Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Harm

  • alcohol-related harm
  • drug relate harm
  • environmental harm
  • fetal harm
  • patient harm
  • physical harm
  • potential harm
  • preventing harm
  • psychological harm
  • relate harm
  • self harm
  • serious harm
  • significant harm

  • Terms modified by Harm

  • harm avoidance
  • harm reduction
  • harm reduction strategy
  • harm way

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    DAVID DEGRAZIAArticle first published online: 22 FEB 200
    First page of article [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 6 2008
    ABSTRACT The non-identity problem is the problem of grounding moral wrongdoing in cases in which an action affects who will exist in the future. Consider a woman who intentionally conceives while on medication that is harmful for a fetus. If the resulting child is disabled as a result of the medication, what makes the woman's action morally wrong? I argue that an explanation in terms of harmful rights violations fails, and I focus on Peter Markie's recent rights-based defense. Markie's analysis rests on the notion of an indirect harm, and I show that the calculation of an indirect harm relies on an improper baseline for the determination of whether or not an action adversely affects a patient's interests. I also defend an impersonal duty-based analysis of the wrongdoing in non-identity cases against an objection by Markie. I close by arguing that the rights-based analysis is insensitive to context and that context is morally relevant in the determination of the moral valence of actions in cases of non-identity. This failure provides a pro tanto reason to favor an impersonal duty-based analysis of the wrongdoing in non-identity cases. [source]

    Stephen G. Ray, Jr., Do No Harm: Social Sin and Christian Responsibility

    Article first published online: 4 MAY 200
    Stephen G. Ray, Jr., Do No Harm: Social Sin and Christian Responsibility Reviewed by Peter J. Paris [source]

    Do No Harm: Aid, Weak Institutions and the Missing Middle in Africa

    Nancy Birdsall
    The implicit assumption of the donor community is that Africa is trapped by its poverty, and that aid is necessary if it is to escape. This article suggests an alternative view: that Africa is caught in an institutional trap, signalled and reinforced by the small share of income of its independent middle strata. Theory and historical experience elsewhere suggest that a robust middle-income group contributes critically to the creation and sustenance of healthy institutions, particularly of the state. The article argues that if external aid is to be helpful for institution-building in Africa's weak and fragile states, donors need to emphasise not providing more aid but minimising the risks more aid poses for this group. [source]

    Assessing the validity of potential alcohol-related non-fatal injury indicators

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2008
    John Langley
    ABSTRACT Aim To assess critically the face validity of the World Health Organization's (WHO's) International Guide for Monitoring Alcohol Consumption and Related Harm (MACRH) for deriving indicators, for the purposes of developing non-fatal alcohol-related injury indicators in New Zealand. Design MACRH's five solutions for deriving indicators are: (i) use only alcohol-specific cases; (ii) identify subsets of events known to be highly alcohol-related; (iii) utilize control indicators that are rarely alcohol-related; (iv) estimate alcohol attributable fractions (AAFs) and adjust indicators accordingly; and (v) develop composite indicators. These were assessed in terms of their face validity with particular reference to New Zealand. Findings There are significant face validity issues with each of the five options. Solution 4 offers the greatest promise, provided that: (i) valid AAFs can be derived and they are updated regularly; and (ii) appropriate adjustment is made for extraneous influences on the estimates of alcohol-related harm. To date, the latter has not been carried out. Conclusions Most potential sources of data on alcohol-related harm are subject to extraneous influences, which vary over time and space. While the attempt by WHO to offer solutions to this problem is laudable, the solutions do not address the problem adequately. MACRH guidelines need to be revised to include criteria for a valid outcome indicator. [source]

    Alcohol in Postwar Europe, ECAS II: A Discussion of Indicators on Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Harm

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2003
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Help versus Harm: The Impact of NGO Interventions

    Christine Mahoney
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Doing Wrong Without Creating Harm

    John M. Darley
    We investigate lay intuitions about the appropriate compensatory and retributive consequences of a wrongdoer putting another in harm's way when harm either does or does not result. Compensation tracked whether the harm actually occurred, though when harm has not yet occurred but might, participants prefer an escrow-like solution in which money will be available to the victim only if the risk matures into actual harm. Retributive sanctions (punitive damages, fines, prison terms) were largely unaffected by whether the harm materialized but were instead sensitive to whether the wrongdoer exhibited negligent or reckless conduct. Thus, subjects clearly differentiated between the retributive nature of punitive sanctions and the compensatory nature of restorative damages. Finally, subjects often assigned liability to the actor even when the risk-causing actions were not negligent,and in this way preferred a strict liability stance more than does the current legal doctrine. [source]

    Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harm Among New Zealand University Students: Findings From a National Web-Based Survey

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
    Kypros Kypri
    Background:, Alcohol-related harm is pervasive among college students in the United States of America and Canada, where a third to half of undergraduates binge drink at least fortnightly. There have been no national studies outside North America. We estimated the prevalence of binge drinking, related harms, and individual risk factors among undergraduates in New Zealand. Methods:, A web survey was completed by 2,548 undergraduates (63% response) at 5 of New Zealand's 8 universities. Drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in the preceding 4 weeks were measured. Drinking diaries for the preceding 7 days were completed. Multivariate analyses were used to identify individual risk factors. Results:, A total of 81% of both women and men drank in the previous 4 weeks, 37% reported 1 or more binge episodes in the last week, 14% of women and 15% of men reported 2+ binge episodes in the last week, and 68% scored in the hazardous range (4+) on the AUDIT consumption subscale. A mean of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4, 2.3) distinct alcohol-related risk behaviors or harmful consequences were reported, e.g., 33% had a blackout, 6% had unprotected sex, and 5% said they were physically aggressive toward someone, in the preceding 4 weeks. Drink-driving or being the passenger of a drink-driver in the last 4 weeks was reported by 9% of women and 11% of men. Risk factors for frequent binge drinking included: lower age, earlier age of drinking onset, monthly or more frequent binge drinking in high school, and living in a residential hall or a shared house (relative to living with parents). These correlates were similar to those identified in U.S. and Canadian studies. Conclusions:, Strategies are needed to reduce the availability and promotion of alcohol on and around university campuses in New Zealand. Given the high prevalence of binge drinking in high school and its strong association with later binge drinking, strategies aimed at youth drinking are also a priority. In universities, high-risk drinkers should be identified and offered intervention early in their undergraduate careers. [source]

    Traumatic Exposure Severity Scale (TESS): A measure of exposure to major disasters

    Guliz Elal
    The debate about the role of the intensity of the stressor has occupied a central focus in posttraumatic stress disorder literature. There is currently a paucity of instruments with established psychometric properties measuring severity of trauma exposure in disaster survivors. The Traumatic Exposure Severity Scale was developed specifically to assess dimensions of exposure to an earthquake disaster in adults. Its 24 items assess a wide range of stressors organized into five subscales, derived from factor analyses: Resource Loss, Damage to Home and Goods, Personal Harm, Concern for Significant Others, and Exposure to the Grotesque. The scale provides both Occurrence and Distress scores. It has good internal reliability and validity. The instrument correlates significantly, but moderately, with a number of traumatic stress measures and the Beck Depression Index. [source]

    Unintended Harm from Opioid Prescribing Guidelines

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
    Scott M. Fishman MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Harm Versus Sovereignty: A Reply to Ripstein

    First page of article [source]

    Everyday Harm: Domestic Violence, Court Rites, and Cultures of Reconciliation by Mindie Lazarus-Black

    Aisha Khan
    First page of article [source]

    Supernumerary Pregnancy, Collective Harm, and Two Forms of the Nonidentity Problem

    M. A. Roberts
    An interesting question, in both the moral and the legal context, is whether babies born of an infertility treatment-induced supernumerary pregnancy (or ITISP) are properly considered to have been harmed. One might wonder how such a question could even arise in the face of data that clearly demonstrate that ITISP leaves an unduly large number of babies blind, deaf, and palsied, and facing lifelong disabilities. In fact, however, a number of arguments, based on the problem of collective form and two forms of the so-called "nonidentity problem," challenge the claim of harm in the ITISP context. The purpose of the present paper is to establish, as against these arguments, that harm has been imposed on the ITISP-damaged offspring. [source]

    Forced Marriage as a Harm in Domestic and International Law

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 1 2010
    Catherine Dauvergne
    This article reports on our analysis of 120 refugee cases from Australia, Canada, and Britain where an actual or threatened forced marriage was part of the claim for protection. We found that forced marriage was rarely considered by refugee decision makers to be a harm in and of itself. This finding contributes to understanding how gender and sexuality are analysed within refugee law, because the harm of forced marriage is experienced differently by lesbians, gay men and heterosexual women. We contrast our findings in the refugee case law with domestic initiatives in Europe aimed at protecting nationals from forced marriages both within Europe and elsewhere. We pay particular attention to British initiatives because they are in many ways the most far-reaching and innovative, and thus the contrast with the response of British refugee law is all the more stark. [source]

    Secondary Iatrogenic Harm: Claims for Psychiatric Damage Following a Death Caused by Medical Error

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 4 2004
    Paula Case
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of claims for psychiatric damage following the death of a family member, where that death has been caused by medical error.1 The relative's position is a subject of heightened interest since the exposure of the plight of the parents involved in the UK organ scandal,2 and in the case of an iatrogenic death it is, of course, the family who are essentially the focus of the law's attempts to provide redress. Whilst the cases of deceased patients' relatives seeking damages for mental harm are inherently problematic in light of the restrictive secondary victim criteria applicable to psychiatric damage claims, a close look at the rules which permeate this area of compensation reveals that denying compensation to the relative suffering psychiatric harm is difficult to sustain.3 [source]

    Harm and Benefits of Primary Liver Resection and Salvage Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    A. Cucchetti
    Primary transplantation offers longer life-expectancy in comparison to hepatic resection (HR) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) followed by salvage transplantation; however, livers not used for primary transplantation can be reallocated to the remaining waiting-list patients, thus, the harm caused to resected patients could be balanced, or outweighed, by the benefit obtained from reallocation of livers originating from HCC patients first being resected. A Markov model was developed to investigate this issue based on literature data or estimated from the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Markov model shows that primary transplantation offers longer life-expectancy in comparison to HR and salvage transplantation if 5-year posttransplant survival remains higher than 60%. The balance between the harm for resected patients and the benefit for the remaining waiting list depends on (a) the proportion of HCC candidates, (b) the percentage shifted to HR and (c) the median expected time-to-transplant. Faced with a low proportion of HCC candidates, the harm caused to resected patients was higher than the benefit that could be obtained for the waiting-list population from re-allocation of extra livers. An increased proportion of HCC candidates and/or an increased median time-to-transplant could lead to a benefit for waiting-list patients that outweighs this harm. [source]

    Quantifying allowable harm in species at risk: application to the Laurentian black redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei)

    Luis A. Vélez-Espino
    Abstract 1.When a species is identified for conservation, often the only way to effect recovery is to reduce the harm imposed by stressors threatening the survival of the species. Ideally all threats would be removed; however, this is often not feasible or practical. Within this context, a demographic approach is presented to assess how much human-induced harm could be allowed without impairing the persistence of the species. Harm is defined as a negative perturbation that can target one or more vital rates and life stages simultaneously. 2.Allowable harm, defined as a level of harm that will not jeopardize survival or recovery, will be a function of the vital rates affected by human actions, the sensitivity of population growth to changes in these vital rates (their elasticities), the population growth rate prevailing before harm occurs, and the set of demographic parameters considered safe for long-term persistence. This life-history based approach requires minimal data, can link demography with habitat-explicit information, is flexible enough to encompass complex life histories, and follows a precautionary approach. 3.Quantification of allowable harm could be applied to any species at risk. This approach is introduced by applying it to a Canadian population of a freshwater fish, the black redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), demonstrating that in the absence of habitat constraints population dynamics of this species are most sensitive to the survival of young adults, but population fitness is particularly sensitive to the loss of habitat used by young-of-the-year fish under current levels of habitat supply. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Responsibility for Harm: A Critical Look at the Protection of Commerce in Arms Act

    First page of article [source]

    Season of grazing and stocking rate interactively affect fuel loads in Baikiaea plurijuga Harms woodland in northwestern Zimbabwe

    J. Gambiza
    Abstract Wildfire is a major disturbance in Baikiaea plurijuga Harms woodland savannas. We tested the hypothesis that the timing and intensity of herbivory influence fuel loads. We used three stocking rates namely light (three cows and four goats ha,1), medium (six cows and eight goats ha,1) and heavy (eleven cows and sixteen goats ha,1) and three times of grazing namely early-, middle- and late-growing seasons. Season of grazing and stocking rate influenced herbaceous phytomass. Phytomass was generally the highest (53.5 g DM m,2) in paddocks grazed during the early growing season and the lowest (27.8 g DM m,2) in those grazed during the late growing season. Phytomass was also generally the highest (40.4 g DM m,2) in lightly stocked paddocks and the lowest (32.7 g DM m,2) in heavily stocked ones. Litter mass was the lowest (160.8 g DM m,2) in paddocks grazed during the early season whereas there were no differences in ungrazed paddocks and those grazed during either mid- or late growing seasons (205.4 g DM m,2). There was a negative relationship between litter mass and stocking rate. Baikiaea Benth. woodlands should be grazed during either the mid- or late-growing season at stocking rates greater than 0.1 LU ha,1 to reduce grass fuel loads. Résumé Les feux de brousse sont une perturbation majeure dans les savanes arborées àBaikiaea plurijuga Harms. Nous avons testé l'hypothèse selon laquelle le timing et l'intensité de la consommation par les herbivores influenceraient la quantité de combustible. Nous avons utilisé trois taux de pâturage: léger (trois vaches et quatre chèvres par hectare), moyen (six vaches et huit chèvres par hectare) et élevé (11 vaches et 16 chèvres par hectare), et trois périodes de pâturage, à savoir au début, au milieu et à la fin de la période de croissance. La période de pâturage et le taux de pâturage influençaient la phytomasse herbacée. La phytomasse était généralement la plus élevée (53.5 g MS m,2) dans les enclos pâturés au début de la saison de croissance, et la plus faible (27.8 g MS m,2) dans ceux qui sont pâturés en fin de période de croissance. La phytomasse était aussi généralement la plus grande (40.4 g MS m,2) dans les enclos légèrement pâturés et la plus basse (32.7 g MS m,2) dans les enclos très pâturés. La biomasse végétale (litière) était la plus faible (160.8 g MS m,2) dans les enclos pâturés au début de la saison, alors qu'il n'y avait pas de différence entre les enclos non pâturés et ceux qui l'étaient au milieu ou à la fin de la période de croissance (205.4 g MS m,2). Il y avait une relation négative entre la masse de litière et le taux de pâturage. Les forêts àBaikiaea Benth. devraient être pâturés en milieu ou en fin de période de croissance, et à des taux plus élevés que 0.1 UFL ha,1, pour réduire la quantité de combustible herbacé. [source]

    Chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Ghana: Cassia sieberiana, Haematostaphis barteri, Mitragyna inermis and Pseudocedrela kotschyi

    Alex Asase
    Abstract The antimicrobial activity of the sequential n -hexane, acetone and 50% aqueous methanol extracts of leaves, stem bark and roots of four species of medicinal plants, Cassia sieberiana DC. (Leguminosae), Haematostaphis barteri Hook. f. (Anacardiaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) and Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms (Meliaceae), from Ghana were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas syringae and Cladosporium herbarum using TLC direct-autobiographic methods. Extracts from leaves, stem bark and roots of the four species gave a positive result against at least one test organism. Twelve of the 36 extracts were active against B. subtilis, four extracts were active against P. syringae and six were active against C. herbarum. Preliminary chemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, stilbenes and alkaloids. This is the first report of a stilbene from the Anacardiaceae. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Siberian ginseng reduces infarct volume in transient focal cerebral ischaemia in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Yungmin Bu
    Abstract Siberian ginseng, the root and stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms, has been used as a tonic and adaptogen to strengthen qi in traditional Korean medicine. The neuroprotective effects of water extracts of A. senticosus (ASW) were investigated in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo, 90 min occlusion, 24 h reperfusion) of Sprague-Dawley rats. The infarct volume was significantly reduced by 36.6% after the peritoneal injection of ASW (100 mg[sol ]kg) compared with the control. In the immunohistochemical study, ASW markedly inhibited both cyclooxygenase-2 and OX-42 expressions in the penumbral region at 24 h after MCAo. These results suggest that A. senticosus has a neuroprotective effect by inhibiting inflammation and microglial activation in brain ischaemia. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Analysis of flavonoid constituents from leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Maolian Chen
    Three known flavonoids, quercetin, quercitrin (quercetin-3-0-rhamnoside) and rutin (quercetin-3-0-rutinoside), have been identified for the first time in the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms by using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry techniques (ESI,MSn). The flavonoid hyperin (quercetin-3-0-,-galactoside), already known to be present, was also investigated. The diagnostic fragment ions of the aglycone quercetin were obtained in the ESI,MSn experiments, and a fragmentation mechanism proposed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Informed Decisions Conservation Corridors and the Spread of Infectious Disease

    CONSERVATION, Issue 2 2002
    Leslie Bienen
    Reconnecting habitat will have consequences, in many forms and on many scales. The trick is to recognize these consequences, the negative ones as well as the positive, and understand them ahead of time, and in doing so to insure that human-engineered reconnectivity does the least harm and the most good. [source]

    Wildfire Policy and Public Lands: Integrating Scientific Understanding with Social Concerns across Landscapes

    administración de bosques; fuego no controlado; política; Servicio Forestal Estados Unidos; tierras públicas Abstract:,Efforts to suppress wildfires have become increasingly problematic in recent years as costs have risen, threats to firefighter safety have escalated, and detrimental impacts to ecosystems have multiplied. Wildfires that escape initial suppression often expand into large, high-intensity summer blazes. Lost is the legacy of smaller fires that likely burned outside extreme weather and fuel conditions and resulted in less severe impacts. Despite the recognized need for modifications to existing policies and practices, resource agencies have been slow to respond. The spread of exotic species, climate change, and increasing human development in wildlands further complicates the issue. New policies are needed that integrate social and ecological needs across administrative boundaries and broad landscapes. These policies should promote a continuum of treatments with active management and reduction of fuel hazard in wildland-urban interface zones and reintroduction of fire in wildlands. Management goals should focus on restoration of the long-term ecological health of the land. Projects that reduce fuel loads but compromise the integrity of soil, water supplies, or watersheds will do more harm than good in the long run. Despite significant ecological concerns, learning to live with fire remains primarily a social issue that will require greater political leadership, agency innovation, public involvement, and community responsibility. Resumen:,En años recientes, los esfuerzos para suprimir los fuegos no controlados se han vuelto cada vez más problemáticos por el incremento de costos, el aumento de las amenazas a la seguridad de bomberos y se la multiplicio, de los impactos perjudiciales a los ecosistemas. Los incendios que escapan la supresión inicial a menudo se expanden a grandes conflagraciones estivales de alta intensidad. Se ha perdido el legado de fuegos menores que probablemente se llevaban a cabo en condiciones climáticas y de combustible extremas que tenían impactos menos severos. A pesar del reconocimiento de la necesidad de modificaciones a las políticas y prácticas actuales, las agencias han respondido lentamente. La expansión de especies exóticas, el cambio climático y el incremento del desarrollo humano en áreas silvestres complican el problema aún más. Se requieren políticas nuevas que integren necesidades sociales y ecológicas más allá de límites administrativos y en paisajes amplios. Estas políticas deben promover un continuo de tratamientos con gestión activa y reducción de riesgo de combustión en la interfase área silvestre-urbana y la reintroducción de fuego en áreas silvestres. Las metas de la gestión deben enfocar en la restauración de la salud ecológica a largo plazo. Los proyectos que reducen la carga de combustible pero que comprometen la integridad del suelo, las reservas de agua o cuencas hidrológicas no serán de mucha utilidad en el largo plazo. A pesar de preocupaciones ecológicas significativas, aprender a vivir con fuego seguirá siendo un aspecto social que requerirá de mayor liderazgo político, innovación de agencias, participación del público y responsabilidad comunitaria. [source]

    Nonindigenous Species: Ecological Explanation, Environmental Ethics, and Public Policy

    David M. Lodge
    Misunderstandings and tension exist regarding the science, values, environmental ethics, and public policy relevant to invasive species, which are the subset of nonindigenous species that cause economic or environmental damage. Although there is a natural background rate at which species invasions occur, it is much lower than the current human-induced rates at which species are being moved around the globe. Contrary to some recently voiced opinions , the fact that some species invasions occur without human assistance does not confer acceptability on all species invasions. Also, despite claims to the contrary, the reductions of native biodiversity caused by nonindigenous species are large and well documented. Even if that were not true, an emphasis on species numbers alone as a metric for the impact of nonindigenous species does not adequately incorporate the high value many humans place on the uniqueness of regional biota. Because regional biota are being homogenized by species invasions, it has become an appropriate and official public policy goal in the United States to reduce the harm done by invasive species. The goal is not, however, a reduction of numbers of nonindigenous species per se, as recently claimed by some authors, but a reduction in the damage caused by invasive species, including many sorts of environmental and economic damage. A major challenge remaining for ecology, environmental ethics, and public policy is therefore the development of widely applicable risk-assessment protocols that are acceptable to diverse constituencies. Despite apparent disagreements among scholars, little real disagreement exists about the occurrence, effects, or public-policy implications of nonindigenous species. Resumen: El público está recibiendo un mensaje confuso de ecologistas, otros académicos y periodistas sobre el tema de especies no nativas. Existen malos entendidos y tensión en relación con la ciencia, los valores, la ética ambiental y las políticas públicas relevantes a las especies invasoras, que son un subconjunto de las especies no nativas que causan daños económicos o ambientales. Aunque existe una tasa natural a la que ocurren invasiones, es mucho más baja que las actuales tasas, inducidas por humanos, a las que especies son movidas alrededor del mundo. Al contrario de algunos autores recientes, el hecho de que algunas invasiones de especies ocurren sin asistencia humana no le confiere aceptabilidad moral sobre todas las invasiones de especies. También, a pesar de recientes afirmaciones de lo contrario, las reducciones de biodiversidad nativa debido a especies no nativas son notables y están bien documentadas. Aún si no fuera verdad, el énfasis sólo en el número de especies como una medida del impacto de especies no nativas no incorpora adecuadamente el alto valor que muchos humanos reconocen en la singularidad de la biota regional. Debido a que la biota regional está siendo homogeneizada por invasiones de especies, la reducción del daño causado por especies invasoras se ha convertido en una política pública apropiada y oficial en los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, la meta no es la reducción de especies no nativas, en si, como afirman algunos autores recientes, sino una reducción de los impactos dañinos de las especies invasoras, incluyendo muchos tipos de daño económico y ambiental. Por lo tanto, un reto mayor para la ecología, la ética ambiental y la política pública es el desarrollo de protocolos de evaluación de riesgos ampliamente aplicables que sean aceptables para electores diversos. A pesar de aparentes desacuerdos entre académicos, existe poco desacuerdo real acerca de la ocurrencia, el impacto o las implicancias en política pública de las especies no nativas. [source]

    Reducing threats to species: threat reversibility and links to industry

    Laura R. Prugh
    Abstract Threats to species' persistence are typically mitigated via lengthy and costly recovery planning processes that are implemented only after species are at risk of extinction. To reduce overall threats and minimize risks to species not yet imperiled, a proactive and broad-scale framework is needed. Using data on threats to imperiled species in Canada to illustrate our approach, we link threats to industries causing the harm, thus providing regulators with quantitative data that can be used directly in cost-benefit and risk analyses to broadly reduce threat levels. We then show how ranking the ease of threat abatement and reversal assists prioritization by identifying threats that are easiest to mitigate as well as threats that are possible to abate but nearly impossible to reverse. This new framework increases the usefulness of widely available threat data for preventative conservation and species recovery. [source]

    Functional consistency across two behavioural modalities: fire-setting and self-harm in female special hospital patients

    Sarah Miller
    Background,Fire-setting and self-harm behaviours among women in high security special hospitals may be understood using Shye's Action System Theory (AST) in which four functional modes are recognized: ,adaptive', ,expressive', ,integrative', and ,conservative'. Aims,To test for relationships between different forms of fire-setting and self-harm behaviours and AST modes among women in special hospital, and for consistency within modes across the two behaviours. Method,Clinical case files evidencing both fire-setting and self-harm behaviours (n = 50) were analysed for content, focusing on incident characteristics. A total of 29 fire-setting and 22 self-harm variables were analysed using Smallest Space Analysis (SSA). Chi-square and Spearman's rho (,) analyses were used to determine functional consistency across behavioural modes. Results,Most women showed one predominant AST mode in fire-setting (n = 39) and self-harm (n = 35). Significant positive correlations were found between integrative and adaptive modes of functioning. The lack of correlation between conservative and expressive modes reflects the differing behaviours used in each activity. Despite this, significant cross-tabulations revealed that each woman had parallel fire-setting and self-harm styles. Discussion,Findings suggest that, for some women, setting fires and self harm fulfil a similar underlying function. Support is given to AST as a way of furthering understanding of damaging behaviours, whether self- or other-inflicted. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]