headache

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2010
    Randolph W. Evans MD
    (Headache 2010;50:863-868) [source]

    MTHFR 677C>T and ACE D/I Polymorphisms in Migraine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2010
    Markus Schürks MD
    (Headache 2010;50:588-599) Background., Data on the association between the MTHFR 677C>T and ACE D/I polymorphisms and migraine including aura status are conflicting. Objective., The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on this topic. Methods., We searched for studies published until March 2009 using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index) and reference lists of studies and reviews on the topic. Assessment for eligibility of studies and extraction of data was performed by 2 independent investigators. For each study we calculated the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) assuming additive, dominant, and recessive genetic models. We then calculated pooled ORs and 95% CIs. Results., Thirteen studies investigated the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and migraine. The TT genotype was associated with an increased risk for any migraine, which only appeared for migraine with aura (pooled OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.13), but not for migraine without aura. Nine studies investigated the association of the ACE D/I polymorphism with migraine. The II genotype was associated with a reduced risk for migraine with aura (pooled OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.93) and migraine without aura (pooled OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.70-0.99). Results for both variants were driven by studies in non-Caucasian populations. Results among Caucasians did not suggest an association. Extractable data did not allow investigation of gene,gene interactions. Conslusions., The MTHFR 677TT genotype is associated with an increased risk for migraine with aura, while the ACE II genotype is protective against both migraine with and without aura. Results for both variants appeared only among non-Caucasian populations. There was no association among Caucasians. [source]

    Migraine Education Improves Quality of Life in a Primary Care Setting

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2010
    Timothy R. Smith MD
    (Headache 2010;50:600-612) Objective., The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mercy Migraine Management Program (MMMP), an educational program for physicians and patients. The primary outcome was change in headache days from baseline at 3, 6, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes were changes in migraine-related disability and quality of life, worry about headaches, self-efficacy for managing migraines, emergency room (ER) visits for headache, and satisfaction with headache care. Background., Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine and development of effective therapeutic agents, many practitioners and patients continue to lack the knowledge and skills to effectively manage migraine. Educational efforts have been helpful in improving the quality of care and quality of life for migraine sufferers. However, little work has been performed to evaluate these changes over a longer period of time. Also, there is a paucity of published research evaluating the influence of education about migraine management on cognitive and emotional factors (for example, self-efficacy for managing headaches, worry about headaches). Methods., In this open-label, prospective study, 284 individuals with migraine (92% female, mean age = 41.6) participated in the MMMP, an educational and skills-based program. Of the 284 who participated in the program, 228 (80%) provided data about their headache frequency, headache-related disability (as measured by the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6), migraine-specific quality of life (MSQ), worry about headaches, self-efficacy for managing headaches, ER visits for headaches, and satisfaction with care at 4 time points over 12 months (baseline, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months). Results., Overall, 46% (106) of subjects reported a 50% or greater reduction in headache frequency. Over 12 months, patients reported fewer headaches and improvement on the HIT-6 and MSQ (all P < .001). The improvement in headache impact and quality of life was greater among those who had more worry about their headaches at baseline. There were also significant improvements in "worry about headaches,""self-efficacy for managing headaches," and "satisfaction with headache care." Conclusion., The findings demonstrate that patients participating in the MMMP reported improvements in their headache frequency as well as the cognitive and emotional aspects of headache management. This program was especially helpful among those with high amounts of worry about their headaches at the beginning of the program. The findings from this study are impetus for further research that will more clearly evaluate the effects of education and skill development on headache characteristics and the emotional and cognitive factors that influence headache. [source]

    Chronic Localized Headache With Ipsilateral Hemiparesis

    HEADACHE, Issue 4 2010
    Ali Akhaddar MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    No Influence of 5-HTTLPR Gene Polymorphism on Migraine Symptomatology, Comorbid Depression, and Chronification

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2010
    Thomas Wieser MD
    (Headache 2010;50:420-430) Background., The serotonergic system is thought to play an important role for mediating susceptibility to migraine and depression, which is frequently found comorbid in migraine. The functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR/SLC6A4) was previously associated with attack frequency and, thus, possibly with chronification. Objective., We hypothesized that patients with the "s" allele have higher attack frequency and, paralleling results in depression research, higher scores of depression. Methods., Genetic analysis of the SLC6A4 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) was performed in 293 patients with migraine with and without aura. Self-rating questionnaires were used for assessment of depression. Results., Multinomial logistic regression analysis found no evidence for association of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with either depression or migraine attack frequency. Conclusion., We were not able to demonstrate any influence of the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on migraine phenomenology (attack frequency or comorbid depression), thereby excluding this variant to be a common genetic denominator for chronic migraine and depression. [source]

    Nitric Oxide-Induced Changes in Endothelial Expression of Phosphodiesterases 2, 3, and 5

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2010
    Christoph J. Schankin MD
    (Headache 2010;50:431-441) Objective., To investigate nitric oxide (NO)-mediated changes in expression of cyclic nucleotide degrading phosphodiesterases 2A (PDE2A), PDE3B, and PDE5A in human endothelial cells. Background., Nitric oxide induces production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which along with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is degraded by PDEs. NO donors and selective inhibitors of PDE3 and PDE5 induce migraine-like headache and play a role in endothelial dysfunction during stroke. The current study investigates possible NO modulation of cGMP-related PDEs relevant to headache induction in a cell line containing such PDEs. Methods., Real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blots were used to show expression of PDE2A, PDE3B, and PDE5A in a stable cell line of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Effects of NO on PDE expression were analyzed at specific time intervals after continued DETA NONOate administration. Results., This study shows the expression of PDE2A, PDE3B, and PDE5A mRNA and PDE3B and PDE5A protein in human cerebral endothelial cells. Long-term DETA NONOate administration induced an immediate mRNA up-regulation of PDE5A (1.9-fold, 0.5 hour), an early peak of PDE2A (1.4-fold, 1 and 2 hours) and later up-regulation of both PDE3B (1.6-fold, 4 hours) and PDE2A (1.7-fold, 8 hours and 1.2-fold after 24 hours). Such changes were, however, not translated into significant changes in protein expression indicating few, if any, functional effects. Conclusions., Long-term NO stimulation modulated PDE3 and PDE5 mRNA expression in endothelial cells. However, PDE3 and PDE5 protein levels were unaffected by NO. The presence of PDE3 or PDE5 in endothelial cells indicates that selective inhibitors may have functional effects in such cells. A complex interaction of cGMP and cAMP in response to NO administration may take place if the mRNA translates into active protein. Whether or not this plays a role in the headache mechanisms remains to be investigated. [source]

    Resolution of Menstrually Related Migraine Following Aggressive Treatment for Breast Cancer

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2010
    Todd A. Smitherman PhD
    (Headache 2010;50:485-496) Hormonal influences associated with the female menstrual cycle play strong roles in both migraine and particular types of breast cancer, but there is limited literature on the effects of breast cancer treatment regimens in women with migraine. The present case describes resolution of menstrually related migraine following aggressive treatment for infiltrating ductal carcinoma (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, single radical mastectomy, and locoregional radiation therapy) that was maintained with supplemental treatment using tamoxifen, an anti-estrogenic agent. This novel case is presented to stimulate further research into the hormonal mechanisms underlying migraine. [source]

    Endonasal Endoscopic Management of Contact Point Headache and Diagnostic Criteria

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
    Alireza Mohebbi MD
    (Headache 2010;50:242-248) Background., Some types of headaches with sinonasal origin may be present in the absence of inflammation and infection. The contact points between the lateral nasal wall and the septum could be the cause of triggering and sustained pain via trigeminovascular system. Objective., The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endoscopic surgery in the sinonasal region for treatment of headache with special attention paid to specific diagnostic methods and patient selection. Methods., This was a prospective, non-randomized and semi-quasi experimental research study. Thirty-six patients with chronic headaches who had not previously responded to conventional treatments were evaluated by rhinoscopy and/or endoscopy, local anesthetic tests and computed tomography scans as diagnostic criteria. These patients were divided into 4 groups based on the diagnostic methods utilized. The intensity of headaches pre- and post-operatively were recorded by utilizing the visual analog scale scale and performing analysis with analysis of variance test comparison and Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Average follow-up was 30 months. Results., Our overall success rate approximated 83% while the complete cure rate was 11%. Patients in group 4 achieved the best results. In this group all diagnostic criteria were positive. In addition, patient responses were statistically significant in groups with more than one positive criteria compared with group 1 who only had positive examination. The positive response of 14 migrainous patients diagnosed with migraine prior to treatment was 64%. Conclusion., Surgery in specific cases of headaches with more positive evidence of contact point could be successful, particularly if medical therapy has failed. [source]

    Subcutaneous Sumatriptan Pharmacokinetics: Delimiting the Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Effect

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
    Anthony W. Fox
    (Headache 2010;50:249-255) Background., The absolute bioavailability of subcutaneous (s.c.) sumatriptan is 96-100%. The decay curve for plasma concentration after 6 mg s.c. sumatriptan (ie, after Tmax = about 0.2 hours) includes a large distribution component. Metabolism by monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) leads to about 40% of the s.c. dose appearing in the urine as the inactive indole acetic acid. Product labeling states that co-administration of an inhibitor of MAO-A (a MAOI-A) causes a 2-fold increase in sumatriptan plasma concentrations, and a 40% increase in elimination half-life. Objective., The objective of this study is to determine whether MAOI-A therapy should deter the use of 6 mg s.c. sumatriptan on pharmacokinetic grounds. Methods., Summary pharmacokinetic data were taken from the literature and from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) study C92-050. Half-times were converted into rate constants, which were then used in a parsimonious compartmental model (needing only 3 simultaneous differential equations). Acceptance criteria for the model included observed plasma sumatriptan concentrations at Tmax, 1, 2, and 10 hours post-dose. A set of 1000 concentration measurements at a resolution of 36 seconds was generated. The model was then perturbed with elimination constants observed during concomitant moclobemide administration, creating a second set of concentration measurements. The 2 sets were then plotted, examined for their differences, and integrated for a second time to obtain and compare areas under the curve (AUCs). Results., The greatest absolute difference between the 2 sets of measurements was 2.85 ng/mL at t = 2.95 hours. A 2-fold difference between the 2 sets occurred only after t = 5.96 hours, when the concentration in the presence of the MAOI-A was 3.72 ng/mL (or <4% of Cmax). At t = 10 hours, the concentrations in both sets were <1 ng/mL (ie, below the lower limit of assay quantitation), and AUC0-10h was 97.4 and 117 ng.hour/mL in the absence and presence of the MAOI-A. Conclusions., There are no pharmacokinetic grounds to deter co-administration of an MAOI-A and subcutaneous sumatriptan. The dominance of the distribution phase and completeness of absorption of a 6 mg dose of s.c. sumatriptan explains the trivial effect size of the MAOI-A on plasma sumatriptan concentrations. Importantly, these findings should not be extrapolated to other routes of administration for sumatriptan. [source]

    Images From Headache: White Matter Lesions of Migraine Are Not Static

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
    Todd D. Rozen MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Expert Opinion: Rescue Me: Rescue Medication for Migraine

    HEADACHE, Issue 2 2010
    Chad Whyte MD
    (Headache 2010;50:307-313) [source]

    Childhood Maltreatment and Migraine (Part II).

    HEADACHE, Issue 1 2010
    Emotional Abuse as a Risk Factor for Headache Chronification
    (Headache 2010;50:32-41) Objectives., To assess in a headache clinic population the relationship of childhood abuse and neglect with migraine characteristics, including type, frequency, disability, allodynia, and age of migraine onset. Background., Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and has been associated with recurrent headache. Maltreatment is associated with many of the same risk factors for migraine chronification, including depression and anxiety, female sex, substance abuse, and obesity. Methods., Electronic surveys were completed by patients seeking treatment in headache clinics at 11 centers across the United States and Canada. Physician-determined data for all participants included the primary headache diagnoses based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria, average monthly headache frequency, whether headaches transformed from episodic to chronic, and if headaches were continuous. Analysis includes all persons with migraine with aura, and migraine without aura. Questionnaire collected information on demographics, social history, age at onset of headaches, migraine-associated allodynic symptoms, headache-related disability (The Headache Impact Test-6), current depression (The Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and current anxiety (The Beck Anxiety Inventory). History and severity of childhood (<18 years) abuse (sexual, emotional, and physical) and neglect (emotional and physical) was gathered using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results., A total of 1348 migraineurs (88% women) were included (mean age 41 years). Diagnosis of migraine with aura was recorded in 40% and chronic headache (,15 days/month) was reported by 34%. Transformation from episodic to chronic was reported by 26%. Prevalence of current depression was 28% and anxiety was 56%. Childhood maltreatment was reported as follows: physical abuse 21%, sexual abuse 25%, emotional abuse 38%, physical neglect 22%, and emotional neglect 38%. In univariate analyses, physical abuse and emotional abuse and neglect were significantly associated with chronic migraine and transformed migraine. Emotional abuse was also associated with continuous daily headache, severe headache-related disability, and migraine-associated allodynia. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and current depression and anxiety, there remained an association between emotional abuse in childhood and both chronic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.77, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.19-2.62) and transformed migraine (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.25-2.85). Childhood emotional abuse was also associated with younger median age of headache onset (16 years vs 19 years, P = .0002). Conclusion., Our findings suggest that physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect may be risk factors for development of chronic headache, including transformed migraine. The association of maltreatment and headache frequency appears to be independent of depression and anxiety, which are related to both childhood abuse and chronic daily headache. The finding that emotional abuse was associated with an earlier age of migraine onset may have implications for the role of stress responses in migraine pathophysiology. [source]