Herbal Remedies (herbal + remedy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The coumarin herniarin as a sensitizer in German chamomile [Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert, Compositae]

Evy Paulsen
Background: Although German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) is considered a weak sensitizer, recent studies have shown several possible non-sesquiterpene lactone allergens in tea (infusions) from the plant. Objective: The aim of this study was to report the results of patch testing with herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin), which is one of the possible coumarin allergens in chamomile. Patients/materials/methods: Between 1991 and 2009, selected patients with known or suspected Compositae contact allergy were patch tested with herniarin 1% petrolatum. Results: Among 36 patients tested, there was one positive and three doubtful positive reactions to herniarin. All 4 patients had a relevant contact allergy to German chamomile, whereas the majority of the remaining 32 patients had chamomile allergy of unknown relevance. Conclusions: The clinical results suggest that herniarin indeed is one of the non-sesquiterpene lactone sensitizers in German chamomile and that sensitization may occur through, for example, external use of chamomile tea or use of chamomile-containing topical herbal remedies. [source]

Erythema multiforme-like generalized allergic contact dermatitis caused by Alpinia galanga

Song Jen Hong
This study reports a case of localized contact dermatitis and subsequently generalized erythema multiforme-like eruptions after topical application of herbal remedies. Patch tests showed there was an allergen in fresh and dried Alpinia galanga, which is also a popular spice in Southeast Asian cuisines. [source]

Contact sensitization from Compositae-containing herbal remedies and cosmetics

Evy Paulsen
The Compositae (Asteraceae) family of plants is currently an important cause of allergic plant contact dermatitis in Europe. The family comprises some of the oldest and most valued medicinal plants, and the increasing popularity of herbal medicine and cosmetics may theoretically result in a growing number of Compositae sensitizations from these sources. According to the literature at least 15 species, including among others arnica (Arnica montana), German and Roman chamomile (Chamomilla recutita and Chamaemelum nobile), marigold (Calendula officinalis), Echinacea and elecampane (Inula helenium), have been suspected of sensitization or elicitation of Compositae dermatitis. Epidemiological data are available for 2 species only, arnica and German chamomile, the rest of the evidence being anecdotal. Based on this, sensitization seems to occur relatively frequently with a few species such as arnica and elecampane, and occurs rarely with the majority, especially the widely used German chamomile. Sesquiterpene lactones are the most important allergens, but there are a few cases of sensitization from a coumarin, a sesquiterpene alcohol and a thiophene. The risk of elicitation of dermatitis by using Compositae-containing products in Compositae-sensitive individuals is by-and-large unknown. [source]

Serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal medicines , a systematic review

E. Ernst
Objective: Psychiatric and neurological patients frequently try herbal medicines often under the assumption that they are safe. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a summary of recent data on severe psychiatric and neurological adverse effects of herbal remedies. Method: Computerized literature searches were carried out to identify all reports of psychiatric and neurological adverse effects associated with herbal medicines. These data were subsequently extracted, validated and summarized in narrative and tabular form. Results: Numerous case reports comprise a diverse array of adverse events including cerebral arteritis, cerebral oedema, delirium, coma, confusion, encephalopathy, hallucinations, intracerebral haemorrhage, and other types of cerebrovascular accidents, movement disorders, mood disturbances, muscle weakness, paresthesiae and seizures. Several fatalities are on record. They are caused by improper use, toxicity of herbal ingredients, contamination and adulteration of preparations and herb/drug interactions. Conclusion: Herbal medicines can cause serious psychiatric and neurological adverse effects. [source]

The efficacy of herbal medicine , an overview

Edzard Ernst
Abstract Herbal medicine has become a popular form of healthcare. Even though several differences exist between herbal and conventional pharmacological treatments, herbal medicine can be tested for efficacy using conventional trial methodology. Several specific herbal extracts have been demonstrated to be efficacious for specific conditions. Even though the public is often misled to believe that all natural treatments are inherently safe, herbal medicines do carry risks. Ultimately, we need to know which herbal remedies do more harm than good for which condition. Because of the current popularity of herbal medicine, research in this area should be intensified. [source]

Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products

Summary Phthalate exposures in the general population and in subpopulations are ubiquitous and widely variable. Many consumer products contain specific members of this family of chemicals, including building materials, household furnishings, clothing, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, medical devices, dentures, children's toys, glow sticks, modelling clay, food packaging, automobiles, lubricants, waxes, cleaning materials and insecticides. Consumer products containing phthalates can result in human exposures through direct contact and use, indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contamination. Historically, the diet has been considered the major source of phthalate exposure in the general population, but all sources, pathways, and their relative contributions to human exposures are not well understood. Medical devices containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are a source of significant exposure in a susceptible subpopulation of individuals. Cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposures to dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, or dimethyl phthalate. Oven baking of polymer clays may cause short-term, high-level inhalation exposures to higher molecular weight phthalates. [source]

The use of herbal remedies by adolescents with eating disorders

Leo Trigazis
Abstract Objective To determine the frequency and type of herbal remedies and the reasons for herbal remedy use by adolescents with eating disorders. Methods Forty-six female adolescent females (age range, 10,17 years; mean age, 15 ± 1.3 years) in a tertiary-care pediatric eating disorder treatment center from May 1998 to July 2000 volunteered for this cross-sectional study. They met the criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified. Participants completed a 92-item self-administered questionnaire. We summarized information on demographics, use of herbal remedies, knowledge of safety issues of herbal remedies, and trust in the health care system. Results Of these 46 subjects, 17 (37%) used herbal remedies. Of these 17 subjects, 35% (6 of 17) used herbal remedies to decrease their appetites and to induce vomiting, 41% (7 of 17) knew nothing about herbal remedies, despite their use of these products, and 24% (4 of 17) reported that their physicians asked whether they used herbal remedies. The participants did not use herbal remedies because of their dissatisfaction with allopathic medicine. Discussion Adolescents with eating disorders frequently used herbal remedies for both weight control and non,weight control purposes. They did not regularly inform their physicians about their use of herbal remedies and physicians did not regularly inform their patients about this use. The generally high prevalence of herbal remedy use in this population suggests that health care providers need to be knowledgeable and should enquire about patients' use of these products. The perceived benefits, adverse effects, and herb-drug interactions of self-prescribed herbal remedies consumed by adolescents with eating disorders are unknown and further research is needed. © 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 223,228, 2004. [source]

Women's Decision Making About the Use of Hormonal and Nonhormonal Remedies for the Menopausal Transition

Rosemary Theroux
Objective: To critically review qualitative research on women's decision making about the use of hormonal and nonhormonal remedies for the menopausal transition. Data Sources: Computerized searches in CINAHL, MEDLINE, Medscape, and PsychINFO databases, using the keywords decision making, hormone therapy, herbal remedies, attitude toward hormone therapy, and qualitative research; and ancestral bibliographies. Study Selection: Articles from indexed journals from 1982 to 2001 in the English language relevant to the keywords were evaluated. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Data Extraction: Study findings were organized into several categories and compared and contrasted across publications and categories. Data Synthesis: Half of the researchers described decision making as a weighing of benefits and risks. Women's considerations, beliefs, and values, as well as interaction with the environment, were primary influences on the process. Conclusions: Major gaps in care for midlife women were identified. Women need information about the process of menopause and the range of available options for menopause management. Nurses can play a major role in providing information, counseling, and developing decision aids. Women's values and beliefs, cultures, life contexts, and desire for involvement in the decision should guide interventions. [source]

Herbal medicines for treatment of fungal infections: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials

MYCOSES, Issue 3-4 2004
Karen W. Martin
Antimykotische Chemotherapie; Phytomedizin Summary Traditional medicine has made use of many different plant extracts for treatment of fungal infections and some of these have been tested for in vitro antifungal activity. This systematic review evaluates antifungal herbal preparations that have been tested in controlled clinical trials. Four electronic databases were searched for controlled clinical trials of antifungal herbal medicines. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent reviewers and are reviewed narratively. Seven clinical trials met our inclusion criteria. Tea tree oil preparations were tested in four randomized clinical trials and some positive outcomes were attributed to the intervention in all trials. Solanum species (two trials) and oil of bitter orange preparations (one trial) were compared with conventional treatments. In all cases encouraging results were reported. There are few controlled clinical trials of herbal antifungal medicines. The most thoroughly clinically tested is tea tree oil, which holds some promise. All herbal remedies require further investigation in rigorous clinical trials. Zusammenfassung Die traditionelle Medizin nutzt eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Pflanzenextrakte zur Behandlung von Pilzinfektionen, die teilweise auf antimyzetische Wirksamkeit in vitro untersucht wurden. Dieser Überblick bewertet diejenigen antimyzetischen Zubereitungen pflanzlichen Ursprungs, die in kontrollierten klinischen Studien geprüft worden sind. Zu diesem Zweck wurden vier elektronische Datenbanken gesichtet. Die Daten wurden mit einer standardisierten Methode von zwei unabhängigen Gutachtern erhoben und werden im Folgenden bewertend dargestellt. Sieben klinische Studien erfüllten unsere Einschlusskriterien. Teebaumöl-Zubereitungen wurden in vier randomisierten klinischen Studien getestet, und einige positive Ergebnisse wurden in allen Studien auf den Wirkstoff zurückgeführt. Zubereitungen von Solanum -Arten (zwei Studien) und Orangenbitteröl wurden mit konventionellen Behandlungsmethoden verglichen. In allen Studien wurden ermutigende Resultate erzielt. Diese wenigen kontrollierten klinischen Studien mit antimyzetischen Zubereitungen pflanzlichen Ursprungs ergaben, dass Teebaumöl am vielversprechendsten ist. Alle pflanzlichen Zubereitungen erfordern jedoch weitere Studien unter kritischen klinischen Versuchbedingungen. [source]

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of traditional Thai herbal remedies for aphthous ulcers

Chantana Mekseepralard
Abstract Four medicinal plants (Quercus infectoria, Kaempferia galanga, Coptis chinensis and Glycyrrhiza uralensis) as well as one traditional Thai treatment for aphthous ulcers based on these four plants were tested for antimicrobial activity. MIC values for a range of bacteria and Candida albicans were determined, with both type strains and clinical isolates being used. Antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS radical scavenging assay. Among the four plants, Q. infectoria showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC of 0.41,mg/mL, while C. chinensis showed antifungal activity against C. albicans with an MIC of 6.25,mg/mL. Activity was also shown against a range of other organisms including Salmonella typhi, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis. The antimicrobial activity of the traditional aphthous ulcer preparation (a powder) was comparable to that for the individual plant extracts, however, incorporation of the powder into a gel formulation resulted in the loss of almost all activity. All extracts, with the exception of K. galanga, also showed good antioxidant activity. This study supports the traditional use of these plants and suggests that they may also be useful in the treatment of other infections. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam

Marķa Consuelo Carrasco
Abstract There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients

Silje Engdal
Abstract The herbal remedies Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic, frequently used by cancer patients, were investigated for their in vitro inhibition potential of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism. To our knowledge, only garlic and green tea had available data on the possible inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Metabolic studies were performed with human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4. Testosterone was used as a substrate and ketoconazole as a positive quantitative inhibition control. The formation of 6- , -OH-testosterone was quantified by a validated HPLC methodology. Green tea was the most potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 metabolism (IC50: 73 µg/mL), followed by Agaricus, mistletoe and noni juice (1324, 3594, >10 000 µg/mL, respectively). All IC50 values were high compared with those determined for crude extracts of other herbal remedies. The IC50/IC25 ratios for the inhibiting herbal remedies ranged from 2.15 to 2.67, indicating similar inhibition profiles of the herbal inhibitors of CYP3A4. Garlic and Natto K2 were classified as non-inhibitors. Although Agaricus, noni juice, mistletoe and green tea inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism in vitro, clinically relevant systemic or intestinal interactions with CYP3A4 were considered unlikely, except for a probable inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 by the green tea product. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Use of herbal remedies by diabetic Hispanic women in The southwestern United States

Lane Johnson
Abstract Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the use and documentation of herbal remedies used by Hispanic women with Type II diabetes enrolled in two Community Health Centers in the Southwest USA. A secondary purpose was to review the literature on identified herbs to assess their likely effects on diabetes. Design: Open-ended structured interviews were conducted on a convenience sample (n = 23) of participants. Medical and medication charts were reviewed for the interviewed participants, and for a random sample of enrolled Hispanic diabetic patients (n = 81) who were not interviewed. Setting: Two Community Health Centers in the Southwest USA. Participants: Enrolled patient, Hispanic females with Type II diabetes. Intervention: Subjects were interviewed about their use of herbal therapies and supplements. Information collected from medical and pharmaceutical charts included documented use of herbal remedies; standard therapies prescribed and diabetes control (hemoglobin A1C values). For those herbal remedies reported, literature reviews were conducted to determine if there was supporting evidence of harm or efficacy for the stated condition. Main Outcome Measures: Reports of herbal use, and types of remedies used. Results: Among the interviewed participants, 21 of 23 (91%) reported using one or more herbal remedies. Among a random sample of patient medical charts, seven (6.7%) contained documentation of diabetes-specific herbs, and 16 (15.4%) had documented general herb use. A total of 77 different herbal remedies were identified, most of which were contained as part of commercial preparations, and appeared to supplement, rather than replace standard medical therapy for diabetes. Conclusion: Use of herbal therapies is not uncommon among diabetic patients. Many of the herbs reported have potential efficacy in treating diabetes or may result in adverse effects or interactions. In practical use, however, the herbs reported in this study are unlikely to have a significant effect on clinical outcomes in diabetes, either positively or negatively. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Antioxidant availability of turmeric in relation to its medicinal and culinary uses

Jai C. Tilak
Abstract Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been used in Indian cooking, and in herbal remedies. Its possible mechanism of action was examined in terms of antioxidant availability during actual cooking conditions and in therapeutic applications using standardized extracts. The assays involve different levels of antioxidant action such as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), radical scavenging abilities using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2,-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and protection of membranes examined by inhibition of lipid peroxidation besides the content of phenols and total ,avonoids. The aqueous and ethanol extracts of two major preparations of turmeric, corresponding to its use in cooking and medicine, showed signi,cant antioxidant abilities. In conclusion, the studies reveal that the ability of turmeric to scavenge radicals, reduce iron complex and inhibit peroxidation may explain the possible mechanisms by which turmeric exhibits its bene,cial effects in relation to its use in cooking and medicine. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Biochemistry of Drug Metabolism , An Introduction


Abstract This review on intra-individual factors affecting drug metabolism completes our series on the biochemistry of drug metabolism. The article presents the molecular mechanisms causing intra-individual differences in enzyme expression and activity. They include enzyme induction by transcriptional activation and enzyme inhibition on the protein level. The influencing factors are of physiological, pathological, or external origin. Tissue characteristics and developmental age strongly influence enzyme-expression patterns. Further influencing factors are pregnancy, disease, or biological rhythms. Xenobiotics, drugs, constituents of herbal remedies, food constituents, ethanol, and tobacco can all influence enzyme expression or activity and, hence, affect drug metabolism. [source]

Anaphylaxis to boldo infusion, a herbal remedy

ALLERGY, Issue 9 2004
S. Monzón
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Chromatographic analysis of simple phenols in some species from the genus Salix

Loretta Pob, ocka-Olech
Abstract Introduction , Salicis Cortex, made from willow bark is a herbal remedy, which is standardised based on the content of salicin, a compound with analgesic and antiphlogistic properties. However, clinical trials suggest that other compounds also present in Salicis Cortex can contribute to the pharmacological effects. Objective , To characterise the composition of phenolic acids in the barks of different species and clones from the genus Salix by use of chromatographic methods,HPTLC and HPLC. Methodology , The phenolic acid composition was analysed by MGD (multiple gradient development),HPTLC technique. The separation was performed on HPTLC Diol plates with gradient elution using a mixture of chloroform:hexane:ethyl acetate with increasing concentration of ethyl acetate from 10 to 25%. Derivatisation with thymol reagent was employed for the first time for specific detection of phenolic acids containing methoxyl groups. Results , The presence of all phenolic acids previously reported in the genus Salix was confirmed, namely p -hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, cinnamic, p -coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. Furthermore, pyrocatechol as a constituent of willow bark was revealed. The highest concentration of this compound was observed in the S. purpurea bark (2.25,mg/g). Conclusion , The presence of a relatively high content of pyrocatechol in Salix species may raise doubts about the safe application of this herbal medicine. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Pharmacological studies on siculine syrup.

II: effects on smooth, cardiovascular muscle preparations, skeletal
Abstract Earlier pharmacological screening showed that siculine syrup (a traditional herbal remedy purported to be useful in the prevention and treatment of sickle cell pain , crises, due to sickle cell anaemia , SCA) had antisickling and analgesic activities as well as antimicrobial and diuretic effects. SCA is an important haemoglobinopathy in Africa and many other communities/countries worldwide, with relatively high morbidity and mortality. The present study was to determine the effects of the extract on various isolated muscle preparations , smooth, skeletal and cardiovascular. Siculine (4,20 µg/mL), like acetylcholine (40,400 µg/mL), contracted the isolated rat uterus concentration dependently. Similar effects were observed with the guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum (2,20 µg/mL). In contrast to these effects, the direct (muscle) and indirect (nerve) stimulations of rat phrenic nerve,diaphragm were relaxed by siculine (4 and 8 µg/mL) and d -tubocurarine (0.8 µg/mL). Siculine also concentration-dependently decreased both the rate and force of contraction of guinea-pig atria and rabbit heart and also resulted in a fall in cat blood pressure in a manner similar to those of acetylcholine. The possible therapeutic and/or toxicological consequences of these effects including the hypotensive activity is noteworthy since siculine syrup is used by the local population for the prevention and treatment of sickle cell pain crises. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]