Growth Performance (growth + performance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Growth Performance

  • best growth performance
  • good growth performance

  • Selected Abstracts

    Growth Performance, Immune Response, and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Vitamins C and E

    Chhorn Lim
    Growth, immunity, and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge were evaluated after feeding diets supplemented with vitamin C (0, 100, 2000 mg/kg) and E (0, 50, 500 mg/kg) for 12 wk. Supplementation of 100 mg vitamin C/kg to the basal diet was sufficient to increase growth and feed efficiency. The amount of vitamin E present in the basal diet (23.1 mg/kg) was sufficient to promote good growth and feed efficiency, but adding 50 mg vitamin E/kg was necessary to increase survival. Liver vitamin C and E concentrations increased with increasing dietary concentrations of the corresponding vitamin. Dietary vitamin E concentrations had no effect on liver vitamin C concentration, but increasing dietary vitamin C increased liver vitamin E. Although hematology was generally unaffected by dietary vitamin E, significantly lower red blood cell count and hemoglobin and higher mean corpuscular volume were observed in fish fed the vitamin C-unsupplemented diets. Total immunoglobulin and lysozyme activity were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in fish fed 2000 mg/kg vitamin C diets. Vitamin E at 500 mg/kg diet significantly decreased alternative complement activity. Dietary concentrations of vitamin C had no effect on mortality following S. iniae challenge, but mortality significantly decreased in fish fed vitamin E,supplemented diets. [source]

    Evaluation of Growth Performance of Nonimproved and Improved Strains of the Nile Tilapia (L.), Oreochromis niloticus

    Mohammad T. Ridha

    Thermal adaptation of Arctic charr: experimental studies of growth in eleven charr populations from Sweden, Norway and Britain

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    Summary 1. Experimental growth data for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.), all fed on excess rations, from 11 European watercourses between 54 and 70°N were analysed and fitted to a new general growth model for fish. The model was validated by comparing its predictions with the growth rate of charr in the wild. 2. Growth performance varied among populations, mainly because of variation in the maximum growth potential, whereas the thermal response curves were similar. The estimated lower and upper temperatures for growth varied between ,1.7 to 5.3 and 20.8,23.2 °C, respectively, while maximum growth occurred between 14.4 and 17.2 °C. 3. There was no geographical or climatic trend in growth performance among populations and therefore no indication of thermal adaptation. The growth potential of charr from different populations correlated positively with fish body length at maturity and maximum weight in the wild. Charr from populations including large piscivorous fish had higher growth rates under standardised conditions than those from populations feeding on zoobenthos or zooplankton. Therefore, the adaptive variation in growth potential was related to life-history characteristics and diet, rather than to thermal conditions. [source]

    Effects of high-level dietary B-vitamins on performance, body composition and tissue vitamin contents of growing/finishing pigs

    B. M. Böhmer
    Summary Forty-eight growing pigs were randomly assigned to five dietary groups and penned individually. They received a diet based on barley, wheat, corn and soya bean meal according to requirement. The experimental groups were supplemented with 400% or 800% of vitamins B2, B6 and pantothenic acid, or 400% or 800% of biotin, while all other vitamins were administered according to requirement. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and content of vitamins in blood, liver and muscles were recorded. Growth performance showed no influence of supplementation, while backfat thickness in the group with 800% B2/B6/pantothenic acid was significantly higher. Content of B2 in blood, liver and muscle was similar in all groups. Content of B6 in blood and liver showed significant differences according to supplementation. The content of vitamin B6 in muscle in the experimental groups was significantly higher than that in the control group. The content of pantothenic acid in blood and muscle in the experimental groups was significantly higher, while in liver all groups were significantly influenced by the supplementation level. Biotin content in liver showed no influence, but the content in plasma was significantly higher in the experimental groups and the content in muscle was significantly higher according to supplementation. The activity of AST showed no significant influence of the dietary vitamin level, but it was obviously decreased in the groups supplemented with biotin. The findings indicate that the dietary supplementation of vitamin B2, B6, pantothenic acid and biotin could not improve performance, but the contents in blood, liver and muscle. [source]

    Growth performance and health status in weanling piglets fed spray-dried porcine plasma under typical Northern European conditions

    A. J. VAN DIJK
    The effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in diets for weanling piglets was studied. The objectives were to determine whether SDPP would have positive effects on post-weaning piglet performance and health under typical Northern European conditions. In experiment 1, 160 weanling piglets were assigned randomly to a control diet or a diet containing 3% SDPP, which was added at the expense of both fishmeal and dried skim milk. In experiment 2, 264 weanling piglets were assigned to a control diet containing whey protein, a diet without whey protein but with SDPP or a diet containing both whey protein and SDPP. In essence, SDPP was added to the test diets at the expense of either whey protein or fishmeal. Piglets were fed the diets for 3 weeks. In experiment 1, the piglets fed the SDPP diet had a 7% higher average daily gain (ADG) and a 4% lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05) during the first 3 weeks after weaning than did those fed the control diet. There were no differences in leucocyte counts or ,-globulin. In experiment 2 there were no significant differences in ADG and FCR among the dietary treatments. It is concluded that low amounts of SDPP in weanling diets can have positive effects on growth performance under Northern European conditions. [source]

    Dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) based on growth, nutrient retention efficiencies, RNA/DNA ratio and body composition

    S. F. Abidi
    Summary To quantify the optimum dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (4.10 ± 0.04 cm; 0.62 ± 0.02 g), an 8-week growth trial was conducted in eighteen 70-L indoor circular aqua-coloured troughs provided with a flow-through system at 28 ± 1°C. Isonitrogenous (40 g 100 g,1 crude protein) and isocaloric (4.28 kcal g,1 gross energy) amino acid test diets containing casein and gelatin as intact protein sources with graded levels of arginine (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 g 100 g,1 dry diet) were fed to triplicate groups of fish to apparent satiation at 07:00, 12:00 and 17:30 hours. Growth performance of fish fed the above diets was evaluated on the basis of absolute weight gain (AWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE). Maximum AWG (2.61), SGR (2.80), best FCR (1.35), highest PER (1.85), PRE (37%) and ERE (76%) were recorded at 1.25 g 100 g,1 dietary arginine. Maximum body protein (18.88 g 100 g,1) and RNA/DNA ratio (5.20) were also obtained in a 1.25 g 100 g,1 arginine dry diet. Except for the reduced growth performance in fish fed arginine-deficient diets, no other deficiency signs were apparent. Based on the broken-line and second-degree polynomial regression analysis of the AWG, SGR, FCR, PER, PRE and ERE data, the optimum arginine requirement for fingerling Labeo rohita was found to be in the range of 1.22,1.39 g 100 g,1 of the dry diet, corresponding to 3.05,3.47 g 100 g,1 of dietary protein. [source]

    Growth performance and body composition of sub-yearling Persian sturgeon, (Acipenser persicus, Borodin, 1897), fed different dietary protein and lipid levels

    M. Mohseni
    Summary In order to evaluate the protein and energy requirement of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) sub-yearlings, eight experimental diets containing two protein levels (40% and 45%) and four lipid levels (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were tested. Sturgeons (W0 = 136.8 g) were fed the experimental diets to satiation four times daily for 150 days, resulting in a final mean weight of 375.8 g. Growth was significantly affected by lipid content of the diets. At 40% protein level, weight gain and specific growth rate (% per day) were significantly improved (P < 0.05) by increasing the dietary lipid (energy) content. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was significantly affected by different dietary treatments for each dietary protein level tested, reaching a mean value of 3.58 in fish fed high lipid diets and a PER of 2.77 in low lipid diets. Results obtained in the present study suggest that the optimum dietary protein content for Persian sturgeon is 40%, with an estimated optimum protein-to-energy ratio of 18,20 mg kJ,1. [source]

    Phosphorus requirements and optimum calcium/phosphorus ratio in the diet of mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) fingerlings

    B. N. Paul
    Summary An experiment was conducted to investigate phosphorus requirements and the optimal calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio on growth and carcass tissue composition of mrigal Cirrhinus mrigala (c. 6 g). Five purified diets were formulated to contain Ca/P ratios of 1 : 0 (0.35 : 0), 1 : 1 (0.35 : 0.35), 1 : 2 (0.31 : 0.63), 1 : 3 (0.24 : 0.71), and 1 : 4 (0.19 : 0.75), respectively. Growth performance and feed conversion ratio of mrigal responded significantly (P < 0.01) to the Ca =0.19 : P = 0.75 diet. Carcass protein, lipid, and P percentage also increased significantly with the higher P level. Based on this study, it may be concluded under the given conditions that the optimum Ca : P ratio in mrigal feed is 0.19 : 0.75. [source]

    Evaluation of Brewer's Waste as Partial Replacement of Fish Meal Protein in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Diets

    Desale B. Zerai
    A 10-wk feeding trial experiment involving five different diets with increasing levels of brewer's waste (32% crude protein) was carried out to evaluate the use of brewer's waste in tilapia diets in place of fish meal. Growth performance was compared against a control diet formulated to have similar composition to a typical commercial diet. Four experimental diets replaced successively 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the fish meal protein with brewer's waste. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Results indicated that weight gain did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) with up to 50% replacement. Feed intake and utilization were depressed at high levels of brewer's waste. In addition, methionine of high replacement level diets was low. The results of the digestibility trial demonstrated that the brewer's waste used in this study has an apparent digestibility coefficient for protein of 70%. It was concluded that 50% of the fish meal protein in a typical commercial diet could be replaced with brewer's waste with no adverse effect on growth and feed utilization for tilapia. [source]

    The effect of fermented apple diet supplementation on the growth performance and meat quality in finishing pigs

    Sung Dae LEE
    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermented apple diet (FAD) supplementation on the growth performance and meat quality in finishing Berkshires. The FAD was made from dropped apple mixed with rice bran and barley bran. Until 81 ± 1 kg live weight at 133 ± 1 days, the animals were fed a growing diet, after which experimental samples were fixed at 0, 2, 4 and 6% FAD as C, T1, T2 and T3 in the finishing diets. Growth performance, ADG, ADFI and feed efficiency were improved in T1 than other groups. In carcass parameters, carcass weight was higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than in other groups. In meat quality, moisture and crude protein contents decreased (P < 0.05) by addition of FAD. pH24 and WHC were higher (P < 0.05) in T1 than other groups. In sensory evaluation, marbling of fresh meat and tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall acceptability of cooked meat were improved by the addition of FAD. According to the results of our experiment, FAD can be used for improvement of meat quality parameters. [source]

    Effects of the commercial probiotic Lactobacillus casei on the growth, protein content of skin mucus and stress resistance of juveniles of the Porthole livebearer Poecilopsis gracilis (Poecilidae)

    Abstract A 11-week feeding trial was carried out to determine the effects of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei from the commercial product Yakult® on the growth performance, proximal composition, protein content of skin mucus and stress resistance of juvenile Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis. Triplicate groups of 15 juveniles per tank with an initial weight of 47 ± 9 mg (mean ± standard deviation) were fed with Artemia nauplii enriched with the probiotic, by using the bacteria cells plus the fermented milk (group ProN) and the other (group ProC) by using only the bacterial cells, eliminating the fermented milk by centrifugation. A control of fish was set up, by feeding non-enriched Artemia nauplii. Growth performance and survival rates did not show significantly differences among the treatments and control group, but a slightly tendency of higher values for body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate was observed in the juveniles of ProC treatment. Whole body proximate composition did not show significant differences among the groups, but higher values of protein and lipid contents were observed in the groups fed with the probiotic. Content of protein in the skin mucus were significantly higher in the ProC treatment than control group. Recovery rates after an air-dive test were significantly higher on the fish fed with the probiotic cells than the control group. These results show that L. casei might be used as a probiotic for fish and would help during the culture of juvenile of the Porthole livebearer P. gracilis. [source]

    Growth, nitrogen gain and indispensable amino acid retention of pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Holmberg 1887) fed different brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) levels

    Abstract A feeding-and-digestibility trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of replacing fishmeal with brewers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in diets of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, juveniles. The feeding trial was conducted during 54 days with 450 fish (26.6 ± 1.7 g) testing six isonitrogenous (270 g kg,1 crude protein) and isoenergetic (19 MJ kg,1 crude energy) diets, with increasing yeast level to replace 0 (control), 30, 35, 50, 70 or 100% of dietary fishmeal. Growth performance and feed utilization increased with increasing dietary yeast level until 50% fishmeal replacement. Protein retention efficiency was higher in fish fed 35 and 50%. Protein digestibility and the fillet hue (the red/green chromaticity) were not significantly different among all treatments. Nitrogen gains were significantly improved in fish fed 35% replacement diet compared to fish fed the control diet. The retentions of indispensable amino acids tended to increase with increasing dietary yeast levels, with maximum retention at 35,50%. On the basis of our results, replacing 50% fishmeal by yeast in pacu diets successfully improved feed efficiency and growth performance, and reduced nitrogen losses, thereby reducing the nitrogen outputs from fish farms. [source]

    Growth performance and body composition of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg 1887) in response to dietary protein and energy levels

    Abstract Improper dietary protein and energy levels and their ratio will lead to increased fish production cost. This work evaluated effects of dietary protein : energy ratio on growth and body composition of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fingerling pacu (15.5 ± 0.4 g) were fed twice a day for 10 weeks until apparent satiation with diets containing 220, 260, 300, 340 or 380 g kg,1 crude protein (CP) and 10.9, 11.7, 12.6, 13.4 or 14.2 MJ kg,1 digestible energy (DE) in a totally randomized experimental design, 5 × 5 factorial scheme (n = 3). Weight gain, specific growth rate increased and feed conversion ratio (FCR) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when CP increased from 220 to 271, 268 and 281 g kg,1 respectively. Pacu was able to adjust feed consumption in a wide range of dietary DE concentration. Fish fed 260 CP diets showed best (P < 0.05) protein efficiency ratio and FCR with 11.7,12.6 MJ kg,1; but for the 380 CP-diets group, significant differences were observed only at 14.2 MJ kg,1 dietary energy level, suggesting that pacu favours protein as energy source. DE was the chief influence on whole body chemical composition. Minimum dietary protein requirement of pacu is 270 g kg,1, with an optimum CP : DE of 22.2 g MJ,1. [source]

    Complete replacement of fish meal by porcine and poultry by-product meals in practical diets for fingerling Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: digestibility and growth performance

    Abstract The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of poultry by-product meal-pet food grade (PBM) and porcine meal (PM) were determined for fingerling male Nile tilapia. ADC for protein were 98.1% and 92.3% in PBM and PM, and 87.1% and 79.4% for energy. PBM and PM were then used as complete replacements for fish meal (FM) in practical diets for Nile tilapia formulated to contain equal digestible protein (300 g kg,1) and energy (16.74 MJ per 100 g) on an as-fed basis. Fingerlings (mean initial weight ±SD, 9.5 ± 0.015 g) were fed for 8 weeks on one of the four diets: FM-, PBM- or PM-based and a commercial feed. The ADC for protein in control and PBM diets (89.7% and 87.9%) were significantly higher than those for the control diet (81.96%). Growth performance and feed utilization were statistically similar between fish fed control and PBM diets, whereas the PM diet exhibited significantly lower performance compared with the control. However, the PM diet showed similar results to the commercial reference diet. Survival and feed conversion ratio were not significantly influenced by replacement of FM with either PBM or PM. The results indicated that PBM and PM can effectively replace FM in practical diets for fingerling Nile tilapia. [source]

    Growth performance and tissue mineral content of juvenile grouper (Epinephelus coioides) fed diets supplemented with various levels of manganese

    C.-X. YE
    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary manganese (Mn) on growth, vertebrae and whole-body Mn content of juvenile grouper, and to examine the effect of dietary Mn on copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) content of vertebrae and whole body. Seven casein-gelatin-based diets were supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 50 and 1000 mg kg,1 of Mn from MnSO4·H2O. Grouper with an initial weight of 12.9 ± 0.4 g were fed to satiation with one of the seven diets for 8 weeks. Growth was not significantly affected by dietary Mn supplements. Vertebrae Mn increased from 31.7 to 118.1 mg kg,1 dry weight with dietary Mn supplement increasing from 0 to 50 mg kg,1 (y = ,0.0002x3 + 0.0162x2 + 1.3903x + 26.27, R2 = 0.9561, where y is the vertebrae Mn content and x is the dietary Mn content). Whole-body Mn increased from 2.5 to 7.8 mg kg,1 wet weight with dietary Mn supplement increasing from 0 to 50 mg kg,1 (y = 0.00001x3 , 0.00107x2 + 0.11054x + 2.24615, R2 = 0.9080, where y is the whole-body Mn content and x is the dietary Mn content). Dietary Mn had no significant effect on vertebrae Fe, Ca, P and Mg content, and whole-body Cu, Zn and Mg content. However, vertebrae Zn and whole body Ca, P were highest in fish fed diet supplemented with 15 mg kg,1 of Mn. Based on this, Mn supplement of 15 mg kg,1 might be the optimum when the basal diet contained 4 mg kg,1 of Mn. Fish fed diet supplemented with 1000 mg kg,1 of Mn did not show any gross abnormality or change in feeding behaviour, but Mn contents of vertebrae and whole body were as high as 695.1 mg kg,1 dry weight and 42.5 mg kg,1 wet weight, respectively. Also, whole body Fe decreased significantly when Mn supplement was up to 1000 mg kg,1. [source]

    Effect of methionine on intestinal enzymes activities, microflora and humoral immune of juvenile Jian carp (cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    L. TANG
    Abstract An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary methionine supplementation on intestinal microflora and humoral immune of juvenile Jian carp (initial weight of 9.9 ± 0.0 g) reared in indoor flow-through and aerated aquaria. Eight amino acid test diets (350 g kg,1 crude protein, CP), using fish meal, soybean-condensed protein and gelatin as intact protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids, were formulated to contain graded levels of methionine (0.6,22.0%) at a constant dietary cystine level of 3 g kg,1. Each diet was randomly assigned to three aquaria. Growth performance and feed utilization were significantly influenced by the dietary methionine levels (P < 0.05). Maximum weight gain, feed intake occurred at 12 g kg,1 dietary methionine (P < 0.05). Methionine supplementation improved hepatopancreas and intestine weight, hepatosomatic and intestine index, intestinal ,-glutamyltransferase and creatine kinase activity, Lactobacillus count, Bacillus count, lysozyme activities, lectin potency, sim-immunoglobulin M content, addiment C3,C4 contents and serum total iron-binding capacity and declined Escherichia coli and Aeromonas counts. Quadratic regression analysis of weight gain against dietary methionine levels indicated that the optimal dietary methionine requirement for maximum growth of juvenile Jian carp is 12 g kg,1 of the dry diet in the presence of 3 g kg,1 cystine. [source]

    Effect of dietary phosphorus sources and varying levels of supplemental phosphorus on survival, growth and body composition of postlarval shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    J. NIU
    Abstract Two experiments were conducted for 30 days each to investigate the effective phosphorus source and supplemental phosphorus levels for postlarval Litopenaeus vannamei. The first experiment was performed in postlarval shrimp (mean initial wet weight 2 mg) fed four isoenergic and isonitrogenous diets containing three supplemented inorganic phosphorus sources [D1: no supplemental phosphorus, D2: NaH2PO4·2H2O, D3: KH2PO4·2H2O, D4: Ca(H2PO4)2·2H2O]. The quantities of the three supplemental NaH2PO4·2H2O, KH2PO4·2H2O and Ca(H2PO4)2·2H2O were 11.6, 12.8 and 10 g kg,1 of the diet, respectively in order to make the three diets have the same total phosphorus. Growth performance (final mean body weight, FBW; weight gain, WG; specific growth ratio, SGR) of shrimp in D3 treatment was the highest and had significant difference with the D1 treatment. The survival of shrimp in D3 treatment was the highest and had significant difference with the other treatments. The mineral concentration and body composition of shrimp were not significantly different among treatments. We could conclude that KH2PO4·2H2O was the optimal phosphorus source for postlarval L. vannamei from the growth performance and survival. The second experiment was performed in postlarval shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.88 mg) fed four isoenergic and isonitrogenous diets containing four supplemental KH2PO4·2H2O levels (d1, d2, d3 and d4 with 0, 5, 10 and 20 g kg,1, respectively). Shrimp in d2 treatment showed the highest growth performance and survival and also showed significant difference with other diet treatments. The whole body content of zinc (Zn) increased with the increase of dietary KH2PO4·2H2O and significant differences were observed when dietary KH2PO4·2H2O reached 5 g kg,1, excess KH2PO4·2H2O supplementation (10 and 20 g kg,1) had a negative effect on Zn content, the Zn content significantly decreased when KH2PO4·2H2O was 20 g kg,1. We can conclude that the amount of total phosphorus in the diet should be maintained between 20.9 and 22.0 g kg,1, the amount of supplemental KH2PO4·2H2O in the diet is less than 10 g kg,1. [source]

    Growth performance, feed efficiency and fatty acid composition of juvenile Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii, fed graded levels of canola and linseed oil

    Abstract In two independent experiments, the effects of dietary inclusion of canola and linseed oil were evaluated in juvenile Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii, Mitchell) over a 112-day period. In each experiment, fish received one of five semi-purified diets in which the dietary fish oil was replaced with canola oil (Experiment A) or linseed oil (Experiment B) in graded increments of 25% (0,100%). Murray cod receiving the graded canola and linseed oil diets ranged in final weight from 112.7 ± 7.6 to 73.8 ± 9.9 g and 93.9 ± 3.6 to 74.6 ± 2.2 g, respectively, and exhibited a negative trend in growth as the inclusion level increased. The fatty acid composition of the fillet and liver were modified extensively to reflect the fatty acid composition of the respective diets. Levels of oleic acid (18:1 n-9) and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) increased with each level of canola oil inclusion while levels of , -linolenic acid (18:3 n-3) increased with each level of linseed oil inclusion. The concentration of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the fillet and liver decreased as the amount of vegetable oil in the diets increased. It is shown that the replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils in low fish meal diets for Murray cod is possible to a limited extent. Moreover, this study reaffirms the suggestion for the need to conduct ingredient substitution studies for longer periods and where possible to base the conclusions on regression analysis in addition to anova. [source]

    Influence of dietary palm oil on growth, tissue fatty acid compositions, and fatty acid metabolism in liver and intestine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary crude palm oil (CPO) on fatty acid metabolism in liver and intestine of rainbow trout. Triplicate groups of rainbow trout for 10 weeks at 13 °C were fed on diets in which CPO replaced fish oil (FO) in a graded manner (0,100%). At the end of the trial, fatty acid compositions of flesh, liver and pyloric caeca were determined and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) synthesis and fatty acid oxidation were estimated in isolated hepatocytes and caecal enterocytes using [1- 14C]18:3n-3 as substrate. Growth performance and feed efficiency were unaffected by dietary CPO. Fatty acid compositions of selected tissues reflected the dietary fatty acid composition with increasing CPO resulting in increased proportions of 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 and decreased proportions of n-3HUFA, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Palmitic acid, 16:0, was also increased in flesh and pyloric caeca, but not in liver. The capacity of HUFA synthesis from 18:3n-3 increased by up to threefold in both hepatocytes and enterocytes in response to graded increases in dietary CPO. In contrast, oxidation of 18:3n-3 was unaffected by dietary CPO in hepatocytes and reduced by high levels of dietary CPO in enterocytes. The results of this study suggest that CPO can be used at least to partially replace FO in diets for rainbow trout in terms of permitting similar growth and feed conversion, and having no major detrimental effects on lipid and fatty acid metabolism, although flesh fatty acid compositions are significantly affected at an inclusion level above 50%, with n-3HUFA reduced by up to 40%. [source]

    Efficacy of various lipid supplements in formulated pellet diets for juvenile Scylla serrata

    Unniyampurath Unnikrishnan
    Abstract Efficacy of sunflower oil (diet SF) and soybean oil (diet SB) alone and in combination with cod liver oil (diets M1-2.80:1.40:1.40, M2-2.80:2.24:0.56 and M3-2.80:0.56:2.24; cod liver oil:sunflower oil:soybean oil) as lipid supplements (5.6%) in formulated diets (crude fat ,9.79%) for juvenile Scylla serrata (weight=0.28±0.07 g, carapace width=9.7±0.1 mm) were compared with diet CL, containing cod liver oil alone as the lipid supplement (6 diets × 24 crabs stocked individually, randomized block design). Growth performance, nutrient (protein and lipid) intake and gain of crabs fed M1, M2 and M3 were higher (P,0.05) than the crabs fed SF and SB, but were not significantly different (P,0.05) from crabs fed CL. Dietary fatty acids (FAs) are found to influence the FA profile of test crabs. Higher tissue levels of 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9 and 18:1n-7 reflected the essential FA deficiency in crabs fed diets supplemented only with vegetable oils. Results confirmed that S. serrata could utilize vegetable oil supplements in the formulated diets as a partial replacement (50%) of cod liver oil without compromising growth and survival. Partial substitution of marine fish oil with suitable vegetable oils can reduce the feed cost considerably, in the context of rising fish oil prices. [source]

    Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Dentex dentex fed on different macronutrient combinations

    Amalia Pérez-Jiménez
    Abstract Determining an adequate macronutrient balance is essential to guarantee the production success. As protein is the limiting component for fish food, the utilization of lipids or carbohydrates as partial substitutes of this nutrient is a challenge to improve its use. In order to get an approximation of the maximum levels of utilization for carbohydrates and/or lipids and determine the most adequate macronutrient to partly replace protein as the main energy source of diets for dentex (91.7 ± 1.4 g mean weight), four experimental diets with different protein:lipid:carbohydrate percentages (43/16/28, 43/24/4, 38/19/28 and 38/24/13) were tested for 13 weeks. The results indicated the possibility of using 38% of dietary protein without affecting growth performance, under the experimental conditions. There were no differences among the four diets either in most of the nutritive utilization indicators or in the body composition and haematological parameters. The influence of dietary composition was only observed in the feed intake, being higher with more dietary carbohydrates, and the hepatosomatic index and protein efficiency ratio, showing more elevated values in diets with a higher lipid level. The dentex capacity of using both carbohydrates and lipids efficiently to obtain the necessary energy for its correct growth, as well as to compensate the energetic ,vacuum' caused by the dietary protein reduction, under the assayed conditions, was confirmed. [source]

    Growth performance of weaning red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) fed with Macrocystis pyrifera plantlets and Porphyra columbina compared with a formulated diet

    Jorge Hernández
    Abstract A feeding experiment was carried out to evaluate two natural diets versus a formulated feed on the performance of weaning red abalone Haliotis rufescens. Four treatment diets were then investigated: a formulated diet; plantlets from culture Macrocystis pyrifera, Porphyra columbina from natural beds; and a mixed diet consisting of a blend of fresh P. columbina together with the formulated diet. This study was performed in a shallow aquaculture system with a horizontal water flow. After 90 days, significant differences were observed between treatments. The highest growth was obtained with Porphyra (3.3 mm month,1), followed by the mixed diet (2.6 mm month,1), then Macrocystis (2.1 mm month,1) and lastly the formulated diet (1.4 mm month,1). Moreover, after the diets were tested for stability and remnant nutrients after a 12-h water immersion, a positive trend appeared to be related to the protein/energy (P:E). It is concluded that fronds of P. columbina resulted in the best diet for weaning H. rufescens under horizontal water flow systems, even if apparently the water stability of the formulated diet had a negative impact on abalone performance, particularly due to a poor nutrient retention capacity. Therefore, formulated diets should be improved before being recommended for weaning red abalone. [source]

    Growth performance, survival and maturation of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in an inland CRS with no water reposition

    Abundio González-González
    Abstract Closed recirculation systems (CRS) present an alternative for providing organisms to the aquaculture. A CRS with zero water exchange was used in the present study; the CRS consisted of a culture and maturation facility, biofilter system and reservoirs tanks. During two consecutive trials, the CRS efficiency was evaluated by assessing the growth, survival and maturation of juveniles into adults Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). Throughout the study, water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, NH3, NO2 and NO3) and ion concentration were monitored. Most parameters showed fluctuations without significant differences. However, a decrease in pH was observed during the maturation phase, and an increase in phosphorus was detected, in both the trials, compared with that in initial seawater. Growth and survival for juvenile and pre-adult shrimps presented similar variations without significant differences. Female gonadal maturation and spawning rate were not significantly different between trials. Unfortunately, shrimp eggs underwent lysis 6 h after spawning. These results show that the growth, survival and maturation obtained under CRS conditions are reproducible, and suggest the possibility of using these systems for biosecure shrimp culture, protected against eventual diseases outbreaks. The results of this study also suggest the importance of future studies addressing ion concentration changes in a CRS with zero water exchange. [source]

    Effect of high dietary starch levels on the growth performance, blood chemistry and body composition of gibel carp (Carassius auratus var. gibelio)

    Qingsong Tan
    Abstract An 8-week growth trial was carried out in a semi-recirculation system to investigate the effect of high dietary starch levels on the growth performance, blood chemistry, starch utilization and body composition of gibel carp (Carassius auratus var. gibelio). Five isonitrogenous and isocarloric experimental diets were formulated to contain different starch levels (24%, 28%, 32%, 36% and 40% respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (24 fish per tank with an average body weight, of 8.5 g) were assigned to each diet. The results showed that dietary carbohydrate levels significantly affected the growth performance, hepatopancreatic lipid content, pyruvate kinase (PK) activity and whole-body lipid content. Growth performance, body crude lipid and plasma glucose concentrations showed a decreasing trend with an increase in dietary starch from 24% to 40%. Pyruvate kinase activities and hepatopancreatic lipid content showed an increasing trend with the dietary starch increasing from 24% to 32%, and then a decreasing trend with the dietary starch increasing from 32% to 40%. No significant difference in the hepatopancreatic hexokinase (HK) activity, plasma triglyceride contents, body crude protein, ash and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents was observed between different treatments. In conclusion, higher dietary starch levels (32,40%) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the growth of gibel carp in the present study. [source]

    Haematological response and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed diets containing folic acid

    Margarida Maria Barros
    Abstract Haematological response and growth performance over 150 days, and resistance to a low-temperature stress of Nile tilapia fed diets with increasing folic acid (FA) levels were evaluated. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with eight FA levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mg kg,1 feed) supplemented in purified diets (32.0% CP and 13 398 kj DE kg,1). One hundred and ninety-two fingerlings were randomly assigned to 32 net cages distributed in eight 1000 L aquaria with a physical and biological filter and a temperature control system (26.0 ± 1.0 °C). For cold-induced stress, fish were transferred to 24 30 L-aquaria with individual biofilters and aeration. The water temperature was gradually reduced until it reached 13 °C. Haematological parameters evaluated before and after cold stress were total erythrocytes and leucocytes count, differential leucocyte, haemoglobin, haematocrit, total plasmatic protein and haematometric indices. Growth performance parameters were mean weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival. Dietary FA supplementation did not influence erythropoiesis under normal temperature conditions; cold stress impaired erythropoiesis, causing hypochromic microcytic anaemia and leucopoiesis, and also neutrophilia. Growth performance is influenced by folate and supplementation between 0.5 and 1.0 mg FA kg,1 diet, which makes up for nutritional demands, guaranteeing production and health under appropriate temperature conditions. [source]

    Growth efficiency, body composition, survival and haematological changes in great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juveniles fed diets supplemented with different levels of Ergosan

    Mohammad Ali Jalali
    Abstract Growth performance, carcass quality, survival and haematological responses were determined when Huso huso juvenile (41.7±1.8 g) fed diets containing Ergosan (an algal product) at 0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 g kg,1 for 60 days. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish at 10-day intervals (1,10, 20,30 and 40,50 with non-supplemented diets and 10,20, 30,40 and 50,60 with supplemented diets). Results showed that fish fed diets containing Ergosan had significantly higher growth than the control group (P<0.05). Survival was not different among all dietary treatments (P>0.05). Food conversion ratio in the fish fed a diet containing 4.0 and 6.0 g kg,1 Ergosan was significantly better than the other treatments (P<0.05), whereas protein efficiency ratio was not different between experimental diets. Lymphocyte count in the fish fed diets containing Ergosan was higher than the other treatments. Haematocrit, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, number of erythrocytes, total leucocytes, monocyte, eosinophil, myelocyte, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration were not different between treatments. Neutrophil count in the control group was higher than the fish fed supplemented diets. Furthermore, whole body lipid, moisture and fibre were not different among dietary treatments (P>0.05) but body protein in the fish fed a diet containing Ergosan at the level of 2.0 and 4.0 g kg,1 was higher than the other treatments. Whole body ash content was higher in the control group. It was concluded that dietary administration of Ergosan can influence some growth and haematological parameters in great sturgeon, H. huso juveniles. [source]

    Growth performance of mixed sex, hormonally sex reversed and progeny of YY male tilapia of the GIFT strain, Oreochromis niloticus

    Norhidayat Kamaruzzaman
    Abstract The growth performance of three experimental groups consisting of mixed sex fish (control), hormone-treated fish and progeny of YY male tilapia, all originated from the genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain was evaluated. Masculinization of sexually undifferentiated fry was achieved by providing a supplement of 5 mg of 17-,-methyltestosterone per kg of feed over a period of 21 days (after sac absorption). Both mixed sex and progeny of YY male groups were fed a standard commercial ration. Mixed sex fish did not deviate significantly (P>0.05) from the 1:1 male to female ratio. Percentages of male averaged 75% in hormone-treated fish and 95% in YY male group over the sampling periods and at final harvest. The effect of sex on weight and length was statistically significant (P<0.001). The model used to analyse weight and length included experimental group and sex in each culture period as the fixed effects, and replicate cages as the random effect. Over the culture period of 141 days, there were no statistical differences (P>0.05) in body weight and length between mixed sex, hormonally treated and progeny of YY males. There were also no significant differences in level of variability in harvest weight between three groups of fish when the data were classified into five categories (=<100, 100 to <150, 150 to <200, 200 to <250 and ,250 g). It is concluded that monosex culture of all male tilapia would be of no advantage over mixed sex culture for the GIFT strain under conditions of cages suspended in earthen ponds. [source]

    Growth performance and metabolic utilization of diets with different protein:carbohydrate ratios by white sea bream (Diplodus sargus, L.) juveniles

    R Sá
    First page of article [source]

    Comparative growth performance of two Nile tilapia (Chitralada and Red-Stirling), their crosses and the Israeli tetra hybrid ND-56

    Angela Aparecida Moreira
    Abstract Growth performance of two Oreochromis niloticus strains, Chitralada and Red-Stirling, their reciprocal crossbred and the Israeli tetra-hybrid ND-56 were assessed in net cages under on-farming conditions. Throughout 268 days of grow-out, the strains were weighed monthly and mortality, feed consumption and water quality were recorded. Ten rigid net cages (1.5 × 1.5 × 1.7 m) immersed in a 10 ha reservoir were linearly arranged near the reservoir outlet following a completely randomized design with two replicates for each treatment (strain). Each cage was stocked with 459 fish (120 fish m,3) and fed twice daily to apparent satiation with a commercial tilapia diet following the recommended feeding program. The final mean weights were higher for Chitralada (557.20 g) and the reciprocal crossbreds (522.95, 496.40 g) than those of Red-Stirling (421.90 g). All treatments outperformed the ND-56 tetra hybrid. Daily growth showed statistical differences between Chitralada (2.04 g) and Red-Stirling (1.52 g) but they were statistically the same when compared with the reciprocal crossbreds (1.90, 1.80 g). The relative growth ratios showed the same trend observed in the results for daily growth. The mean survival rate was 98%. The overall growth rate showed that crossbred performed as well as the parental lines. All crossbred progeny presented red colouration with variable pattern of black marks corroborating the dominant inheritance of the red trait in Red-Stirling strain. [source]

    Formulation of low phosphorus loading diets for carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    P Jahan
    Abstract This study focuses on reducing total phosphorus loading (T-P) from carp culture through improved feed formulation. Since phosphorus (P) contained in fish meal (FM) mainly in the form of tricalcium phosphate is not available to carp, which lack a stomach, the reduction of FM from their diets is effective for lowering T-P. Thus in this experiment, six diets (crude protein < 35%, digestible energy > 3.5 kcal g,1) were designed by substituting FM (10%,25%) with alternate protein ingredients such as poultry feather meal (PFM; 5%,10%), blood meal (BM; 5%,7%) and defatted soybean meal (dSBM; 4%,9%). All diets followed the Kasumigaura ,Feed Standard'. The total dietary P was 1.0%,1.4% and water extractable P available to carp was 0.66%,0.71%, the levels meeting the dietary requirement of carp. A feeding trial was conducted with juvenile carp (4.6 ± 0.7 g) for 12 weeks at a mean water temperature of 23.7°C. The T-P loading from fish fed the different diets was estimated based on absorption and retention of dietary P. Growth performance corresponded to increasing levels of FM inclusion, being highest in the fish fed 25% FM diet; however, the decrease in T-P was achieved at the lower FM levels. The T-P (based on P retention) ranged from 8.9 to 11.7 kg t,1 production, much lower than that from the commercial diets (9.1,26.4 kg t,1 production). These results indicated that the reduction of FM levels in carp diets to 15%,20% through the combined use of PFM, BM and dSBM effectively lowered T-P. Moreover, the formulated diets were also found to be better than commercial diets in lowering the N loading from carp culture. [source]