Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Guilt

  • collective guilt

  • Terms modified by Guilt

  • guilt rating

  • Selected Abstracts

    Guilt, Shame, and Rehabilitation:The Pedagogy of Divine Judgment

    DIALOG, Issue 2 2000
    Niels Henrik Gregersen
    First page of article [source]

    ADH1B*2 allele is protective against alcoholism but not chronic liver disease in the Hungarian population

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2010
    Reka Toth
    ABSTRACT Background Standardized death rates from chronic liver diseases (CLDs) in Hungary are much higher than the European Union average. Carrying the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B 48His allele (rs1229984 or ADH1B*2) could decrease the risk of alcoholism, but with persistent drinking may confer a greater risk of CLDs. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of this polymorphism in the Hungarian population and its association with alcohol consumption and with CLDs. Methods and results A total of 278 cases with diagnosed CLDs and 752 controls without any alterations in liver function, all males aged 45,64, were screened for ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism. ADH1B*2 allele frequencies in controls and cases were 8.31% and 4.50%, respectively (,2 = 9.2; P = 0.01). Carrying the ADH1B*2 allele was associated with significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for drinking frequency (OR = 0.63; P = 0.003), the number of positive answers on CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener) assessment (OR = 0.58; P = 0.005) and a positive CAGE status (OR = 0.55; P = 0.007). There was a significant association between ADH1B*2 and CLDs (OR = 0.50; P = 0.003), but it disappeared after adjusting for CAGE status and scores (OR = 0.67 P = 0.134; OR = 0.67 P = 0.148, respectively) and weakened after adjusting for drinking frequency (OR = 0.61; P = 0.045). Among heavy drinkers the presence of ADH1B*2 did not increase the risk of cirrhosis but there was a significant interaction between genotype and CAGE status (P = 0.003, P = 0.042), with ADH1B*2 conferring reduced risk of CLDs in CAGE negatives. Conclusion In Hungarians, the ADH1B 48His allele reduces the risk of alcoholism, but not the risk of chronic liver disease among heavy drinkers. [source]

    Brief screening questionnaires to identify problem drinking during pregnancy: a systematic review

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2010
    Ethel Burns
    ABSTRACT Aims Although prenatal screening for problem drinking during pregnancy has been recommended, guidance on screening instruments is lacking. We investigated the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of brief alcohol screening questionnaires to identify problem drinking in pregnant women. Methods Electronic databases from their inception to June 2008 were searched, as well as reference lists of eligible papers and related review papers. We sought cohort or cross-sectional studies that compared one or more brief alcohol screening questionnaire(s) with reference criteria obtained using structured interviews to detect ,at-risk' drinking, alcohol abuse or dependency in pregnant women receiving prenatal care. Results Five studies (6724 participants) were included. In total, seven instruments were evaluated: TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), T-ACE [Take (number of drinks), Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener], CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener], NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance), AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), AUDIT-C (AUDIT-consumption) and SMAST (Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test). Study quality was generally good, but lack of blinding was a common weakness. For risk drinking sensitivity was highest for T-ACE (69-88%), TWEAK (71,91%) and AUDIT-C (95%), with high specificity (71,89%, 73,83% and 85%, respectively). CAGE and SMAST performed poorly. Sensitivity of AUDIT-C at score ,3 was high for past year alcohol dependence (100%) or alcohol use disorder (96%) with moderate specificity (71% each). For life-time alcohol dependency the AUDIT at score ,8 performed poorly. Conclusion T-ACE, TWEAK and AUDIT-C show promise for screening for risk drinking, and AUDIT-C may also be useful for identifying alcohol dependency or abuse. However, their performance as stand-alone tools is uncertain, and further evaluation of questionnaires for prenatal alcohol use is warranted. [source]

    Paradoxical increase of positive answers to the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire during a period of decreasing alcohol consumption: results from two population-based surveys in le-de-France, 1991 and 2005

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2008
    Antoine Messiah
    ABSTRACT Aims To describe trends of responses to the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire during a period of declining alcohol consumption, in a country with no temperance history. Design Two random-sample surveys, conducted in 1991 and 2005, respectively. Setting The adult population of Ile-de-France. Participants A total of 1183 subjects in 1991 and 5382 subjects in 2005. Measurements Responses to CAGE questions, obtained by face-to-face interviews in 1991 and by telephone in 2005. Results were standardized on the 2005 population structure. Findings The proportion of subjects giving at least two positive answers has increased by 4.2 times; the biggest increase was observed for the Guilt question (4.8 times) and the smallest for the Eye-opener question (2.6 times). Several increases were higher for women than for men: 12.9 times versus 3.3 times for two or more positive answers, 9.8 times versus 3.8 times for the Guilt question. Increases did not vary consistently by age. Conclusion These paradoxical trends do not support the use of CAGE in general population surveys. They confirm previous reports suggesting that CAGE was sensitive to community temperance level. They might reflect the emergence of a temperance movement in France, with stronger impact among women. This movement might be responsible for the fall in alcohol consumption. [source]

    On the (In)Compatibility of Guilt and Suffering in German Memory1

    Aleida Assmann
    This article analyses the current shift in German memory concerning the issue of German suffering at the end of the Second World War. Contrary to widely held belief, these themes are not novel: German suffering was a topic of discourse immediately after the war in the private and political sphere. What is new in the current context, however, is the intensity of the unexpected return of these issues and their wide social resonance among different classes and generations. With this shift in focus, new memory contests arise. One paradigmatic case is the polarity created between a memory of German guilt and a memory of German suffering as represented by the two popular historians Hannes Heer and Jrg Friedrich; another concerns the (still ongoing) debate around a new centre for flight and expulsion. It is argued that the impasse of recent cultural memory debate typified by Heer and Friedrich can be surpassed by a more complex understanding of the structure of memory. According to this view, various levels of heterogeneous memory can exist side by side if they are contained within a normative frame of generally accepted validity. [source]

    Guilt and Shame in Chinese Culture: A Cross-cultural Framework from the Perspective of Morality and Identity

    Olwen Bedford
    Olwen Bedford and Kwang-Kuo Hwang, Guilt and Shame in Chinese Culture: A Cross-cultural Framework from the Perspective of Morality and Identity, pp. 127,144. This article formulates a cross-cultural framework for understanding guilt and shame based on a conceptualization of identity and morality in Western and Confucian cultures. First, identity is examined in each culture, and then the relation between identity and morality illuminated. The role of guilt and shame in upholding the boundaries of identity and enforcing the constraints of morality is then discussed from the perspective of each culture. The developed framework is then applied the emotions of guilt and shame in Chinese culture drawing on previous field research. Implications for future research are discussed. [source]

    Sexual Assault and Defendant/Victim Intoxication: Jurors' Perceptions of Guilt,

    The present research investigates how defendant and claimant intoxication operates in sexual-assault trials. Participants (N= 323) were provided with a description of a sexualassault trial in which the intoxication level (sober, moderate, extreme) of both parties was systematically varied. While the introduction of alcohol altered participants' perceptions of the case and of the parties involved, a complex interplay between the defendant's and complainant's level of intoxication was apparent. When the complainant was sober, harsher judgments were rendered when the defendant was intoxicated, particularly at the extreme level. In contrast, when the complainant was moderately intoxicated, more guilty verdicts occurred when the defendant was similarly inebriated. Finally, when the complainant was extremely intoxicated, the defendant's beverage consumption did not exert any discemible impact. Evaluations of both parties' abilities to self-regulate their behavior and for the female target to become sexually disinhibited were also influenced by the intoxication manipulation. [source]

    Investigating the relationship between past contraceptive behaviour, self-efficacy, and anticipated shame and guilt in sexual contexts among Norwegian adolescents

    Bente Tren
    Abstract What are the relationships between self-efficacy when communicating to the partner about use of contraception, stopping undesired intercourse, and perceived self-conscious emotions in sexual contexts? How does past contraceptive behaviour influence perceived self-efficacy? These research questions were studied among 399 10th grade students with coital experience in the county Nordland in Norway. Two dimensions of perceived emotional responses were identified in a hypothetical situation related to communicating to the partner about use of contraception, namely Shame and Emotional intimacy. Two dimensions were also identified with regard to anticipated emotional responses in a hypothetical situation related to stopping undesired intercourse: Guilt and responsibility and Emotional intimacy. Most of the boys and girls reported that they would react with positive emotions in both hypothetical situations. Path models were constructed with the affective dimensions and self-esteem as mediating variables between past contraceptive behaviour and contextual self-efficacy. Past behaviour influenced communication self-efficacy indirectly via Shame, and Shame had a direct effect upon self-efficacy. Guilt and responsibility had a direct effect upon stop-self-efficacy. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [source]

    The Thrust of the Problem: Bodily Inhibitions and Guilt as a Function of Mortality Salience and Neuroticism

    Jamie L. Goldenberg
    ABSTRACT We argue that existential concerns underlie discomfort with the physicality of the body and that activities likely to make individuals aware of their physical body (e.g., sex, dancing) may be inhibited and cause guilt. Further, individuals high in neuroticism may be especially vulnerable to such difficulties. To test this, individuals high and low in neuroticism were primed with thoughts about their mortality or a control topic and then engaged in an exercise designed to promote body awareness before self-reporting guilt. A comparison group engaged in non-body-oriented behavior. The results revealed that high neuroticism participants inhibited their body-oriented behavior when mortality was salient and that they experienced a marginal increase in guilt after performing the behavior in conjunction with mortality salience. Discussion focuses on the relationship between neuroticism, mortality salience, inhibition surrounding the body, and guilt. [source]

    Collective Guilt: International Perspectives

    Collective Guilt: International Perspectives. Nyla R. Branscombe and Bertjan Doosje, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. 339 pp. [source]

    Redeeming Apartheid's Legacy: Collective Guilt, Political Ideology, and Compensation

    Bert Klandermans
    This paper reports two studies among white South African students on feelings of collective guilt about apartheid and attitudes to affirmative action. Study 1 reports on 21 in-depth interviews, Study 2 on results from 180 survey questionnaires. Substantial proportions of the participants in both studies displayed feelings of collective guilt. Among participants in both studies who identified strongly with white South Africans, some displayed strong feelings of collective guilt while others displayed no such feelings. Our survey data suggest that political ideology functions as a moderator. Strong feelings of guilt were found among students who identified strongly with white South Africans and defined themselves as liberals. If they defined themselves as conservatives then no feelings of collective guilt were observed. Strong feelings of collective guilt were accompanied by positive attitudes toward affirmative action. The influence of political ideology on attitudes toward affirmative action was mediated by collective guilt. [source]

    A Question of Guilt

    RATIO JURIS, Issue 3 2006
    The focus is on the relationship between collective violence and collective memory in countries that have experienced cultural trauma, defined as a dramatic loss of identity and meaning, a tear in the social fabric. Analyzing the dynamics,the mechanisms and processes,of remembering and forgetting such trauma, I argue that the idea of collective guilt is essential for making sense of collective violence and collective memory. Specifically, I show that collective violence requires collective action; that collective action produces collective guilt; that collective violence generates perceptions,and misperceptions,of collective guilt; and that collective memory is formed, deformed, and transformed by perceptions,and misperceptions,of collective guilt. The article uses illustrative data from a variety of cases to illuminate these dynamics. It concludes by explaining why understanding these dynamics is imperative for responding to historic injustice in the twenty-first century. Flash-backs falsify the Past: they forget the remembering Present. (Auden 1976, 841) [source]


    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 1 2010
    Iris Murdoch's philosophical texts set out the egocentric dangers of guilt but still endorse an account of original sin. This might seem like an unstable combination as these two are in tension, but I argue that Murdoch manages to use this tension in a productive manner. The human condition is treated as one of fallenness, in the sense of an exile from perfection. We are aware of moral failure and also aware of the standard by which we fail. Guilt is reined in, however, by the fact that such failure is a matter of commonplace flawed moral vision and not an Augustinian perversity of the will. This reining in of guilt is still accompanied by a recognition of our unbridgeable remoteness from perfection. [source]

    Practical Reason and ,Companions in Guilt'

    James Harold
    First page of article [source]

    Childhood predictors of adult criminality: are all risk factors reflected in childhood aggressiveness?

    L. Rowell Huesmann
    Background Early aggressive behaviour is one of the best predictors of adult criminality. Aim To assess the degree to which family background variables, parental beliefs and behaviour and child intelligence predict child aggression and adult criminality. Method Data were used from the Colombia County Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal study of 856 children in third grade in New York, in 1959,60. Adult measures of criminal behaviour, child measures taken at age eight, child peer-nominated aggression, child's peer-nominated popularity, child's IQ and parental measures at eight years were used. Results Aggressive children were less intelligent, less popular, rejected more by their parents, had parents who believed in punishment, were less identified with their parents' self-image and were less likely to express guilt. As adults, more aggressive children with parents who were less well educated, experienced more marital disharmony and who seldom attended church were most at risk for arrest. However, after the effect of early aggression was controlled, most effects disappeared and only parents having a strong belief in punishment added significantly to risk of arrest by age 30; the only fact that then reduced the risk of arrest was having parents who attended church often. Both parental authoritarianism and child IQ reduced the risk of conviction for arrested children. Discussion Level of aggression at age eight is the best predictor of criminal events over the next 22 years. A clear implication is that the risk for criminality is affected by much that happens to a boy before he is eight years old. Preventive interventions need to target risk factors that appear to influence the development of early aggression. Copyright 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Florida law allows judges to withhold adjudication of guilt for individuals who have been found guilty of a felony and are being sentenced to probation. Such individuals lose no civil rights and may lawfully assert they had not been convicted of a felony. Labeling theory would predict that the receipt of a felony label could increase the likelihood of recidivism. Reconviction data for 95,919 men and women who were either adjudicated or had adjudication withheld show that those formally labeled are significantly more likely to recidivate in 2 years than those who are not. Labeling effects are stronger for women, whites, and those who reach the age of 30 years without a prior conviction. Second-level indicators of county characteristics (e.g., crime rates or concentrated disadvantage) have no significant effect on the adjudication/recidivism relationship. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Florida law allows judges to withhold adjudication of guilt for persons who have either pled guilty or been found guilty of a felony. This provision may apply only to persons who will be sentenced to probation, and it allows such individuals to retain all civil rights and to truthfully assert they had not been convicted of a felony. This paper examines the effects of race and Hispanic ethnicity on the withholding of adjudication for 91,477 males sentenced to probation in Florida between 1999 and 2002. Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling is used to assess the direct effects of defendant attributes as well as the cross-level interactions between race, ethnicity and community level indicators of threat, such as percentage black and Hispanic and concentrated disadvantage. Our results show that Hispanics and blacks are significantly less likely to have adjudication withheld when other individual and community level factors are controlled. This effect is especially pronounced for blacks and for drug offenders. Cross-level interactions show that concentrated disadvantage has a substantial effect on the adjudication withheld outcome for both black and Hispanic defendants. The implications of these results for the conceptualization of racial/ethnic threat at the individual, situational and social levels are discussed. [source]

    Personality traits and self-injurious behaviour in patients with eating disorders

    Jennie Ahrn-Moonga
    Abstract The interest in different aspects of personality and the neuropsychological basis for behaviour in eating disorder patients has increased over the last decade. The present study aims at exploring personality traits, self-injurious behaviour (SIB) and suicide attempts in a group of severely ill eating disorder patients. Patients with eating disorders (N,=,38) and age-matched controls (N,=,67) were examined concerning self-reported personality traits by means of the Karolinska scales of personality (KSP). Psychosocial history and SIB was collected from medical records. Depression was rated by means of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results indicated significantly higher anxiety-related and detachment traits in both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients and higher hostility in BN patients than controls. No specific personality traits could be defined as typical for self-injurious or suicidal behaviour. The AN group was lower than the BN group on scales measuring impulsivity, guilt and anxiety. Furthermore, presence of SIB and suicide attempts was more frequent among the BN patients. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    The structure of negative emotion scales: generalization over contexts and comprehensiveness

    Dirk J. M. Smits
    In this article, we tested whether a four-dimensional individual-difference structure of negative emotions (Sadness, Fear, Anger, Shame) as described e.g. by Diener, Smith and Fujita can be found in self-report data when the emotions are explicitly linked to three different specific contexts. In addition, we check the comprehensiveness of the structure by adding terms people spontaneously use to directly express negative affect. A situational questionnaire was constructed, based on the emotion terms from Diener et al., and it was administered to 161 participants. The structure we obtained was five dimensional instead of four dimensional: the Shame scale turned out to be two dimensional, with guilt and regret defining one factor, and shame and embarrassment defining another factor. Between these two, there is a moderate positive correlation. The structure is shown to be nearly identical for all three situations. The minor differences we found do contextualize the meaning of the emotional responses. The newly added terms could be captured quite well by the factor Anger. No separate factor was needed, meaning that the obtained five-dimensional structure may be considered comprehensive enough for the field of negative emotions. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The test of self-conscious affect: internal structure, differential scales and relationships with long-term affects

    Johnny R. J. Fontaine
    Item analyses and confirmatory factor analyses on the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA), in a student (N,=,723) and an adult (N,=,891) sample, supported the theorized four factor structure of proneness to reparation, negative self-evaluation, externalizing blame and unconcern. However, two-fifth of the items did not empirically differentiate between two or more factors. Differential TOSCA scales, including only differentiating TOSCA items, were constructed and related to measures of long-term affect, depression, anxiety, and anger. Both the pattern and size of correlations of the original and the differential TOSCA scales were almost identical. Results of this study support the interpretation of TOSCA guilt as a measure of a tendency to reparation associated with guilt and TOSCA shame as a measure of a tendency to global negative self-evaluation. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Facing guilt: Role of negative affectivity, need for reparation, and fear of punishment in leading to prosocial behaviour and aggression

    Gian Vittorio Caprara
    The present study aims to further corroborate and to extend the scope of previous findings regarding the path of influence between negative affectivity, need for reparation and fear of punishment when examining the determinants and the motivational components of guilt. Data were collected from three different European countries (i.e. Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic). About 1100 young adolescents were involved in the research. The generalizability of a nomological network linking individual differences in Negative Affectivity to Need for Reparation, Fear of Punishment, Prosocial Behaviour, and Aggression has been investigated across countries and gender, by means of structural equation modelling. Need for Reparation turns out to be positively related to Prosocial Behaviour and negatively related to Aggression. Fear for Punishment turns out to be positively related to Aggression and negatively related to Prosocial Behaviour, with the exception of Hungary. Alternative paths of influence among considered variables have been examined. Practical implications for prevention and education are underlined. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Working under cover: performance-related self-confidence among members of contextually devalued groups who try to pass

    Manuela Barreto
    This paper experimentally examines the effects of passing (versus revealing) a contextually devalued identity on performance-related self-confidence. An experimental scenario was developed on the basis of the results of a pilot study. Studies 1 and 2 (total N,=,255) experimentally manipulate passing versus revealing a contextually devalued identity, to an ingroup or an outgroup partner. The results show that, although passing makes participants believe that their partner has more positive expectations of them, it also undermines performance-related self-confidence. Moreover, the results show that negative self-directed affect (i.e., guilt and shame) mediated the negative effect of passing on performance-related self-confidence. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The anxiety buffering function of close relationships: mortality salience effects on the readiness to compromise mate selection standards

    Gilad Hirschberger
    This research examines the utility of a terror management approach to understanding the motivations and emotional consequences of compromise in mate selection. One hundred and sixty-eight undergraduates completed a self-esteem scale and a scale tapping ideal mate characteristics, and were then assigned either to a mortality salience, physical pain salience, or neutral condition. Half of the participants rated their readiness to compromise ideal mate standards and the remaining half completed a neutral scale. Then, participants completed a scale tapping their emotional state. Mortality salience led participants to significantly compromise their mate requirements. This effect seemed to be most pronounced among high self-esteem participants who also experienced the greatest amount of guilt when compromising under mortality salient conditions. Low self-esteem participants who compromised under mortality salient conditions reacted with higher levels of shame. The results are discussed in terms of the anxiety buffering functions of close relationships. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Attributions and Emotional Reactions to the Identity Disclosure ("Coming Out") of a Homosexual Child,

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2001
    Jorge C. Armesto Ed.M.
    This study examined factors that contribute to parental rejection of gay and lesbian youth. College students (N = 356) were asked to imagine being the parent of an adolescent son who recently disclosed that he was gay. Consistent with study hypotheses and based on attribution and moral affect theory, results of regression analyses indicated that greater perceptions of control over homosexuality, higher proneness to experience shame, and lower proneness to experience guilt were associated with increasing negative reactions toward an imagined homosexual child. Also in line with study hypotheses, greater willingness to offer help to the hypothetical child was predicted by lower perceptions of control over homosexuality, less intensely unfavorable emotional reactions, less proneness to experience guilt, and greater reported likelihood of experiencing affection toward him. Theoretical and clinical implications of this research are discussed. [source]

    On the (In)Compatibility of Guilt and Suffering in German Memory1

    Aleida Assmann
    This article analyses the current shift in German memory concerning the issue of German suffering at the end of the Second World War. Contrary to widely held belief, these themes are not novel: German suffering was a topic of discourse immediately after the war in the private and political sphere. What is new in the current context, however, is the intensity of the unexpected return of these issues and their wide social resonance among different classes and generations. With this shift in focus, new memory contests arise. One paradigmatic case is the polarity created between a memory of German guilt and a memory of German suffering as represented by the two popular historians Hannes Heer and Jrg Friedrich; another concerns the (still ongoing) debate around a new centre for flight and expulsion. It is argued that the impasse of recent cultural memory debate typified by Heer and Friedrich can be surpassed by a more complex understanding of the structure of memory. According to this view, various levels of heterogeneous memory can exist side by side if they are contained within a normative frame of generally accepted validity. [source]

    An emotive subject: insights from social, voluntary and healthcare professionals into the feelings of family carers for people with mental health problems,

    Ben Gray BA PhD Senior Research Fellow CCCU
    Abstract Caring for people with mental health problems can generate a whole range of positive and negative emotions, including fear, disbelief, guilt and chaos as well as a sense of purpose, pride and achievement. This paper explores the emotions of family carers from the perspectives of social, voluntary and healthcare professionals. Sixty-five participants were interviewed, the sample included directors, managers and senior staff from social, voluntary and healthcare organisations. Participants were encouraged to talk in detail about their understanding of the emotions of family carers. Findings highlight a rich understanding of the broad spectrum of carer emotions and the huge emotional adjustments that are often involved. Diagnosis was seen to be imbued with negative emotions, such as fear, anger and denial. However, feelings of hopelessness and desolation were often counterbalanced by feelings of hope, satisfaction and the emotional rewards of caring for a loved one. Participants noted a clear lack of emotional support for family carers, with accompanying feelings of marginalisation, particularly during transitions and especially involving young carers as well as ethnic minorities. By way of contrast, carer support groups were suggested by professionals to be a holistic, effective and economical way of meeting carers' emotional needs. This paper explores the challenge of family carer emotions from the perspective of managers and practitioners and draws out implications for research, policy and practice. [source]

    Being a parent of an adult son or daughter with severe mental illness receiving professional care: parents' narratives

    Anita Pejlert RNT PhD
    Abstract The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of parental care-giving with reference to having an adult son or daughter with severe mental illness living in a care setting. The parents were asked to narrate their relationship to offspring in the past, in the present, and their thoughts and feelings concerning the future. The study was guided by a phenomenological hermeneutic perspective. The meaning of parental care was illuminated in the themes ,living with sorrow, anguish and constant worry', ,living with guilt and shame', ,relating with carer/care; comfort and hardships',coming to terms with difficulties' and ,hoping for a better life for the adult child'. Parental care-giving emerged as a life-long effort. The narratives revealed ongoing grief, sorrow and losses interpreted as chronic sorrow. The narratives disclosed a cultural conflict between the family system and the care system, which was interpreted as a threat to the parental role, but also experiences of receiving comfort and having confidence in the care given. Experiences of stigma were interpreted from the way of labelling illness, narrated experiences of shame and relations with the public and mental health professionals. Parents' persisting in the care-giving role, striving to look after themselves and expressing hopes for the future were interpreted as a process of coming to terms with difficulties. Results suggest that mental health professionals need to be aware of their own attitudes and treatment of families, improve their cooperation with, and support to families, and provide opportunities for family members to meet one another. [source]

    Experiences and support needs of siblings of children with cancer

    BA MA PhD CPsychol Patricia Sloper
    Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer places considerable demands on family life. Siblings have been shown to be at risk for development of emotional and behavioural problems. However, most studies have relied on parents' reports, and less is known about siblings' own views of their experiences. This paper presents findings from interviews with 94 siblings of children with cancer, at 6 and 18 months after diagnosis of the illness. Results show that, six months after diagnosis, siblings reported a number of problems: loss of attention and status; loss of their own and their families' usual activities and routines; loss of certainty and security; and loss of companionship of the ill child. For many, problems had resolved 18 months after diagnosis, but problems remained or had arisen for some. These were not confined to those whose brothers or sisters had relapsed or continued to have treatment. Supportive relationships were reported to be important resources, providing an opportunity for siblings to express their own feelings and needs, and information about the illness and treatment helped them to understand why family life was disrupted. Positive effects were also apparent: gains in maturity, understanding and compassion, and closer family relationships. The findings point to the need for support for siblings to provide information to help them make sense of the situation; opportunities to express their own feelings and reassurance to avoid fear and guilt; attention to feel valued and maintain self-esteem; and help to keep up their own interests and activities. Attention of parents and professionals in contact with the families was generally paid to the ill child. There is a need for health professionals, particularly those in the family's home community, to take a holistic approach to family support, to ensure that information and support is available to siblings. [source]

    Child and family correlates of toddlers' emotional and behavioral responses to a mishap

    Pamela W. Garner
    This study evaluated the unique and joint contributions of internal state language, externalizing behavior, and maternal talk about emotions to the prediction of toddlers' empathy-related responsiveness. The empathy-based guilt reactions of 47 toddlers (27 boys) were observed in response to distress that they thought they had caused. In addition, mothers reported on the children's internal state language, externalizing behavior, and empathy-based guilt. In a separate observation, the mothers discussed emotional expressions with their children, and the functional significance of their emotional discourse was considered. Results revealed that toddlers' internal state language ability was positively related to their attempts to comprehend another's affective state and to maternal reports of children's sympathy reactions. There was also an unexpected inverse relation between externalizing behavior and arousal level. In terms of the parent measures, maternal explanations of emotions were positively related to children's attempts to comprehend another's affective state, whereas mothers' directives for children to label emotions were positively related to children's expressed emotional concern for others. The implications of these findings for understanding empathy and guilt development in young children are discussed. 2003 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    Life writing in the shadow of the Shoah: fathers and sons in the memoirs of Elie Wiesel and Leon Weliczker Wells

    Bertram J. Cohler
    Abstract This paper contrasts the accounts of mourning and the resolution of grief in the aftermath of the Shoah as portrayed in the memoirs of two men Elie Wiesel (1928,) and Leon Weliczker Wells (1925,). Each life writer grew up in an Eastern European shtetl, a traditional community, in which he was immersed in Hasidic culture, and was incarcerated during adolescence in an extermination camp. This paper explores the impact of each life writer's experienced childhood relationship with his father in coping with his losses over the post-war period. Wells' memoir is a factual account of the perfidy of the regime that he witnessed as a member of a Sonderkommando or death brigade in the Janowska extermination camp and kept a journal, later used as evidence for the indictment of the regime at the Eichman trial. Wiesel's acclaimed text Night, and his memoirs, reflect his continuing guilt regarding his father's death while they were together in Auschwitz and Buchenwald. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]