Heat Flux (heat + flux)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Kinds of Heat Flux

  • constant heat flux
  • critical heat flux
  • latent heat flux
  • maximum heat flux
  • sensible heat flux
  • surface heat flux
  • turbulent heat flux

  • Selected Abstracts

    Spatial Analysis of the Factors Contributing to the Relationship between the Transient, Meridional Eddy Sensible, and Latent Heat Flux in the Southern Hemisphere

    Marilyn Raphael
    In this paper principal component analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) are used to define the importance of the variables contributing to the relationship between the transient latent and sensible heat fluxes and to show their temporal and spatial variation. SVD is offered as an alternative means of isolating spatial and temporal structures in data with the advantage that it can depict simultaneous space-time variations that are aggregates of the results produced by PCA. Both methods of analysis produced two very important uncorrelated modes of variability in January and July, indicating that the transient heat fluxes are influenced by few controlling factors. We suggest that these modes of variability represent the influences of the meridional temperature gradient, atmospheric moisture, and activity within the source and sink regions of the transient heat fluxes. The physical relationships between the heat fluxes that appear to represented by the statistical modes of variability are discussed. [source]

    Relationship between ambient temperature and heat flux in the scrotal skin

    G.-S. Song
    Summary Excessive scrotal heating or cooling may lead to the cessation of spermatogenesis. Data regarding heat exchange rates in scrotal skin can be used to control testicular temperature within the appropriate range. Heat flux (HF) in the scrotal skin surface is generated based on the surrounding environment. This study aims to elucidate the HF of scrotal skin by varying ambient temperature. Twenty college students including seven varicoceles volunteered as the subjects (mean age: 22.95 SD 1.96 years; height: 175.00 5.17 cm; weight: 68.40 8.65 kg; body mass index: 22.28 2.15), and participated in the experiments from September 11 to October 4, 2006. The environmental temperature was controlled at 20 C and 25 C in the first and second experiment respectively. The HF and skin temperature on both sides of the scrotal surface were measured for 60 min in the environmental chamber. The results revealed that the HF was 87.64 12.69 W/m2 and 78.91 12.09 W/m2 in the left and right side of the scrotum respectively. The scrotal skin temperature (SST) was 30.28 0.75 C and 30.24 0.62 C on the left and right side of the scrotum in the 20 C environment respectively. In the 25 C environment the HF was 53.54 8.86 W/m2 and 45.25 8.32 W/m2, and the SST was 32.29 0.61 C and 32.07 0.36 C on the left and right side of the scrotum respectively. The cooling source power to decrease testicular temperature is suggested at 290 W/m2. This suggested value could be adopted a cooling device as clinical therapy for a heat stress patient to decrease testicular temperature affecting spermatogenesis. [source]

    Measurements and numerical simulations for optimization of the combustion process in a utility boiler

    A. Vikhansky
    Abstract A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to analyse the performance of 550MW pulverized coal combustion opposite a wall-fired boiler (of IEC) at different operation modes. The main objective of this study was to prove that connecting plant measurements with three-dimensional furnace modelling is a cost-effective method for design, optimization and problem solving in power plant operation. Heat flux results from calculations were compared with measurements in the boiler and showed good agreement. Consequently, the code was used to study hydrodynamic aspects of air,flue gases mixing in the upper part of the boiler. It was demonstrated that effective mixing between flue gases and overfire air is of essential importance for CO reburning. From our complementary experimental-numerical effort, IEC considers a possibility to improve the boiler performance by replacing the existing OFA nozzles by those with higher penetration depth of the air jets, with the aim to ensure proper mixing to achieve better CO reburning. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Influence of heat flux and surface temperature on the intergranular corrosion of stainless steel

    T. Pro
    Abstract The exposure tests followed by metallographic evaluation and the electrochemical reactivation measurements in double-loop (DL-EPR) modification were used for investigation of the influence of non-boiling heat transfer on initiation and rate of propagation of intergranular corrosion (IGC) of sensitized austenitic stainless steel EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) in sulfuric acid solutions. The influence of heat flux and surface temperature was ascertained separately. The susceptibility to IGC and the rate of crack propagation increased with the surface temperature. Heat flux from metal to solution at constant surface temperature facilitated the IGC initiation, but at the same time it caused a drop of the corrosion attack depth in the metal. The increase of the heat flux by 10 kW m,2 in a range from 0 to 42 kW m,2 led to a drop of the maximum depth of cracks formed after subsequent bending the specimen, in average by 8%. The overall danger of corrosion was lower at positive heat flux between metal and solution than under isothermal conditions at constant surface temperature of the metal. The intensification of heat flux by 10 kW m,2 had the same effect on the IGC as a change of the surface temperature by less than 2 K. Therefore, the effect of the heat flux on IGC of the heat exchangers operating under non-boiling conditions may be considered as relatively less important than the effect of the surface temperature. [source]

    Boiling heat transfer coefficient of R22 and an HFC/HC refrigerant mixture in a fin-and-tube evaporator of a window air conditioner

    M. Herbert Raj
    Abstract The commonly used refrigerant in unitary type air conditioners is R22 and its phase out schedule in developing countries is to commence from 2015. Many alternatives to R22 are found in published literature in which R407C has similar characteristics to those of R22 except for its zeotropic nature. However, R407C which is an HFC is made compatible with the mineral oil lubricant in the system compressor by the addition of 20% of HC. This HFC/HC mixture called the M20 refrigerant mixture is reported to be a retrofit refrigerant for R22. Though its latent heat value is greater than that of R22, its refrigerating capacity is lower when it is used to retrofit R22 window air conditioners. Hence, a heat transfer analysis was conducted in the evaporator of a room air conditioner, for practically realized heat flux conditions during standard performance testing. The tests were conducted as per the BIS and ASHRAE standards. Kattan,Thome,Favrat maps are used to confirm the flow patterns, which prevail inside the fin-and-tube evaporator in the tested operating conditions. It is revealed that the heat transfer coefficient/heat fluxes are poorer for M20 because of the lower mass flow rate and higher vapor fraction at the entry of the evaporator than that of R22 in the prevailing operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients of the M20 refrigerant mixture under various test conditions are lower in the range of 14% to 56% than those of R22. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20299 [source]

    A Phenomenological Probe Model of Fast Ion Measurement Using a Hybrid Directional Probe

    K. Nagaoka
    Abstract A phenomenological probe model was developed for quantitative fast-ion-measurement using a hybrid directional probe (HDP), which is a directional probe to measure ion current and heat flux at the same position. The secondary electrons due to fast-ion-injection onto the probe surface enhances the ion-saturation-current, thus a thermal probe method was required for quantitative measurement of fast ions. The model gives a simple expression of the secondary electron yield as a function of ion currents and heat fluxes measured by the HDP, and can determine the net fast-ion-current without the calibrations of the thermal probe method. The model was applied to the experimental results of fast-ion-measurements using a HDP in CHS, and the secondary electron yield obtained by the model agrees with the calibration results of the HDP. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    On Kinetic Effects during Parallel Transport in the SOL

    D. Tskhakaya
    Abstract 1D kinetic (PIC) and fluid simulations have been performed in order to study boundary conditions and heat flux and viscosity limiting coefficients in the inter-ELM and ELMy SOLs. Simulated plasma parameters correspond to the JET SOL under different conditions. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Ecohydrological controls on snowmelt partitioning in mixed-conifer sub-alpine forests

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Noah P. Molotch
    Abstract We used co-located observations of snow depth, soil temperature, and moisture and energy fluxes to monitor variability in snowmelt infiltration and vegetation water use at mixed-conifer sub-alpine forest sites in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico (3020 m) and on Niwot Ridge, Colorado (3050 m). At both sites, vegetation structure largely controlled the distribution of snow accumulation with 29% greater accumulation in open versus under-canopy locations. Snow ablation rates were diminished by 39% in under-canopy locations, indicating increases in vegetation density act to extend the duration of the snowmelt season. Similarly, differences in climate altered snow-season duration, snowmelt infiltration and evapotranspiration. Commencement of the growing season was coincident with melt-water input to the soil and lagged behind springtime increases in air temperature by 12 days on average, ranging from 2 to 33 days under warmer and colder conditions, respectively. Similarly, the timing of peak soil moisture was highly variable, lagging behind springtime increases in air temperature by 42 and 31 days on average at the Colorado and New Mexico sites, respectively. Latent heat flux and associated evaporative loss to the atmosphere was 28% greater for the year with earlier onset of snowmelt infiltration. Given the large and variable fraction of precipitation that was partitioned into water vapour loss, the combined effects of changes in vegetation structure, climate and associated changes to the timing and magnitude of snowmelt may have large effects on the partitioning of snowmelt into evapotranspiration, surface runoff and ground water recharge. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Numerical Modelling of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Horizontal Metal-Foam Tubes,

    Wei Lu
    Abstract The flow boiling heat transfer performance in horizontal metal-foam tubes is numerically investigated based on the flow pattern map retrieved from experimental investigations. The flow pattern and velocity profile are generally governed by vapour quality and mass flow rate of the fluid. The porous media non-equilibrium heat transfer model is employed for modelling both vapour and liquid phase zones. The modelling predictions have been compared with experimental results. The effects of metal-foam morphological parameters, heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer have been examined. The numerical predictions show that the overall heat transfer coefficient of the metal-foam filled tube increases with the relative density (1-porosity), pore density (ppi), mass and heat flux. [source]

    The use of fire-retardant intumescent mats for fire and heat protection of glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites: Thermal barrier properties

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 1 2010
    Everson Kandare
    Abstract This study investigates the use of integral, hybrid intumescent thermal barriers (mats) to provide surface protection to the core fibre-reinforced polyester composite structural integrity when exposed to a fire or heat source. Glass fibre-reinforced composites protected by intumescent mats/fabrics containing silicate fibres, expandable graphite and in some cases borosilicate glass bounded together by an organic matrix have been evaluated for fire performance under a constant heat flux of 50kW/m2. The effect of insulative fabric thickness as well as chemical composition on the flammability of the resultant hybrid composites is evaluated. Glass fibre-reinforced polyester (GRP) composites without any surface protection have a relatively higher time-to-ignition and peak heat release rate values when compared with core composites protected by insulative fabrics. Thermograms representing the variation of temperature on the reverse side of the hybrid composites with time when exposed to a constant heat flux show that the inclusion of intumescent surface barriers results in retarded temperature increments within the core GRP composites. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inherent flammability parameters,Room corner test application

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 8 2009
    J. G. Quintiere
    Abstract It has been hypothesized that four parameters are solely responsible for a material's performance in a flammability scenario. This excludes effects of material physical integrity, i.e. melting, delamination, etc. They are (1) the critical heat flux below which piloted ignition cannot occur (CHF), (2) the ratio of heat of combustion to heat of gasification (HRP), (3) the thermal response parameter related to the thermal inertia and the ignition temperature (TRP), and (4) the available energy per unit area (AEP). The fire scenario controls the process by its initial heat flux and region of ignition. The hypothesis is applied to 54 tests of the ISO Room Corner Test to assess its validity. It is shown that these four parameters give good correlations in predicting the time to flashover and whether it occurs. In principle, different correlations could be developed for other scenarios of tests and fire configurations. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modeling multi-stage decomposition of cotton fabrics considering char oxidation in the presence of oxygen

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 8 2009
    F. L. Zhu
    Abstract A theoretical model, describing thermal degradation behavior of cotton fabrics that exposed to a constant radiant heat flux, is proposed in the paper. The model describes thermal and oxidative degradation of cotton fabric under the oxygen-containing atmosphere and considers pseudo-bi-component separate-stage kinetic process. Both exothermic and endothermic reactions are included in the decomposition process. At present, gas phase oxidation reactions are not included. Comparison with experimental results demonstrates that the predictions of the mass loss rate and temperature profile with these cotton fabrics are in agreement with the experiment. Effects of thermal radiation and ambient oxygen concentration on decomposition have also been investigated. The gas phase temperature is also predicted by the present numerical model. Results from numerical model will help contribute to a better understanding of the ignition mechanism of flame-resistant cotton fabrics used for fire safety garments. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cone calorimeter testing of S2 glass reinforced polymer composites

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 7 2009
    Alexander B. Morgan
    Abstract With the ever increasing demand for fuel savings on vehicles, there is a strong push to replace metal with polymeric + fiber (carbon/glass) composites. However, the replacement of metal with polymeric composites can lead to additional fire risk. Our study focused on glass fiber reinforced polymer composites meant for vehicular structural applications, and flammability performance of these composites was studied by cone calorimetery. The effects of fiberglass loading, nanocomposite use (clay, carbon nanofiber) and polymer type (epoxy, phenolic) were studied under a heat flux of 50kW/m2 to better understand the potential effects that these variables would have on material flammability. It was found that as fiberglass loading increased, flammability decreased, but at a cost to structural integrity of the residual polymer + fiber char. The use of nanocomposites has little effect on reducing flammability in this set of samples, but the use of phenolic resins in comparison with epoxy resins was found to yield the greatest improvements in flammability performance. Further, the phenolic system yielded a higher level of structural integrity to the final polymer + fiberglass char when compared with the other polymer systems of low heat release. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The piloted transition to flaming in smoldering fire retarded and non-fire retarded polyurethane foam

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 8 2008
    Olivier M. Putzeys
    Abstract The piloted transition from smoldering to flaming, though a significant fire safety concern, has not been previously extensively studied. Experimental results are presented on the piloted transition from smoldering to flaming in non-fire retarded (NFR) polyurethane foam and the fire retarded polyurethane foam Pyrell. The samples are small blocks, vertically placed in the wall of an upward wind tunnel. The free surface is exposed to an oxidizer flow and a radiant heat flux. The smolder product gases pass upwards through a pilot. The experiments on NFR foam show that the smolder velocity and peak smolder temperature, which increase with the oxygen concentration and heat flux, are strongly correlated to the transition to flaming event, in that there are minimum values of these parameters for transition to occur. The existence of a minimum smolder velocity for ignition supports the concept of a gaseous mixture reaching a lean flammability limit as the criterion for the transition to flaming. To compensate for the solid- and gas-phase effects of the fire retardants on the piloted transition in Pyrell, it was necessary to increase the oxygen concentration and the power supplied to the smolder igniter and the pilot. The piloted transition is observed in oxygen concentrations above 17% in NFR foam and above 23% in Pyrell. The results show that although Pyrell is less flammable than NFR foam, it is still susceptible to smoldering and the piloted transition to flaming in oxygen-enriched environments, which is of interest for special applications such as future space missions. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Combustion of a substitution fuel made of cardboard and polyethylene: influence of the mix characteristics,modeling

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 7 2008
    S. Salvador
    Abstract The model proposed in this paper describes the combustion of a porous medium subjected to a radiative heat flux at its surface. There is no forced convection of air through the medium; hence this situation corresponds to the one encountered at the surface of fuel elements such as pellets, bricks or ballots, inside a furnace or kiln. Ash is not removed from the surface. No assumption is made a priori in terms of the limiting phenomena. The medium is composed of cardboard and polyethylene (PE). Based on previous experimental work (Fuel 2004; 83:451,462), the material is assumed to be a macroscopically homogeneous porous medium. Local thermal equilibrium is also assumed. Most of the parameters required for the modeling were determined from specific experiments. Good predictions of the sample mass evolution and of the temperature levels inside the sample body were obtained for a large range of densities and PE content. A devolatilization front of about 20,mm first propagates inside the medium. The volatile matter flux is advected to the surface, which leads to the formation of the flame above the surface. Then a second char oxidation front propagates, starting from the surface. The front thickness is approximately 25,mm under the experimental conditions. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A pyrolysis model of charring materials considering the effect of ambient oxygen concentration

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 7 2007
    W. G. Weng
    Abstract In this paper, a one-dimensional integral model is developed to describe the processes involved in the transient pyrolysis of a semi-infinite charring material subjected to a constant radiant heat flux. In this model, a special factor that shows the effect on pyrolysis is considered, i.e. under the oxygen-containing atmosphere. The model tracks the char layer depth, thermal penetration depth, surface temperature and mass loss rate. Comparison with experimental results demonstrates that the predictions of the mass loss rate and temperature profile within the charring material are in good agreement with the experiment. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Development of fire-retarded materials,Interpretation of cone calorimeter data

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 5 2007
    B. Schartel
    Abstract There is little consensus within the fire science community on interpretation of cone calorimeter data, but there is a significant need to screen new flammability modified materials using the cone calorimeter. This article is the result of several discussions aiming to provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements. This guidance is essentially empirical, and is not intended to replace the comprehensive scientific studies that already exist. The guidance discusses the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone calorimeter. The fire properties measured in the cone calorimeter are discussed, including heat release rate and its peak, the mass loss and char yield, effective heat of combustion and combustion efficiency, time to ignition and CO and smoke production together with deduced quantities such as FIGRA and MARHE. Special comments are made on the use of the cone calorimeter relating to sample thickness, textiles, foams and intumescent materials, and the distance of the cone heater from the sample surface. Finally, the relationship between cone calorimetry data and other tests is discussed. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An analysis of the burning of polyester and vinylester fibre glass composites

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 4 2005
    P. J. Burchill
    Abstract An analysis of mass loss and damage depth produced by the combustion of styrenic resins and their fibre glass composites has been undertaken. Mass loss rates at a selected heat flux were found to be linearly related to those at a different heat flux. Given the scatter in the experimental data, these relative rates obeyed the same Arrhenius relationship for both resins and their fibre glass composites. Damage depth in composites was also found to be linearly related to mass loss, and thus may be predicted. It is therefore shown that mass loss and damage depth can be predicted as a function of time at any desired heat flux given that mass loss-time data are available at a specific heat flux. The predictions are limited to consumption of the matrix of about 30% by weight, at which stage the mechanical properties are greatly reduced. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia 2004. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Short Communication: application of a surrogate material in assessing the impact of porosity on re-ignition of wood-based materials

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 2 2002
    Behdad Moghtaderi
    Re-ignition behaviour of charred solid fuels after extinction by water is studied. In this communication the effect of material porosity on re-ignition is investigated. A surrogate ceramic material is used so as to separate the pyrolysis and combustion processes from those associated with heat transfer. Experimental data are reported for different sample thickness and porosity, and varying heat flux and water application time. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Is advective heat transport significant at the Dead Sea basin?

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2007
    Abstract An understanding of heat flux is a necessary component in reconstructing tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic models of the Dead Sea basin. Heat may be transferred by both conduction and advection by groundwater. Although the conductive heat flux in Israel has been extensively measured to be approximately 40 mW m,2, there is still a debate about the total heat flux. Recently, the discharge of hot springs along the western Dead Sea shore has been determined to be 107 m3 year,1. Simple calculations show that the heat discharged by groundwater at these hot springs is of the same order of magnitude as the measured conductive heat flux in deep boreholes. Therefore the total heat flux could be significantly higher than 40 mW m,2. However, results of numerical modeling show that the current hot-spring heat discharge is two orders of magnitude greater than that predicted for steady-state conditions and can be explained by the rapid recession of the Dead Sea. [source]

    Surface Heat Balance and Spatially Distributed Ablation Modelling at Koryto Glacier, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Keiko Konya
    Abstract To investigate the characteristics of ablation at Koryto Glacier, a mountain glacier under maritime climate in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, we made field observations from August to early September 2000. At a site near the equilibrium line, the 31-day average net radiation, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were 43, 59 and 31 W,2, respectively. We developed a new distributed ablation model, which only needs measurements of air temperature and global radiation at one site. Hourly ablation rates at this site obtained by the energy balance method are related to measured air temperature and global radiation by linear multiple regression. A different set of multiple regression coefficients is fitted for snow and ice surfaces. Better estimates of ablation rate can be obtained by this approach than by other temperature index models. These equations are then applied to each grid cell of a digital elevation model to estimate spatially distributed hourly melt. Air temperature is extrapolated using a constant temperature lapse rate and global radiation is distributed considering topographic effects. The model enables us to calculate the hourly spatial distribution of ablation rates within the glacier area and could well provide a realistic simulation of ablation over the whole glacier. [source]

    A thermochemical boundary layer at the base of Earth's outer core and independent estimate of core heat flux

    David Gubbins
    SUMMARY Recent seismological observations suggest the existence of a ,150-km-thick density-stratified layer with a P -wave velocity gradient that differs slightly from PREM. Such a structure can only be caused by a compositional gradient, effects of a slurry or temperature being too small and probably the wrong sign. We propose a stably stratified, variable concentration layer on the liquidus. Heat is transported by conduction down the liquidus while the light and heavy components migrate through the layer by a process akin to zone refining, similar to the one originally proposed by Braginsky. The layer remains static in a frame of reference moving upwards with the expanding inner core boundary. We determine the gradient using estimates of co, the concentration in the main body of the outer core, and cb, the concentration of the liquid at the inner core boundary. We determine the depression of the melting point and concentrations using ideal solution theory and seismologically determined density jumps at the inner core boundary. We suppose that co determines ,,mod, the jump from normal mode eigenfrequencies that have long resolution lengths straddling the entire layer, and that cb determines ,,bod, the jump determined from body waves, which have fine resolution. A simple calculation then yields the seismic, temperature, and concentration profiles within the layer. Comparison with the distance to the C-cusp of PKP and normal mode eigenfrequencies constrain the model. We explore a wide range of possible input parameters; many fail to predict sensible seismic properties and heat fluxes. A model with ,,mod= 0.8 gm cc,1, ,,bod= 0.6 gm cc,1, and layer thickness 200 km is consistent with the seismic observations and can power the geodynamo with a reasonable inner core heat flux of ,2 TW and nominal inner core age of ,1 Ga. It is quite remarkable and encouraging that a model based on direct seismic observations and simple chemistry can predict heat fluxes that are comparable with those derived from recent core thermal history calculations. The model also provides plausible explanations of the observed seismic layer and accounts for the discrepancy between estimates of the inner core density jumps derived from body waves and normal modes. [source]

    Simulated geomagnetic reversals and preferred virtual geomagnetic pole paths

    C. Kutzner
    SUMMARY The question of whether virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) recorded during reversals and excursions show a longitudinal preference is a controversial one amongst palaeomagnetists. One possible mechanism for such VGP clustering is the heterogeneity of heat flux at the core,mantle boundary (CMB). We use 3-D convection-driven numerical dynamo models with imposed non-uniform CMB heat flow that show stochastic reversals of the dipole field. We calculate transitional VGPs for a large number of token sites at the Earth's surface. In a model with a simple heat flux variation given by a Y22 harmonic, the VGP density maps for individual reversals differ substantially from each other, but the VGPs have a tendency to fall around a longitude of high heat flow. The mean VGP density for many reversals and excursions shows a statistically significant correlation with the heat flow. In a model with an imposed heat flux pattern derived from seismic tomography we find maxima of the mean VGP density at American and East Asian longitudes, roughly consistent with the VGP paths seen in several palaeomagnetic studies. We find that low-latitude regions of high heat flow are centres of magnetic activity where intense magnetic flux bundles are generated. They contribute to the equatorial dipole component and bias its orientation in longitude. During reversals the equatorial dipole part is not necessarily dominant at the Earth's surface, but is strong enough to explain the longitudinal preference of VGPs as seen from different sites. [source]

    Can the Earth's dynamo run on heat alone?

    David Gubbins
    SUMMARY The power required to drive the geodynamo places significant constraints on the heat passing across the core,mantle boundary and the Earth's thermal history. Calculations to date have been limited by inaccuracies in the properties of liquid iron mixtures at core pressures and temperatures. Here we re-examine the problem of core energetics in the light of new first-principles calculations for the properties of liquid iron. There is disagreement on the fate of gravitational energy released by contraction on cooling. We show that only a small fraction of this energy, that associated with heating resulting from changes in pressure, is available to drive convection and the dynamo. This leaves two very simple equations in the cooling rate and radioactive heating, one yielding the heat flux out of the core and the other the entropy gain of electrical and thermal dissipation, the two main dissipative processes. This paper is restricted to thermal convection in a pure iron core; compositional convection in a liquid iron mixture is considered in a companion paper. We show that heat sources alone are unlikely to be adequate to power the geodynamo because they require a rapid secular cooling rate, which implies a very young inner core, or a combination of cooling and substantial radioactive heating, which requires a very large heat flux across the core,mantle boundary. A simple calculation with no inner core shows even higher heat fluxes are required in the absence of latent heat before the inner core formed. [source]

    Convection in the Earth's core driven by lateral variations in the core,mantle boundary heat flux

    Steven John Gibbons
    Summary Moving core fluid maintains an isothermal core,mantle boundary (CMB), so lateral variations in the CMB heat flow result from mantle convection. Such variations will drive thermal winds, even if the top of the core is stably stratified. These flows may contribute to the magnetic secular variation and are investigated here using a simple, non-magnetic numerical model of the core. The results depend on the equatorial symmetry of the boundary heat flux variation. Large-scale equatorially symmetric (ES) heat flux variations at the outer surface of a rapidly rotating spherical shell drive deeply penetrating flows that are strongly suppressed in stratified fluid. Smaller-scale ES heat flux variations drive flows less dominated by rotation and so less inhibited by stratification. Equatorially anti-symmetric flux variations drive flows an order of magnitude less energetic than those driven by ES patterns but, due to the nature of the Coriolis force, are less suppressed by stratification. The response of the rotating core fluid to a general CMB heat flow pattern will then depend strongly on the subadiabatic temperature profile. Imposing a lateral heat flux variation linearly related to a model of seismic tomography in the lowermost mantle drives flow in a density stratified fluid that reproduces some features found in flows inverted from geomagnetic data. [source]

    Diurnal and seasonal variation in methane emissions in a northern Canadian peatland measured by eddy covariance

    Abstract Eddy covariance measurements of methane (CH4) net flux were made in a boreal fen, typical of the most abundant peatlands in western Canada during May,September 2007. The objectives of this study were to determine: (i) the magnitude of diurnal and seasonal variation in CH4 net flux, (ii) the relationship between the temporally varying flux rates and associated changes in controlling biotic and abiotic factors, and (iii) the contribution of CH4 emission to the ecosystem growing season carbon budget. There was significant diurnal variation in CH4 emission during the peak of the growing season that was strongly correlated with associated changes in solar radiation, latent heat flux, air temperature and ecosystem conductance to water vapor. During days 181,215, nighttime average CH4 efflux was only 47% of the average midday values. The peak value for daily average CH4 emission rate was approximately 80 nmol m,2 s,1 (4.6 mg CH4 m,2 h,1), and seasonal variation in CH4 flux was strongly correlated with changes in soil temperature. Integrated over the entire measurement period [days 144,269 (late May,late September)], the total CH4 emission was 3.2 g CH4 m,2, which was quite low relative to other wetland ecosystems and to the simultaneous high rate of ecosystem net CO2 sequestration that was measured (18.1 mol CO2 m,2 or 217 g C m,2). We estimate that the negative radiative forcing (cooling) associated with net carbon storage over the life of the peatland (approximately 2200 years) was at least twice the value of positive radiative forcing (warming) caused by net CH4 emission over the last 50 years. [source]

    Shrub expansion may reduce summer permafrost thaw in Siberian tundra

    D. BLOK
    Abstract Climate change is expected to cause extensive vegetation changes in the Arctic: deciduous shrubs are already expanding, in response to climate warming. The results from transect studies suggest that increasing shrub cover will impact significantly on the surface energy balance. However, little is known about the direct effects of shrub cover on permafrost thaw during summer. We experimentally quantified the influence of Betula nana cover on permafrost thaw in a moist tundra site in northeast Siberia with continuous permafrost. We measured the thaw depth of the soil, also called the active layer thickness (ALT), ground heat flux and net radiation in 10 m diameter plots with natural B. nana cover (control plots) and in plots in which B. nana was removed (removal plots). Removal of B. nana increased ALT by 9% on average late in the growing season, compared with control plots. Differences in ALT correlated well with differences in ground heat flux between the control plots and B. nana removal plots. In the undisturbed control plots, we found an inverse correlation between B. nana cover and late growing season ALT. These results suggest that the expected expansion of deciduous shrubs in the Arctic region, triggered by climate warming, may reduce summer permafrost thaw. Increased shrub growth may thus partially offset further permafrost degradation by future temperature increases. Permafrost models need to include a dynamic vegetation component to accurately predict future permafrost thaw. [source]

    Simulated and observed fluxes of sensible and latent heat and CO2 at the WLEF-TV tower using SiB2.5

    Ian Baker
    Abstract Three years of meteorological data collected at the WLEF-TV tower were used to drive a revised version of the Simple Biosphere (SiB 2.5) Model. Physiological properties and vegetation phenology were specified from satellite imagery. Simulated fluxes of heat, moisture, and carbon were compared to eddy covariance measurements taken onsite as a means of evaluating model performance on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. The model was very successful in simulating variations of latent heat flux when compared to observations, slightly less so in the simulation of sensible heat flux. The model overestimated peak values of sensible heat flux on both monthly and diurnal scales. There was evidence that the differences between observed and simulated fluxes might be linked to wetlands near the WLEF tower, which were not present in the SiB simulation. The model overestimated the magnitude of the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in both summer and winter. Mid-day maximum assimilation was well represented by the model, but late afternoon simulations showed excessive carbon uptake due to misrepresentation of within-canopy shading in the model. Interannual variability was not well simulated because only a single year of satellite imagery was used to parameterize the model. [source]

    Human modification of the landscape and surface climate in the next fifty years

    R. S. Defries
    Abstract Human modification of the landscape potentially affects exchanges of energy and water between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. This study develops a possible scenario for land cover in the year 2050 based on results from the IMAGE 2 (Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect) model, which projects land-cover changes in response to demographic and economic activity. We use the land-cover scenario as a surface boundary condition in a biophysically-based land-surface model coupled to a general circulation model for a 15-years simulation with prescribed sea surface temperature and compare with a control run using current land cover. To assess the sensitivity of climate to anthropogenic land-cover change relative to the sensitivity to decadal-scale interannual variations in vegetation density, we also carry out two additional simulations using observed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from relatively low (1982,83) and high (1989,90) years to describe the seasonal phenology of the vegetation. In the past several centuries, large-scale land-cover change occurred primarily in temperate latitudes through conversion of forests and grassland to highly productive cropland and pasture. Several studies in the literature indicate that past changes in surface climate resulting from this conversion had a cooling effect owing to changes in vegetation morphology (increased albedo). In contrast, this study indicates that future land-cover change, likely to occur predominantly in the tropics and subtropics, has a warming effect governed by physiological rather than morphological mechanisms. The physiological mechanism is to reduce carbon assimilation and consequently latent relative to sensible heat flux resulting in surface temperature increases up to 2 C and drier hydrologic conditions in locations where land cover was altered in the experiment. In addition, in contrast to an observed decrease in diurnal temperature range (DTR) over land expected with greenhouse warming, results here suggest that future land-cover conversion in tropics could increase the DTR resulting from decreased evaporative cooling during the daytime. For grid cells with altered land cover, the sensitivity of surface temperature to future anthropogenic land-cover change is generally within the range induced by decadal-scale interannual variability in vegetation density in temperate latitudes but up to 1.5 C warmer in the tropics. [source]

    Critical heat flux enhancement in pool boiling using alumina nanofluids

    Ramakrishna Hegde
    Abstract The pool boiling characteristics of dilute dispersions of alumina nanoparticles in water were studied. Consistent with other nanofluid studies, it was found that a significant enhancement in critical heat flux (CHF) can be achieved at modest nanoparticle concentrations (<0.1% by volume). During experimentation and subsequent inspection, formation of a porous layer of nanoparticles on the heater surface occurred during nucleate boiling. This layer significantly changes surface texture of the heater wire surface which could be the reason for improvement in the CHF value. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/htj.20301 [source]