Growth

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Growth

  • aberrant growth
  • abnormal grain growth
  • abnormal growth
  • above-ground growth
  • aboveground growth
  • accelerated growth
  • active growth
  • adult growth
  • affect growth
  • aggregate growth
  • agricultural growth
  • agricultural productivity growth
  • ald growth
  • algal growth
  • allometric growth
  • anaerobic growth
  • anchorage-independent growth
  • androgen-independent growth
  • anisotropic grain growth
  • anisotropic growth
  • annual growth
  • aphid population growth
  • appositional growth
  • aureu growth
  • bacteria growth
  • bacterial growth
  • basic fibroblast growth
  • best growth
  • biofilm growth
  • biomass growth
  • black hole growth
  • body growth
  • bone growth
  • brain growth
  • brain tumor growth
  • breast cancer growth
  • bubble growth
  • business growth
  • cancer cell growth
  • cancer growth
  • capita income growth
  • carcinoma cell growth
  • cardiac growth
  • cartilage growth
  • catch-up growth
  • cell growth
  • cell population growth
  • cellular growth
  • chain growth
  • chick growth
  • child growth
  • childhood growth
  • china growth
  • clonal growth
  • cluster growth
  • colony growth
  • compensatory growth
  • compromising growth
  • considerable growth
  • consumption growth
  • continued growth
  • continuous growth
  • controlled growth
  • crack growth
  • crop growth
  • crystal growth
  • crystalline growth
  • culture growth
  • damage growth
  • decreased growth
  • demand growth
  • dendrite growth
  • dendritic growth
  • density-dependent growth
  • diameter growth
  • differential growth
  • diffusion growth
  • diffusion-controlled growth
  • dramatic growth
  • early growth
  • early seedling growth
  • earning growth
  • economic growth
  • efficient growth
  • embryo growth
  • embryonic growth
  • employment growth
  • endochondral bone growth
  • endogenous growth
  • endothelial cell growth
  • endothelial growth
  • enhanced growth
  • epidermal growth
  • epitaxial growth
  • epitaxy growth
  • epithelial cell growth
  • epithelial growth
  • expenditure growth
  • explosive growth
  • exponential growth
  • export growth
  • export-led growth
  • facial growth
  • facial hair growth
  • factor productivity growth
  • family growth
  • farm growth
  • fast growth
  • faster growth
  • fastest growth
  • fatigue crack growth
  • fault growth
  • feather growth
  • fetal growth
  • fibril growth
  • fibroblast growth
  • filamentous growth
  • film growth
  • fine root growth
  • firm growth
  • fish growth
  • foetal growth
  • follicle growth
  • follicular growth
  • forest growth
  • fracture growth
  • fruit growth
  • fungal growth
  • future growth
  • gdp growth
  • glioma growth
  • global growth
  • gonad growth
  • gonadal growth
  • good growth
  • grain growth
  • grass growth
  • greater growth
  • hair growth
  • head growth
  • height growth
  • hepatocyte growth
  • hepatoma cell growth
  • heterotrophic growth
  • high growth
  • highest growth
  • hole growth
  • homoepitaxial growth
  • host growth
  • human growth
  • human population growth
  • hvpe growth
  • hyphal growth
  • hypocotyl growth
  • ice growth
  • impaired growth
  • improved growth
  • income growth
  • increase growth
  • increased growth
  • independent growth
  • individual growth
  • infant growth
  • infiltrative growth
  • influence growth
  • inhibited growth
  • initial growth
  • insulin-like growth
  • international growth
  • intracellular growth
  • intrauterine growth
  • invasive growth
  • job growth
  • juvenile growth
  • keratinocyte growth
  • labor productivity growth
  • larval growth
  • lateral epitaxial growth
  • lateral growth
  • layer growth
  • layer-by-layer growth
  • leaf growth
  • length growth
  • lesion growth
  • limited growth
  • linear growth
  • liver growth
  • logistic growth
  • long-run economic growth
  • long-run growth
  • long-term growth
  • longitudinal growth
  • low growth
  • low temperature growth
  • lower growth
  • lung growth
  • malignant growth
  • market growth
  • mass growth
  • maximal growth
  • maximum growth
  • mbe growth
  • melanoma cell growth
  • melanoma growth
  • metastatic growth
  • microbial growth
  • microorganism growth
  • mineral growth
  • monetary growth
  • money growth
  • mould growth
  • movpe growth
  • muscle growth
  • mycelial growth
  • mycelium growth
  • myeloma growth
  • nanowire growth
  • natural growth
  • negative growth
  • neoplastic growth
  • nerve growth
  • nestling growth
  • neurite growth
  • neuronal growth
  • new growth
  • normal cell growth
  • normal growth
  • old growth
  • oocyte growth
  • optimal growth
  • optimum growth
  • organ growth
  • oriented growth
  • osteoblast growth
  • otolith growth
  • output growth
  • own growth
  • parasite growth
  • particle growth
  • pathogen growth
  • patterned growth
  • personal growth
  • photosynthetic growth
  • physical growth
  • phytoplankton growth
  • placental growth
  • plant growth
  • plaque growth
  • pollen tube growth
  • polymer growth
  • poor growth
  • poorer growth
  • population growth
  • positive growth
  • postnatal growth
  • posttraumatic growth
  • potential growth
  • preferential growth
  • prenatal growth
  • primary growth
  • primary tumor growth
  • pro-poor growth
  • production growth
  • productivity growth
  • professional growth
  • progressive growth
  • prostate cancer cell growth
  • prostate cancer growth
  • prostate growth
  • protein crystal growth
  • psychological growth
  • radial growth
  • rapid economic growth
  • rapid growth
  • rapid population growth
  • real gdp growth
  • recent growth
  • reduced growth
  • regional economic growth
  • regional growth
  • relative growth
  • remarkable growth
  • reproductive growth
  • respiratory growth
  • retarded growth
  • revenue growth
  • rhizome growth
  • root growth
  • sales growth
  • saprotrophic growth
  • scale growth
  • seasonal growth
  • second growth
  • secondary growth
  • sector growth
  • seedling growth
  • selective growth
  • selective-area growth
  • shell growth
  • shoot growth
  • short-term growth
  • shrimp growth
  • significant growth
  • similar growth
  • simultaneous growth
  • single crystal growth
  • situ growth
  • skeletal growth
  • skeletal muscle growth
  • slow crack growth
  • slow growth
  • slower growth
  • somatic growth
  • specific growth
  • sphagnum growth
  • spiritual growth
  • spontaneous growth
  • spring growth
  • stable growth
  • steady growth
  • stem growth
  • stimulated growth
  • strong growth
  • stunted growth
  • subcritical crack growth
  • subsequent growth
  • substantial growth
  • support cell growth
  • support growth
  • supporting growth
  • sustainable economic growth
  • sustainable growth
  • sustained growth
  • temperature growth
  • testicular growth
  • tip growth
  • tissue growth
  • total factor productivity growth
  • transforming growth
  • transplant growth
  • tree growth
  • tremendous growth
  • tube growth
  • tumor cell growth
  • tumor growth
  • tumour cell growth
  • tumour growth
  • two-dimensional growth
  • urban growth
  • vascular endothelial growth
  • vascular growth
  • vegetation growth
  • vegetative growth
  • vertical growth
  • vessel growth
  • vitro growth
  • vivo growth
  • vivo tumor growth
  • volume growth
  • wage growth
  • weight growth
  • year growth
  • yeast growth

  • Terms modified by Growth

  • growth ability
  • growth acceleration
  • growth activity
  • growth advantage
  • growth analysis
  • growth and development
  • growth and nutrition
  • growth anomaly
  • growth approach
  • growth area
  • growth arrest
  • growth behavior
  • growth behaviour
  • growth capacity
  • growth cessation
  • growth chamber
  • growth chamber experiment
  • growth change
  • growth characteristic
  • growth chart
  • growth coefficient
  • growth compensation
  • growth component
  • growth condition
  • growth conditions.
  • growth cone
  • growth cone collapse
  • growth cone formation
  • growth cone morphology
  • growth cone turning
  • growth control
  • growth cost
  • growth curve
  • growth curve analysis
  • growth curve modeling
  • growth cycle
  • growth data
  • growth decline
  • growth decreased
  • growth defect
  • growth deficiency
  • growth delay
  • growth demand
  • growth difference
  • growth direction
  • growth disturbance
  • growth dynamics
  • growth effect
  • growth effects
  • growth efficiency
  • growth enhancement
  • growth environment
  • growth equation
  • growth estimate
  • growth experience
  • growth experiment
  • growth factor
  • growth factor activity
  • growth factor alpha
  • growth factor beta
  • growth factor binding
  • growth factor binding protein
  • growth factor delivery
  • growth factor deprivation
  • growth factor expression
  • growth factor family
  • growth factor gene expression
  • growth factor i
  • growth factor ii
  • growth factor level
  • growth factor pathway
  • growth factor production
  • growth factor receptor
  • growth factor receptor expression
  • growth factor receptor gene
  • growth factor receptor inhibitor
  • growth factor receptor mutation
  • growth factor receptor pathway
  • growth factor receptor signaling
  • growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase
  • growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor
  • growth factor release
  • growth factor secretion
  • growth factor signal
  • growth factor signaling
  • growth factor signaling pathway
  • growth factor stimulation
  • growth factor system
  • growth factor therapy
  • growth factor treatment
  • growth factor-i
  • growth factor-i receptor
  • growth factor-like domain
  • growth factor-like growth factor
  • growth failure
  • growth forecast
  • growth form
  • growth fraction
  • growth front
  • growth function
  • growth habit
  • growth history
  • growth hormone
  • growth hormone deficiency
  • growth hormone level
  • growth hormone receptor
  • growth hormone replacement
  • growth hormone secretagogue receptor
  • growth hormone secretion
  • growth hormone therapy
  • growth hormone treatment
  • growth hypothesis
  • growth impairment
  • growth increase
  • growth increment
  • growth index
  • growth indicator
  • growth inhibition
  • growth inhibition activity
  • growth inhibitor
  • growth inhibitory activity
  • growth inhibitory effect
  • growth inhibitory effects
  • growth inhibitory molecule
  • growth irradiance
  • growth kinetic parameter
  • growth kinetics
  • growth law
  • growth lead
  • growth limit
  • growth limitation
  • growth measure
  • growth measurement
  • growth mechanism
  • growth media
  • growth medium
  • growth method
  • growth methods
  • growth mixture modeling
  • growth mode
  • growth model
  • growth modeling
  • growth models
  • growth monitoring
  • growth morphology
  • growth only
  • growth opportunity
  • growth option
  • growth option value
  • growth orientation
  • growth pact
  • growth parameter
  • growth path
  • growth pattern
  • growth performance
  • growth period
  • growth phase
  • growth phase melanoma
  • growth phenotype
  • growth plasticity
  • growth plate
  • growth plate chondrocyte
  • growth potential
  • growth pressure
  • growth procedure
  • growth process
  • growth profile
  • growth promoter
  • growth promotion
  • growth property
  • growth prospect
  • growth rate
  • growth rate dispersion
  • growth rate increase
  • growth ratio
  • growth reaction
  • growth reduction
  • growth reference
  • growth regime
  • growth regression
  • growth regulation
  • growth regulator
  • growth regulatory activity
  • growth relationships
  • growth release
  • growth requirement
  • growth resistance
  • growth response
  • growth restriction
  • growth retardation
  • growth ring
  • growth season
  • growth sequence
  • growth series
  • growth site
  • growth speed
  • growth stage
  • growth standards
  • growth state
  • growth status
  • growth step
  • growth stimulation
  • growth stimulatory effect
  • growth strategy
  • growth structure
  • growth studies
  • growth study
  • growth substrate
  • growth suppression
  • growth surface
  • growth technique
  • growth temperature
  • growth test
  • growth theory
  • growth time
  • growth trait
  • growth trajectory
  • growth trend
  • growth trial
  • growth trials
  • growth variable
  • growth variation
  • growth velocity
  • growth yield
  • growth zone

  • Selected Abstracts


    STATE PRISON POPULATIONS AND THEIR GROWTH, 1971,1991,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    DAVID F. GREENBERG
    We extend earlier analyses of the factors that explain differences among the U.S. states in imprisonment rates by demonstrating the importance of state culture and political arrangements to the explanation of imprisonment rates, and growth in those rates, for the years 1971,1991. [source]


    THE EFFECT OF COUNTY-LEVEL PRISON POPULATION GROWTH ON CRIME RATES,

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 2 2006
    TOMISLAV V. KOVANDZIC
    Research Summary: Prior macro-level studies examining the impact of prison population growth on crime rates have produced widely varying results. Studies using national-level time series data find large impacts of prison growth on crime, whereas those using state panel data find more modest ones. Critics of the former studies maintain that the estimates are implausibly large, arguing that the effects are instead due to analysts' inability to control for potential confounding factors. Conversely, critics of the latter studies argue that they underestimate the total impacts of imprisonment by failing to account for potential free-riding effects. This study uses panel data for 58 Florida counties for 1980 to 2000 to reexamine the link between prison population growth and crime. Unlike previous studies, we find no evidence that increases in prison population growth covary with decreases in crime rates. Policy Implications: Our findings suggest that Florida policymakers carefully weigh the costs and benefits of their continued reliance on mass incarceration against the potential costs and benefits of alternatives. If the costs of mass incarceration do not return appreciable benefits, i.e., a reduction in crime, it is time to reconsider our approach to crime and punishment. Other research offers evidence of crime prevention programs operating inside the criminal justice system and in communities that hold promise for reducing crime; our findings indicate that policymakers carefully consider these options as a way to achieve their goals. [source]


    RAMPING UP AFRICAN GROWTH: LESSONS FROM FIVE DECADES OF GROWTH EXPERIENCE

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2006
    Benno J. Ndulu
    Since the 1960s economic growth rates have been far lower in sub-Saharan Africa than in other developing regions. This poor performance has resulted primarily from endemic rent-seeking and the over-regulation of markets. To achieve high growth rates, African countries must improve the investment climate by reforming institutions, enhancing infrastructure and protecting property rights. [source]


    ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE: THE FRENCH CASE

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2010
    RAPHAËL FRANCK
    This article provides a test of the secularization hypothesis, which argues that economic growth, industrialization, increased literacy, and low fertility decrease religiosity. It focuses on the elections of the secular politicians who voted in favor of the separation between Church and State in the French Parliament in 1905. If the secularization hypothesis is correct, these secular politicians should have been elected in the most developed areas of France at the turn of the twentieth century. Contrary to the predictions of the secularization hypothesis, we find that the support for secular politicians originated in the rural areas of France. (JEL Z12, D72, N43) [source]


    THE IMPORTANCE OF PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF RURAL CHINA, 1979,1987

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2006
    IAN WILLS
    This is an extended and slightly revised version of an article by Wills and Yang published in Policy, Vol. 9, No. J, Autumn 1993. The article was derived from a paper by Yang, Wang and Wills published in the China Economic Review in 1992. The idea for the empirical study, the analytical model and the procedure for quantifying changes in property rights came from Xiaokai Yang. The study illustrates his ability to apply inframarginal concepts to real problems. [source]


    THE GROWTH IN "UNPAID" WORKING TIME

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 1 2001
    MARK WOODEN
    First page of article [source]


    THE GROWTH OF SOCIAL EXPENDITURE AND POPULATION AGEING

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 4 2000
    JOHN CREEDY
    First page of article [source]


    DO GOVERNMENTS SUPPRESS GROWTH?

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2007
    AND INNOVATION BLOCKING IN A MODEL OF SCHUMPETERIAN GROWTH, INSTITUTIONS, RENT-SEEKING
    This paper argues that some governments adopt growth-reducing policies due to the rational self-interest of the political elites. The model takes a rent-seeking government that can block innovation and incorporates it into a Schumpeterian growth model. The quality of a country's institutions is reflected in the cost of innovation blocking. An increase in the level of innovation-blocking activity will reduce the rate of innovation and therefore reduce growth. The government also faces the possibility of losing power whenever an innovation occurs. We examine the conditions under which a government will choose to block innovation and suppress growth. [source]


    RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF ADDITIVE, DOMINANCE, AND IMPRINTING EFFECTS TO PHENOTYPIC VARIATION IN BODY SIZE AND GROWTH BETWEEN DIVERGENT SELECTION LINES OF MICE

    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2009
    Reinmar Hager
    Epigenetic effects attributed to genomic imprinting are increasingly recognized as an important source of variation in quantitative traits. However, little is known about their relative contribution to phenotypic variation compared to those of additive and dominance effects, and almost nothing about their role in phenotypic evolution. Here we address these questions by investigating the relative contribution of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects of quantitative trait loci (QTL) to variation in "early" and "late" body weight in an intercross of mice selected for divergent adult body weight. We identified 18 loci on 13 chromosomes; additive effects accounted for most of the phenotypic variation throughout development, and imprinting effects were always small. Genetic effects on early weight showed more dominance, less additive, and, surprisingly, less imprinting variation than that of late weight. The predominance of additivity of QTL effects on body weight follows the expectation that additive effects account for the evolutionary divergence between selection lines. We hypothesize that the appearance of more imprinting effects on late body weight may be a consequence of divergent selection on adult body weight, which may have indirectly selected for alleles showing partial imprinting effects due to their associated additive effects, highlighting a potential role of genomic imprinting in the response to selection. [source]


    EVOLUTION OF INTRINSIC GROWTH RATE: METABOLIC COSTS DRIVE TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN GROWTH AND SWIMMING PERFORMANCE IN MENIDIA MENIDIA

    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2006
    Stephen A. Arnott
    Abstract There is strong evidence that genetic capacity for growth evolves toward an optimum rather than an absolute maximum. This implies that fast growth has a cost and that trade-offs occur between growth and other life-history traits, but the fundamental mechanisms are poorly understood. Previous work on the Atlantic silverside fish Menidia menidia has demonstrated a trade-off between growth and swimming performance. We hypothesize that the trade-off derives from the competing metabolic demands associated with growth and swimming activity. We tested this by measuring standard metabolic rate (MSTD), maximum sustainable metabolic rate (MACT) and metabolic scope of laboratory-reared silversides originating from two geographically distinct populations with well-documented differences in genetic capacity for growth. The fast-growth genotype had a significantly greater MSTD than the slow-growth genotype, but a similar MACT when swum to near exhaustion. The scope for activity of the fast-growth genotype was lower than that of the slow-growth genotype. Furthermore, the fast-growth genotype eats larger meals, thereby incurring a greater postprandial oxygen demand. We conclude that a metabolic trade-off occurs between growth and other metabolic demands and that this trade-off provides a general mechanism underlying the evolution of growth rate. [source]


    RAPID GROWTH RESULTS IN INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO PREDATION IN MENIDIA MENIDIA

    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2003
    Stephan B. Munch
    Abstract Several recent studies have demonstrated that rapid growth early in life leads to decreased physiological performance. Nearly all involved experiments over short time periods (<1 day) to control for potentially confounding effects of size. This approach, however, neglects the benefits an individual accrues by growing. The net effect of growth can only be evaluated over a longer interval in which rapidly growing individuals are allowed the time required to attain the expected benefits of large size. We used two populations of Menidia menidia with disparate intrinsic growth rates to address this issue. We compared growth and survivorship among populations subject to predation in mesocosms under ambient light and temperature conditions for a period of up to 30 days to address two questions: Do the growth rates of fish in these populations respond differently to the presence of predators? Is the previously demonstrated survival cost of growth counterbalanced by the benefits of increased size? We found that growth was insensitive to predation risk: neither population appeared to modify growth rates in response to predation levels. Moreover, the fast-growing population suffered significantly higher mortality throughout the trials despite being 40% larger than the slow-growing population at the experiment's end. These results confirm that the costs of rapid growth extend over prolonged intervals and are not ameliorated merely by the attainment of large size. [source]


    GROWTH OF CRUSTOSE LICHENS: A REVIEW

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES A: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2010
    RICHARD ARMSTRONG
    ABSTRACT. Crustose species are the slowest growing of all lichens. Their slow growth and longevity, especially of the yellow-green Rhizocarpon group, has made them important for surface-exposure dating (lichenometry). This review considers various aspects of the growth of crustose lichens revealed by direct measurement including: 1) early growth and development; 2) radial growth rates (RGR, mm yr,1); 3) the growth rate,size curve; and 4) the influence of environmental factors. Many crustose species comprise discrete areolae that contain the algal partner growing on the surface of a non-lichenized fungal hypothallus. Recent data suggest that ,primary' areolae may develop from free-living algal cells on the substratum while ,secondary' areolae develop from zoospores produced within the thallus. In more extreme environments, the RGR of crustose species may be exceptionally slow but considerably faster rates of growth have been recorded under more favourable conditions. The growth curves of crustose lichens with a marginal hypothallus may differ from the ,asymptotic' type of curve recorded in foliose and placodioid species; the latter are characterized by a phase of increasing RGR to a maximum and may be followed by a phase of decreasing growth. The decline in RGR in larger thalli may be attributable to a reduction in the efficiency of translocation of carbohydrate to the thallus margin or to an increased allocation of carbon to support mature ,reproductive' areolae. Crustose species have a low RGR accompanied by a low demand for nutrients and an increased allocation of carbon for stress resistance; therefore enabling colonization of more extreme environments. [source]


    INTRA-REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT GROWTH IN LUXEMBOURG (1994,2005)

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2010
    Olivier Walther
    ABSTRACT. The specialization of city-centres towards more advanced service activities has mostly been studied in the largest city-regions, the case of smaller urban centres being less well documented. In that context, the objective of this article is to analyse the role of sectoral and regional factors in employment growth in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2005. Using statistical data from the Luxembourg General Inspection of Social Security, this contribution distinguishes 12 categories of manufacturing industries and services according to an OECD-Eurostat knowledge-based classification. Five intra-regional areas are distinguished based on morphological and functional criteria in the Luxembourg Metropolitan Area. Using several indexes, this article first analyses the sectoral specialization and geographical concentration of employment. A model of intra-regional employment growth, initially developed by Marimon and Zilibotti and applied at the European level, is then shown to account for 40 per cent of employment growth. An estimation of the contributions of sectoral and geographical factors highlights the primacy of the latter over the former. Finally, the construction of virtual economies confirms the City's overall lower performance as compared to its close periphery. Results underscore a process of functional integration in the Luxembourg metropolitan area: as the core of the city undergoes a specialization process, the urban area benefits from a relocation of activities less sensitive to distance and transaction costs, while the periphery becomes increasingly diversified, notably in the South where traditional industrial activities are being replaced by service activities. These results suggest that the evolution pattern of employment growth in Luxembourg is very similar to that of some larger metropolitan centres, owing to its exceptional financial service activities. [source]


    CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN THE NETHERLANDS: STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT, INNOVATIVENESS AND EFFECTS ON URBAN GROWTH

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Erik Stam
    ABSTRACT. Creativity is central in stimulating economic growth in cities, regions and advanced capitalist economies in general. There is, of course, no one-to-one relation of the number of firms in creative industries to economic growth. Innovation is a key mechanism explaining the relationship of creative industries with economic performance. Based on an empirical study in the Netherlands we explore the effect of creative industries on innovation, and ultimately on employment growth in cities. In the Netherlands the three specific domains of creative industries - arts, media and publishing, and creative business services - make up 9 per cent of the business population. Drawing on survey data we find that firms in creative industries are indeed relatively innovative. Yet substantial differences are found across the three domains: firms in the arts domain are clearly less innovative, most likely due to a different (less market-oriented) dominant ideology. In addition, firms in creative industries located in urban areas are more innovative than their rural counterparts. We go on to analyse how the concentration of creative industries across cities is connected with employment growth. With the exception of the metropolitan city of Amsterdam, we find no measurable spill-over effect from creative industries. The presence of the creative class (in all kinds of industries other than creative ones) appears to be a much stronger driver of employment growth than creative industries. [source]


    COMMENTS ON EDWARD ULLMAN'S "AMENITIES AS A FACTOR IN REGIONAL GROWTH"

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
    SUSAN M. WALCOTT
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    EFFECTS OF FIVE NEW COMPOUNDS ON THE LARVAL GROWTH AND DIGESTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ASIATIC CORN BORER, OSTRINIA FURNACALIS LARVAE

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2003
    Jia He
    Abstract Five new compounds were tested on the growth and antifeeding activity compared with toosendanin against fifth instar larvae Ostrinia furnacalis. The activities of two proteases, a weak alkaline trypsine-like enzyme and a chymotrypsin-like enzyme, in the midgut of Ostrinia furnacalis larvae were also measured. Experimental results suggest that when incorporated into an artificial diet at the concentration of 500mg/kg, the antifeeding activities of toosendanin, C19, C23, C24, C26, C28 were 51.16%, 57.61%, 4.28%, 51.08%, 36.73% and 51.67%, respectively, C19, C24, C28 had no significant difference with toosendanin. At 20mg/kg, the larval growth were remarkably suppressed by C19, C26, C28, the inhibition of C28 was close to toosendanin in 48 h. The two proteases were activated by toosendanin and C28 while they were inhibited in 48 h but activated in 24 h by C19, C24 and C26. In this paper, the related functions and mechanisms were discussed. [source]


    PRODUCTIVE GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 4 2009
    Andreas Irmen
    Abstract We provide a comprehensive survey of the recent literature on the link between productive government expenditure and economic growth. We show that an understanding of the core results and the ensuing contributions can be gained from the study of their respective Euler equations. We argue that the existing literature incorporates many relevant aspects; however, policy recommendations tend to hinge on several knife-edge assumptions. Therefore, future research ought to focus more on idea-based endogenous growth models to check the robustness of policy recommendations. Moreover, the inclusion of hitherto unexplored types of government expenditure, e.g. on the ,rule of law', would be desirable. [source]


    A SURVEY OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LITERATURE OF FINANCE AND GROWTH

    JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC SURVEYS, Issue 3 2008
    James B. Ang
    Abstract This paper provides a survey of the recent progress in the literature of financial development and economic growth. The survey highlights that most empirical studies focus on either testing the role of financial development in stimulating economic growth or examining the direction of causality between these two variables. Although the positive role of finance on growth has become a stylized fact, there are some methodological reservations about the results from these empirical studies. Several key issues unresolved in the literature are highlighted. The paper also points to several directions for future research. [source]


    EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FEEDING ON DIGESTIVE EFFICIENCY, GROWTH AND QUALITIES OF MUSCLE AND OOCYTE OF MATURING ATLANTIC MACKEREL (SCOMBER SCOMBRUS L.)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2007
    KRISNA RUNGRUANGSAK-TORRISSEN
    ABSTRACT Maturing Atlantic mackerel with and without artificial feeding, kept in sea pens (September to May), showed differences in digestive efficiency (protease activity ratio of trypsin to chymotrypsin), muscle growth (concentrations of RNA, protein, RNA/protein ratio and free amino acids [FAA]) and oocyte quality (trypsin-like specific activity, and concentrations of RNA, RNA/protein ratio and FAA). The artificially fed mackerel had higher body weights (1.7 times) but with less white muscle protein concentration (0.5 time), compared to the control group. Both groups showed higher levels of capacity for protein synthesis in the oocytes than in the white muscle, but it was about two times higher in the artificially fed fish whereas about four times higher in the control group. This indicated that, during maturation, development of oocytes and muscle for growth occurred concurrently in higher growth mackerel, while development of oocytes dominated in slower growth fish. A higher trypsin-like specific activity with higher FAA levels in the oocytes from females fed with an artificial diet, compared to the control group, suggested differences in development and quality between the gametes of the fish with different feedings. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The work illustrates differences in digestive efficiency and the quality of growth performance (growth and protein metabolism in muscle and oocytes) in fish with different feedings. The use of various methods for evaluating digestive efficiency and the quality of fish growth performance could provide reasonable information for some important biological differences between fish groups, especially when the number of samples are low. It is more advantageous to apply different methods simultaneously than using growth parameter alone in order to study for precise evaluation of the quality of fish growth performance. The methods are very practical for studying food utilization and growth quality of fish in different environmental conditions and with different behaviors in aquaculture as well as in natural ecosystem where food consumption rate and feeding regime cannot be under control. [source]


    CARBON SOURCES AND THEIR EFFECT ON GROWTH, ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY BRETTANOMYCES BRUXELLENSIS IN BATCH CULTURE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2007
    M.G. AGUILAR USCANGA
    ABSTRACT The influence of available low-cost carbohydrates as carbon sources on Brettanomyces bruxellensis growth, acetic acid and ethanol production was studied in order to ascertain the viability of this yeast to eventually become an industrial acetic acid producer. Six different raw materials were included as carbon sources (glucose, sugarcane molasses, refined cane sugar, pineapple, sugarcane and beet juices). B. bruxellensis develops in a complex culture medium like plant juices and sugarcane molasses better than in a medium with a simple carbohydrate such as glucose. The maximum acid acetic yield (0.24 g/g) and productivity (0.14 g/L/h) were attained in tests carried out with sugarcane molasses containing 60 g/L sucrose. The strain produced low levels of ethanol in a refined sugarcane medium, but was able to produce a substantial quantity of acetic acid (13 g/L). [source]


    OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR THE GROWTH AND POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY HYPSIZIGUS MARMOREUS IN SUBMERGED CULTURE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 4 2009
    PING WANG
    ABSTRACTS In submerged cultivation, many nutrient variables and environmental conditions have great influence on the growth and polysaccharide production by Hypsizigus marmoreus. Plackett,Burman design was used to determine the important nutrient factors. A central composite experimental design and surface response methodology were employed to optimize the factor levels. Prediction models for dry cell weight (DCW), polysaccharide outside cells (EPS) and polysaccharide inside cells (IPS) under important nutrient conditions were developed by multiple regression analysis and verified. By solving the equations, the optimal nutrient conditions for highest EPS production (9.62 g/L) were obtained at 6.77 g cornstarch/L, 36.57 g glucose/L, 3.5 g MgSO4/L and 6.14 g bean cake powder/L, under which DCW and IPS were 16.2 g/L and 1.46 g/L, close to the highest value under their corresponding optimal conditions. Optimal environmental conditions were obtained at 10% inoculation dose, 45 mL medium in a 250 mL flask, pH 6.5, 25C and 200 rpm according to the results of single-factor experiment design. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Hypsizigus marmoreus polysaccharides have many functional properties, including antitumor, antifungal and antiproliferative activities, and free-radical scavenging. Liquid cultivation could produce a higher yield of polysaccharides and more flexible sequential processing methods of H. marmoreus, compared with traditional solid-state cultivation. However, the cell growth and production of polysaccharides would be influenced by many factors, including nutrient conditions and environmental conditions in the liquid cultivation of H. marmoreus. Keeping the conditions at optimal levels can maximize the yield of polysaccharides. The study not only found out the optimal nutrient conditions and environmental conditions for highest cell growth and yield of polysaccharides, but also developed prediction models for these parameters with important nutrient variables. Yield of polysaccharide inside of cells was also studied as well as polysaccharides outside of cells and cell growth. The results provide essential information for production of H. marmoreus polysaccharides by liquid culture. [source]


    GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HISTAMINE-FORMING BACTERIA OF JACK MACKEREL (TRACHURUS SYMMETRICUS)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2003
    ALINA BERMEJO
    ABSTRACT Consumption of fish with high histamine poses health hazards. The isolation, identification and viable counts of the histamine-forming bacteria from jack mackerel in batch cultures in trypticase soy broth with 2 % histidine at 25, 15 and 5C were performed. Proteus vulgaris, Aeromonas hydrophila and Photobacterium damsela were the most histamine producing population. The community had a maximal specific growth rate (,max) of 0.304, 0.217 and 0.048 h,1 at 25, 15 and 5C, respectively. Mulchandani's model, with an exponential value of 5.21, predicted bacterial growth. Histamine production was proportional to growth rate; proportionality coefficients were 1.987, 0.436 and 1.439 and the community's maximal spefic rates for histamine production were 0.604, 0.095 and 0.068 [g histamine (g dry cells h),1] af 25, 15 and SC, respectively. Lesser histamine production at 15C needs further investigation in whole fish, as it is a relevant result forfish handling. [source]


    REDUCTION IN MICROBIAL GROWTH AND IMPROVEMENT OF STORAGE QUALITY IN FRESH-CUT PINEAPPLE AFTER METHYL JASMONATE TREATMENT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2005
    MAGALY MARTÍNEZ-FERRER
    ABSTRACT Maintaining the quality of a fresh-cut fruit or vegetable product is a major concern and a priority in the development and in the production of fresh-cut produce products of the industry. The industry has been searching for alternative methods to protect fresh-cut produce from decay and to prolong shelf life. The objective of this research is to enhance the quality and the shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple by exposure to methyl jasmonate (MJ). The exposure of the diced pineapple to a MJ emulsion at a concentration of 10,4 M for 5 min in a sealed container decreased microbiological growth by 3 logs after 12 days of storage at 7C, compared with the control pineapple. Methyl jasmonate as vapor or as dip did not affect the firmness or the color of the fruit. Methyl jasmonate may be a practical treatment to ensure the safety and the quality of fresh-cut pineapple and other fruits and vegetables. [source]


    EFFECT OF BIFIDOBACTERIUM BREVE ON THE GROWTH OF ENTEROBACTER SAKAZAKII IN REHYDRATED INFANT MILK FORMULA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2008
    T.M. OSAILI
    ABSTRACT The effect of Bifidobacterium breve on the survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in rehydrated infant milk formula stored at 4,45C was studied. A commercial culture of B. breve and a five-strain cocktail E. sakazakii were mixed with rehydrated formula and stored up to 8 h. The populations of B. breve and E. sakazakii at each storage time/temperature were determined. There was a two-way interactive effect between B. breve numbers and temperature on the number of E. sakazakii in the rehydrated formula at 3,8 h of storage. E. sakazakii did not grow in the rehydrated formula at 4C. At 12 and 20C, the numbers of E. sakazakii in the presence of B. breve were lower than those in the formula without B. breve at 8 h of storage, and at 45C, when the bacteria were combined, a similar result was obtained at 6- and 8-h storage. The presence of B. breve in the formula appeared to enhance the growth of E. sakazakii at 37C in the rehydrated formula stored at 2,8 h. Other more competitive inhibitory probiotic cultures would be more appropriate to control E. sakazakii growth in unrefrigerated rehydrated milk-based formula. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Results obtained showed that the probiotic organisms Bifidobacterium breve did not reduce Enterobacter sakazakii levels in rehydrated infant formula if held >2 h at >30C. At 37C, B. breve stimulated the growth of the pathogen after 2 h. Choice of probiotic bacteria for inclusion in these products to improve infant gut microflora should be based on their neutral or negative influence on E. sakazakii survival/growth to reduce the risk to health associated with the contamination of these products during manufacture. [source]


    EFFECTS OF BIFIDOCIN B AND LACTOCOCCIN R ON THE GROWTH OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND BACILLUS CEREUS ON STERILE CHICKEN BREAST

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2007
    ZELIHA YILDIRIM
    ABSTRACT In the study, the efficacies of bifidocin B and lactococcin R produced by Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris R to control Listeria monocytogenes or Bacillus cereus in irradiated raw chicken breast during storage at 5,8C for 28 days or at 22,25C for 24 h were determined. Each irradiated raw chicken breast was inoculated with 106 cfu/g L. monocytogenes or B. cereus. It was found that both bacteriocins were more effective against L. monocytogenes or B. cereus at 5,8C than at 22,25C, and that lactococcin R was more inhibitory than bifidocin B. Challenge study analysis demonstrated that incorporation of bifidocin B or lactococcin R at a level of 1,600 or 3,200 AU/g could effectively inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes or B. cereus for 3,4 weeks at 5,8C or 6,12 h at 22,25C. [source]


    PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYSOSTAPHIN FROM STAPHYLOCOCCUS SIMULANS AGAINST GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IN MILK AND SOME OTHER FOOD PRODUCTS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2007
    PIOTR SZWEDA
    ABSTRACT The effect of lysostaphin from Staphylococcus simulans expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 strain on Staphylococcus aureus used for inoculation of milk, ground pork and mayonnaise salad was investigated. The populations of this pathogen in ultrahigh-temperature milk preserved at 4C by lysostaphin added up to concentrations of 1.5 or 3.0 µg/mL were reduced by 0.73 and 0.92 log(cfu/mL) in control samples without enzyme addition. The protective influence of lysostaphin was diminished in case of milk storage (20C) prolonged up to 24 h. Furthermore, a final reduction level by 0.92 log(cfu/mL) was achieved after 24 h of pork storage. The smaller and more dependent on enzyme concentration inactivation of S. aureus was observed in the case of the mayonnaise salad, and it led to the conclusion that some food components or proteolytic enzymes originating from other bacteria caused lysostaphin inactivation. [source]


    EFFECT OF STORAGE TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON QUESO BLANCO SLICES,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2006
    GAYLEN A. UHLICH
    ABSTRACT A five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes (104 cfu/mL) was inoculated onto individual vacuum-packaged slices (ca. 50 g each) of a commercial, Hispanic-style cheese, that being Queso Blanco. Growth was determined at appropriate intervals during storage at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25C. In general, as the incubation temperature increased, a shorter lag phase duration (LPD) and a faster growth rate (GR) were observed. The LPD values at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25C were 65.3, 19.9, 2.1, 8.4 and 11.4 h, respectively. The GR values were 0.011, 0.036, 0.061, 0.090 and 0.099 log cfu/h at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25C, respectively. There were no statistical differences in LPD at 10, 15, 20 and 25C. However, the LPD during growth at 5C was statistically (P , 0.05) longer than at all other temperatures. The GR values at 20 and 25C were not significantly different from each other, whereas the GR values at 5, 10 and 15C were significantly different from each other as well as from the GR at 20 and 25C (P , 0.05). The maximum population density (MPD) showed relatively little variation over the range of storage temperatures tested, with an average of 8.38 log cfu/g (SD = 0.33). The results of this study indicate that not even the lowest trial temperature of 5C prevented growth over time of the inoculated L. monocytogenes on this sliced product, and that proper storage and handling procedures are required to prevent the bacterium from contaminating the product and/or to control its growth. [source]


    EFFECT OF SPICES ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM DT 104 IN GROUND BEEF STORED AT 4 AND 8C

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2006
    MILAGROS UHART
    ABSTRACT Few studies have addressed the use of spices against pathogens associated with meat. The effects of garlic, ginger and turmeric were evaluated against Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 that were inoculated either in spice paste or in buffered peptone water (BPW) or in heat-treated ground beef and stored at 4 and 8C for 10 days. Data from the spice pastes study showed a decrease in Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 counts, and the greatest reduction (3.39 log) was observed in garlic paste stored at 4C. Garlic in BPW data showed a reduction of 1.5 and 1.0 log in Salmonella Typhimurium counts at 4 and 8C, respectively. Ground beef stored at 4C showed no growth or a slight reduction in growth in samples with spice, while all samples at 8C showed an increase in Salmonella Typhimurium counts. Results show that the spices inhibit or inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 when they are in direct contact. However, when spices are added to a complex food system such as ground beef, the inhibitory activity of these spices considerably decreases. [source]


    ACID PH PRODUCED BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA PREVENT THE GROWTH OF BACILLUS CEREUS IN BOZA, A TRADITIONAL FERMENTED TURKISH BEVERAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2005
    KIYMET GÜVEN
    ABSTRACT The growth and survival of Bacillus cereus, a known pathogen commonly found in cereals, during lactic acid fermentation of boza, a traditional Turkish cereal beverage, was studied. In the boza base inoculated with both the starter culture and B. cereus, the acidity developed to pH 2.6 and 0.8% titratable acidity after 72 h; the growth of B. cereus was reduced from 3.9 log cfu/mL to 1 log cfu/mL within 72 h. The control boza base to which starter was not added had a pH of 3, titratable acidity of 0.8%. The B. cereus in this boza base to which no starter culture was added dropped to 1 log cfu/mL after 72 h. No strains of lactic acid bacteria were found to produce bacteriocins antagonistic to B. cereus. Low pH and acidity were found to be the major factors inhibiting growth of B. cereus in boza. [source]


    POTENTIAL FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH ON THE FRESH CUT TROPICAL SQUASH, CALABAZA (CURCUBITA MOSCHATA), DURING STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2003
    REBECCA MONTVILLE
    ABSTRACT Calabaza (Curcubita moschata) is a tropical squash which is gaining popularity as a specialty crop for agricultural producers in the Northeast United States. It is commonly marketed by being cut in half, wrapped in plastic and may be held unrefrigerated until sold. This method of display is essential for consumer acceptance, yet unrefrigerated storage means that some potential for food safety problems exists. Experiments were conducted to determine the potential for bacterial growth during storage of cut calabaza. Freshly cut calabaza contained between 1.3 and 4.7 log10CFU/g aerobic mesophiles. By 10 h, duplicate counts from some samples exceeded 4 log10 CFU/g. After 24 h of room temperature storage, total aerobic plate counts ranged from 5.2 to 7.7 log10 CFU/g. Rapid bacterial growth on cut calabaza stored at room temperature indicates that these products are highly perishable, and may be able to support the growth of pathogenic bacteria, should they be introduced during the slicing process. [source]