Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Groundwater

  • contaminated groundwater
  • rich groundwater
  • saline groundwater
  • shallow groundwater

  • Terms modified by Groundwater

  • groundwater circulation
  • groundwater contamination
  • groundwater depth
  • groundwater extraction
  • groundwater flow
  • groundwater flow model
  • groundwater flow system
  • groundwater fluctuation
  • groundwater level
  • groundwater quality
  • groundwater resource
  • groundwater sample
  • groundwater system
  • groundwater table

  • Selected Abstracts

    The influence of groundwater on surface flow erosion processes during a rainstorm

    D. L. RockwellArticle first published online: 27 MAY 200
    Abstract Surface erosion rates on a disturbed natural soil in a 10 m indoor flume increased by an order of magnitude when a water table developed at a 10 cm depth during simulated rainstorms. Erosion rate increases did not correlate well with surface hydraulic flow conditions, and all significant erosion increases began before the full soil depth was saturated, before the water table reached the soil surface, and before seepage was possible. Groundwater influenced erosion processes primarily by increasing unsaturated pore-water pressures and decreasing soil shear strength in surface rainflow, rather than through the direct entrainment of soil particles by seepage flow. There was no unique morphologic expression of the influence of groundwater during a rainstorm. Subsurface processes influencing surface erosion were detected only by appropriate subsurface instrumentation, which included micropiezometers, tensiometers and time domain reflectometry. Erosion rate increases occurred all along the slope, and were not concentrated at the base of slope due to a seepage zone. Soil depth was crucial to determining surface erosion increase. It is likely that confusing trends in surface flow erosion rates in past studies have occurred due to unrecorded groundwater development or an emphasis on seepage effects. Groundwater must be monitored along hillslopes under all moisture and soil conditions in order to avoid misleading and inconsistent conclusions derived solely from surface flow or seepage data. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Investigation of an onsite wastewater treatment system in sandy soil: Site characterization and fate of anionic and nonionic surfactants

    Allen M. Nielsen
    Abstract This study reports on the fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylate (AE), and alcohol ether sulfate (AES) surfactants in a home septic system near Jacksonville (FL, USA) that has been used since 1976. The drainfield at this site resides in fine sand (<6% silt and clay) with an unsaturated zone that ranges from 0 to 1.3 m. During the wettest times of the year, it is likely that effluent from the septic system passes directly into the groundwater without exposure to an unsaturated zone of soil. Groundwater was collected during two sampling events, representing seasonal high and low groundwater table levels, and analyzed for the surfactants LAS, AES, and AE. During the wet season, the unsaturated zone was approximately 0.01 m beneath the drainfield. During the dry season, the unsaturated zone was about 0.4 m below the drainfield. Alcohol ethoxylate was not detected in any groundwater samples during either sampling. Alcohol ether sulfate was not found in the dry season sampling, but traces of AES had migrated downgradient about 4.7 m horizontally and 1.8 m vertically in the wet season. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate was detected in some dry season samples and had moved downgradient some 11.7 m horizontally and 3.7 m vertically in the wet season. These observations demonstrate that these surfactants were removed to a great extent; otherwise, they would have traveled more than 260 m downgradient, which is the calculated distance that a conservative tracer like bromide would have moved downgradient over the life of the system. The most likely removal mechanisms for these surfactants were biodegradation and sorption. Therefore, this study indicates that LAS, AE, and AES are readily removed from groundwater in soils below septic system drainfields even in situations with minimal unsaturated soil zones. [source]

    Groundwater in Geologic Processes

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2009
    Benjamin J. Rostron
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A simulation of the hydrothermal response to the Chesapeake Bay bolide impact

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 3 2005
    Abstract Groundwater more saline than seawater has been discovered in the tsunami breccia of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Crater. One hypothesis for the origin of this brine is that it may be a liquid residual following steam separation in a hydrothermal system that evolved following the impact. Initial scoping calculations have demonstrated that it is feasible such a residual brine could have remained in the crater for the 35 million years since impact. Numerical simulations have been conducted using the code HYDROTHERM to test whether or not conditions were suitable in the millennia following the impact for the development of a steam phase in the hydrothermal system. Hydraulic and thermal parameters were estimated for the bedrock underlying the crater and the tsunami breccia that fills the crater. Simulations at three different breccia permeabilities suggest that the type of hydrothermal system that might have developed would have been very sensitive to the permeability. A relatively low breccia permeability (1 × 10,16 m2) results in a system partitioned into a shallow water phase and a deeper superheated steam phase. A moderate breccia permeability (1 × 10,15 m2) results in a system with regionally extensive multiphase conditions. A relatively high breccia permeability (1 × 10,14 m2) results in a system dominated by warm-water convection cells. The permeability of the crater breccia could have had any of these values at given depths and times during the hydrothermal system evolution as the sediments compacted. The simulations were not able to take into account transient permeability conditions, or equations of state that account for the salt content of seawater. Results suggest, however, that it is likely that steam conditions existed at some time in the system following impact, providing additional evidence that is consistent with a hydrothermal origin for the crater brine. [source]

    Foreword to Special Section: Groundwater in Africa

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2010
    Kenneth R. Bradbury
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Review of the Integrated Groundwater and Surface-Water Model (IGSM)

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2003
    Eric M. LaBolle
    Development of the finite-element-based Integrated Groundwater and Surface-Water Model (IGSM) began in the 1970s. Its popularity grew in the early 1990s with its application to California's Central Valley Groundwater Surface-Water Model in support of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act. Since that time, IGSM has been applied by federal, state, and local agencies to model a number of major basins in California. Our review of the recently released version 5.0 of IGSM reveals a solution methodology that deviates from established solution techniques, potentially compromising its reliability under many circumstances. One difficulty occurs because of the semi-explicit time discretization used. Combined with the fixed monthly time step of IGSM, this approach can prevent applications from accurately converging when using parameter values typically found in nature. Additionally, IGSM fails to properly couple and simultaneously solve ground water and surface water models with appropriate mass balance and head convergence under the reasonable conditions considered herein. As a result, IGSM-predicted streamflow is error prone, and errors could exceed 100%. IGSM does not inform the user that there may be a convergence problem with the solution, but instead generally reports good mass balance. Although our review touches on only a few aspects of the code, which exceeds 17,000 lines, our experience is that similar problems arise in other parts of IGSM. Review and examples demonstrate the potential consequences of using the solution methods in IGSM for the prediction, planning, and management of water resources, and provide perspective on the roles of standards and code validation in ground water modeling. [source]

    The Occurrence and Persistence of MTBE in Groundwater in Windham, Maine, USA

    John M. Peckenham
    A study was conducted from July 1998 through November 2007 on the occurrence and distribution of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a large sand and gravel aquifer located in southern Maine. MTBE was detected in 44% of 129 water samples collected from monitoring wells in concentrations up to 38.7 µg/L (reporting limit = 0.1 µg/L). The number of wells with detectable quantities of MTBE declined slightly between 1999 and 2007, but in general MTBE persisted throughout the period of study. Overall, MTBE was detected more frequently in the shallow and more transmissive parts of the aquifer. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) for MTBE concentrations relative to nearby land uses. MTBE was detected in 83% of the samples collected from wells in low-density residential areas, in 50% of samples from urban areas, and in 60% of samples from undeveloped areas. The concentrations of MTBE in the test wells were compared across the sample dates for trends and seven wells had a positive trend (Mann,Kendall statistic), but none was significant at p < 0.05. Nine wells had a negative trend, but only one was significant at p < 0.05. Three wells had no trend. The absence of strong or even consistent trends indicates that MTBE persists in shallow groundwater, even after gasoline formulations were changed to reduce or eliminate MTBE. [source]

    Paleosols in Central Illinois as Potential Sources of Ammonium in Groundwater

    Justin J. G. Glessner
    Glacially buried paleosols of pre-Holocene age were evaluated as potential sources for anomalously large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater in East Central Illinois. Ammonium has been detected at concentrations that are problematic to water treatment facilities (greater than 2.0 mg/L) in this region. Paleosols characterized for this study were of Quaternary age, specifically Robein Silt samples. Paleosol samples displayed significant capacity to both store and release ammonium through experiments measuring processes of sorption, ion exchange, and weathering. Bacteria and fungi within paleosols may significantly facilitate the leaching of ammonium into groundwater by the processes of assimilation and mineralization. Bacterial genetic material (DNA) was successfully extracted from the Robein Silt, purified, and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to produce 16S rRNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) community analyses. The Robein Silt was found to have established diverse and viable bacterial communities. 16S rRNA TRFLP comparisons to well-known bacterial species yielded possible matches with facultative chemolithotrophs, cellulose consumers, nitrate reducers, and actinomycetes. It was concluded that the Robein Silt is both a source and reservoir for groundwater ammonium. Therefore, the occurrence of relatively large concentrations of ammonium in groundwater monitoring data may not necessarily be an indication of only anthropogenic contamination. The results of this study, however, need to be placed in a hydrological context to better understand whether paleosols can be a significant source of ammonium to drinking water supplies. [source]

    IHMS,Integrated Hydrological Modelling System.

    Part 2.
    Abstract The integrated hydrological modelling system, IHMS, has been described in detail in Part 1 of this paper. The system comprises three models: Distributed Catchment Scale Model (DiCaSM), MODFLOW (v96 and v2000) and SWI. The DiCaSM simulates different components of the unsaturated zone water balance, including groundwater recharge. The recharge output from DiCaSM is used as input to the saturated zone model MODFLOW, which subsequently calculates groundwater flows and head distributions. The main objectives of this paper are: (1) to show the way more accurate predictions of groundwater levels in two Cyprus catchments can be obtained using improved estimates of groundwater recharge from the catchment water balance, and (2) to demonstrate the interface utility that simulates communication between unsaturated and saturated zone models and allows the transmission of data between the two models at the required spatial and temporal scales. The linked models can be used to predict the impact of future climate change on surface and groundwater resources and to estimate the future water supply shortfall in the island up to 2050. The DiCaSM unsaturated zone model was successfully calibrated and validated against stream flows with reasonable values for goodness of fit as shown by the Nash-Sutcliffe criterion. Groundwater recharge obtained from the successful tests was applied at various spatial and temporal scales to the Kouris and Akrotiri catchments in Cyprus. These recharge values produced good estimates of groundwater levels in both catchments. Once calibrated, the model was run using a number of possible future climate change scenarios. The results showed that by 2050, groundwater and surface water supplies would decrease by 35% and 24% for Kouris and 20% and 17% for Akrotiri, respectively. The gap between water supply and demand showed a linear increase with time. The results suggest that IHMS can be used as an effective tool for water authorities and decision makers to help balance demand and supply on the island. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Estimation of mean residence times of subsurface waters using seasonal variation in deuterium excess in a small headwater catchment in Japan

    Naoki Kabeya
    Abstract We measured deuterium excess (d = ,D , 8,18O) in throughfall, groundwater, soil water, spring water, and stream water for 3 years in a small headwater catchment (Matsuzawa, 0·68 ha) in the Kiryu Experimental Watershed in Japan. The d value represents a kinetic effect produced when water evaporates. The d value of the throughfall showed a sinusoidal change (amplitude: 6·9, relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (V-SMOW)) derived from seasonal changes in the source of water vapour. The amplitude of this sinusoidal change was attenuated to 1·3,6·9, V-SMOW in soil water, groundwater, spring water, and stream water. It is thought that these attenuations derive from hydrodynamic transport processes in the subsurface and mixing processes at an outflow point (stream or spring) or a well. The mean residence time (MRT) of water was estimated from d value variations using an exponential-piston flow model and a dispersion model. MRTs for soil water were 0,5 months and were not necessarily proportional to the depth. This may imply the existence of bypass flow in the soil. Groundwater in the hillslope zone had short residence times, similar to those of the soil water. For groundwater in the saturated zone near the spring outflow point, the MRTs differed between shallow and deeper groundwater; shallow groundwater had a shorter residence time (5,8 months) than deeper groundwater (more than 9 months). The MRT of stream water (8,9 months) was between that of shallow groundwater near the spring and deeper groundwater near the spring. The seasonal variation in the d value of precipitation arises from changes in isotopic water vapour composition associated with seasonal activity of the Asian monsoon mechanism. The d value is probably an effective tracer for estimating the MRT of subsurface water not only in Japan, but also in other East Asian countries influenced by the Asian monsoon. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Groundwater,surface water interactions in a large semi-arid floodplain: implications for salinity management

    Sébastien Lamontagne
    Abstract Flow regulation and water diversion for irrigation have considerably impacted the exchange of surface water between the Murray River and its floodplains. However, the way in which river regulation has impacted groundwater,surface water interactions is not completely understood, especially in regards to the salinization and accompanying vegetation dieback currently occurring in many of the floodplains. Groundwater,surface water interactions were studied over a 2 year period in the riparian area of a large floodplain (Hattah,Kulkyne, Victoria) using a combination of piezometric surface monitoring and environmental tracers (Cl,, ,2H, and ,18O). Despite being located in a local and regional groundwater discharge zone, the Murray River is a losing stream under low flow conditions at Hattah,Kulkyne. The discharge zone for local groundwater, regional groundwater and bank recharge is in the floodplain within ,1 km of the river and is probably driven by high rates of transpiration by the riparian Eucalyptus camaldulensis woodland. Environmental tracers data suggest that the origin of groundwater is principally bank recharge in the riparian zone and a combination of diffuse rainfall recharge and localized floodwater recharge elsewhere in the floodplain. Although the Murray River was losing under low flows, bank discharge occurred during some flood recession periods. The way in which the water table responded to changes in river level was a function of the type of stream bank present, with point bars providing a better connection to the alluvial aquifer than the more common clay-lined banks. Understanding the spatial variability in the hydraulic connection with the river channel and in vertical recharge following inundations will be critical to design effective salinity remediation strategies for large semi-arid floodplains. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-term final void salinity prediction for a post-mining landscape in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia

    Dr G. R. Hancock
    Abstract Opencast mining alters surface and subsurface hydrology of a landscape both during and post-mining. At mine closure, following opencast mining in mines with low overburden to coal ratios, a void is left in the final landform. This final void is the location of the active mine pit at closure. Voids are generally not infilled within the mines' lifetime, because of the prohibitive cost of earthwork operations, and they become post-mining water bodies or pit lakes. Water quality is a significant issue for pit lakes. Groundwater within coal seams and associated rocks can be saline, depending on the nature of the strata and groundwater circulation patterns. This groundwater may be preferentially drawn to and collected in the final void. Surface runoff to the void will not only collect salts from rainfall and atmospheric fallout, but also from the ground surface and the weathering of fresh rock. As the void water level rises, its evaporative surface area increases, concentrating salts that are held in solution. This paper presents a study of the long term, water quality trends in a post-mining final void in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia. This process is complex and occurs long term, and modelling offers the only method of evaluating water quality. Using available geochemical, climate and hydrogeological data as inputs into a mass-balance model, water quality in the final void was found to increase rapidly in salinity through time (2452 to 8909 mg l,1 over 500 years) as evaporation concentrates the salt in the void and regional groundwater containing high loads of salt continues to flow into the void. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A look inside ,black box' hydrograph separation models: a study at the Hydrohill catchment

    Carol Kendall
    Abstract Runoff sources and dominant flowpaths are still poorly understood in most catchments; consequently, most hydrograph separations are essentially ,black box' models where only external information is used. The well-instrumented 490 m2 Hydrohill artificial grassland catchment located near Nanjing (China) was used to examine internal catchment processes. Since groundwater levels never reach the soil surface at this site, two physically distinct flowpaths can unambiguously be defined: surface and subsurface runoff. This study combines hydrometric, isotopic and geochemical approaches to investigating the relations between the chloride, silica, and oxygen isotopic compositions of subsurface waters and rainfall. During a 120 mm storm over a 24 h period in 1989, 55% of event water input infiltrated and added to soil water storage; the remainder ran off as infiltration-excess overland flow. Only about 3,5% of the pre-event water was displaced out of the catchment by in-storm rainfall. About 80% of the total flow was quickflow, and 10% of the total flow was pre-event water, mostly derived from saturated flow from deeper soils. Rain water with high ,18O values from the beginning of the storm appeared to be preferentially stored in shallow soils. Groundwater at the end of the storm shows a wide range of isotopic and chemical compositions, primarily reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the new and mixed pore waters. High chloride and silica concentrations in quickflow runoff derived from event water indicate that these species are not suitable conservative tracers of either water sources or flowpaths in this catchment. Determining the proportion of event water alone does not constrain the possible hydrologic mechanisms sufficiently to distinguish subsurface and surface flowpaths uniquely, even in this highly controlled artificial catchment. We reconcile these findings with a perceptual model of stormflow sources and flowpaths that explicitly accounts for water, isotopic, and chemical mass balance. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A two-dimensional analytical solution for groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water

    Zhonghua Tang
    Abstract Groundwater in coastal areas is commonly disturbed by tidal fluctuations. A two-dimensional analytical solution is derived to describe the groundwater fluctuation in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water under the assumption that the groundwater head in the confined aquifer fluctuates in response to sea tide whereas that of the overlying unconfined aquifer remains constant. The analytical solution presented here is an extension of the solution by Sun for two-dimensional groundwater flow in a confined aquifer and the solution by Jiao and Tang for one-dimensional groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer. The analytical solution is compared with a two-dimensional finite difference solution. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head distribution in a leaky confined aquifer in response to tidal boundaries is examined and the influence of leakage on groundwater fluctuation is discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Valuing groundwater recharge through agricultural production in the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands in northern Nigeria

    Gayatri Acharya
    Production function approach; Valuation; Wetlands; Groundwater recharge; Ecosystem function Abstract This study applies a production function approach to value the groundwater recharge function of the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands in northern Nigeria. The groundwater recharge function supports dry season agricultural production which is dependent on groundwater abstraction for irrigation. Using survey data this paper first carries out an economic valuation of agricultural production, per hectare of irrigated land. We then value the recharge function as an environmental input into the dry season agricultural production and derive appropriate welfare change measures. Welfare change is calculated using the estimated production functions and hypothetical changes in groundwater recharge and hence, groundwater levels. By focusing on agricultural production dependent solely on groundwater resources from the shallow aquifer, this study establishes that the groundwater recharge function of the wetlands is of significant importance for the floodplain. [source]

    Comparative assessment of the water balance and hydrology of selected Ethiopian and Kenyan Rift Lakes

    Tenalem Ayenew
    Abstract The study area is part of the East African Rift system, characterized by a cluster of lakes occupying an extremely faulted rift floor with geothermal manifestations. Some of the lakes illustrated contrasting water levels and size evolution over the last few decennia, believed to have been caused by various natural and anthropogenic factors. The relative importance of these factors, however, is unknown. This study attempts to present the hydrology of the lakes in a broader context, by giving more emphasis to lake water level fluctuations and to the water balance. These factors have far-reaching implications in regard to future management of the lake basin water. It also provides information on the relation of the groundwater with the lakes, and with the local and regional groundwater flow system from the adjacent highlands to the floor of the Rift. The methods utilized in this study include conventional hydrogeological field surveys, and hydrometeorological and data analyses, coupled with digital image processing and spatial analysis under a Geographic Information System environment. Ancillary supporting information has been obtained from environmental isotopes and hydrochemical data. The study results indicate the terminal Ethiopian lakes changed in size and water level significantly over the last half century. In contrast, the Kenyan lakes only exhibited slight changes. The lakes in both countries exhibit a striking similarity in their subsurface hydraulic connection, and are strongly governed by complex rift geological structures. Groundwater plays a vital role in the water balance of the study lakes. The study results indicate that future sustainable use of the study lakes demands that serious attention be given to the role of the groundwater component of the lake water balances. [source]

    Investigating the in situ degradation of atrazine in groundwater,

    Robert Pearson
    Abstract This study focused on whether or not atrazine could be degraded by indigenous groundwater bacteria as part of an in situ remediation approach. Groundwater was taken from an unconfined middle upper chalk site where concentrations of atrazine and nitrate were typically in the ranges 0.02,0.2 µg litre,1 and 11.6,25.1 mg NO3 -N litre,1 respectively. Sacrificial batch studies were performed using this groundwater spiked with atrazine at a concentration of 10 µg litre,1 in conjunction with a minimal mineral salts liquid (Glu-MMSL) medium which contained glucose as the sole carbon source. Treatments comprised either the Glu-MMSL groundwater cultured bacteria or Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Results from sacrificial batches indicated the occurrence of bacterial growth and denitrification as monitored by optical density (absorbance at 600 nm) and NO3 -N content. Analysis of atrazine content by solid phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography showed no degradation of atrazine over a period of 103 days in either treatment. These results indicated that no acclimatised bacterial community featuring positive degraders to the herbicide atrazine had become established within this chalk aquifer in response to the trace levels encountered. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    In situ remediation of PCE at a site with clayey lithology and a significant smear zone

    REMEDIATION, Issue 3 2010
    Josephine Molin
    Groundwater at the former Serry's Dry Cleaning site in Corvallis, Oregon, was impacted by chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The primary CVOCs impacting the site include tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, which were detected at concentrations up to 22,000, 1,700, 3,100, and 7 ,g/L, respectively, prior to treatment. Large seasonal fluctuations in groundwater CVOC concentrations indicated that a significant fraction of the CVOC mass was present in the smear zone. Field-scale pilot tests were performed for the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality's Dry Cleaner Program to evaluate the performance of EHC® in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) technology. The pilot study involved evaluating field performance and physical distribution into low-permeability soil using basic Geoprobe® injection tooling. The testing results confirmed that bioremediation enhanced by ISCR supported long-term treatment at the site. This article describes the implementation and results of the tests. Performance data are available from a three-year period following the injections, allowing for a discussion about sustained performance and reagent longevity. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    TCE plume remediation via ISCR-enhanced bioremediation utilizing EHC® and KB-1®

    REMEDIATION, Issue 4 2008
    James G. D. Peale
    Groundwater below an operating manufacturing facility in Portland, Oregon, was impacted by chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), with concentrations indicative of a dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) release. The downgradient plume stretched under the adjacent Willamette River, intersecting zones of legacy impacts from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP). An evaluation of source-area and downgradient plume treatment remedies identified in situ bioremediation as most likely to be effective for the CVOC plume, while leaving the legacy impacts for other responsible parties. With multiple commercially available products to choose from, the team developed and implemented a bench test to identify the most appropriate technology, which was further evaluated in a field pilot study. The results of the testing demonstrated conclusively that bioremediation enhanced by in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) using EHC® and KB-1® was most appropriate for this site, providing outstanding results. The following describes the implementation and results of the tests. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Isotope applications in environmental investigations part II: Groundwater age dating and recharge processes, and provenance of sulfur and methane

    REMEDIATION, Issue 2 2003
    Julie K. Sueker
    Measurement of the isotopic composition of solids, solutes, gases, and water complement standard hydrogeological investigation techniques by providing information that may not otherwise be obtainable. Groundwater age estimates determined from the decay of radio-isotopes or from groundwater concentrations of anthropogenic gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are used to verify flow regimes and constrain or calibrate hydrologic flow models. Groundwater recharge rates are estimated by measuring the concentrations or activities of a variety of isotopes including 2H, 3H, 18O, and 36Cl. Excess sulfur causes salinization of water supplies and acidification of precipitation, surface water, and groundwater. The wide range of sulfur isotopic compositions exhibited by different sulfur species and sources allows the application of sulfur isotopes to trace sources and fate of sulfur in the environment. Methane is a ubiquitous gas that has economic value when located in extractable reservoirs. Methane is also a greenhouse gas and is a potential explosion and health hazard when it accumulates in buildings and water distribution systems. The carbon and hydrogen isotopic composition of methane can be used to determine the provenance of methane, distinguishing between thermogenic and biogenic sources. The addition of isotopic analyses to environmental investigations can be a cost-effective means of resolving intractable issues. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    The Use of Natural Systems to Remediate Groundwater: Department of Energy Experience at the Savannah River Site

    REMEDIATION, Issue 3 2002
    Gerald C. Blount
    Natural remediation is moving toward the forefront as engineers clean groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a major Department of Energy (DOE) installation near Aiken, South Carolina. This article reviews two successful, innovative remediation methods currently being deployed: biosparging to treat chlorinated solvents and phytoremediation to address tritium in groundwater. The biosparging system reintroduces oxygen into the groundwater and injects nutrient compounds for in-situ remediation. The system has greatly reduced the concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride in wells downgradient from a sanitary landfill (SLF). Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that promises effective and inexpensive cleanup of certain hazardous wastes. Using natural processes, plants can break down, trap and hold, or transpire contaminants. This article discusses the use of phytoremediation to reduce the discharge of tritium to an on-site stream at SRS. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals Inc.* [source]

    In-Situ and Ex-Situ Bioremediation Options for Treating Perchlorate in Groundwater

    REMEDIATION, Issue 2 2002
    Paul B. Hatzinger
    Perchlorate has been identified as a water contaminant in 14 states, including California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Texas, and current estimates suggest that the compound may affect the drinking water of as many as 15 million people. Biological treatment represents the most-favorable technology for the effective and economical removal of perchlorate from water. Biological fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) have been tested successfully at the pilot scale for perchlorate treatment at several sites, and two full-scale FBR systems are currently treating perchlorate-contaminated groundwater in California and Texas. A third full-scale treatment system is scheduled for start-up in early 2002. The in-situ treatment of perchlorate through addition of specific electron donors to groundwater also appears to hold promise as a bioremediation technology. Recent studies suggest that perchlorate-reducing bacteria are widely occurring in nature, including in groundwater aquifers, and that these organisms can be stimulated to degrade perchlorate to below the current analytical reporting limit (< 4 ,g/l) in many instances. In this article, in-situ and ex-situ options for biological treatment of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater are discussed and results from laboratory and field experiments are presented. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    A Case Study of the Beneficial Reuse of Treated Groundwater

    REMEDIATION, Issue 3 2001
    Andrew Curtis Elmore
    The future disposal of treated groundwater at the former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) Superfund site has been a topic of interest to the local property owners, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the local regulatory agencies. The Record of Decision for the site includes the extraction, treatment, and disposal of almost 3,000 gpm of groundwater with an estimated restoration time period exceeding 100 years. Interest from property owners and the Nebraska agency charged with regulating groundwater supply prompted the Corps of Engineers to consider several strategies for beneficially reusing the treated water. Alternatives included the establishment of a rural water district or local distribution system; delivery of the water to the municipal supply system of Lincoln, Nebraska, andsol;or other nearby municipalities; and consideration of innovative remedial technologies to reduce the quantity of treated water requiring disposal. The selected disposal plan consists of providing treated groundwater to interested parties for agricultural use with excess treated groundwater discharged to two streams. Multiple feasibility studies were generated, public input was solicited, and interagency agreements were executed during the course of the project. The remediation project is currently being constructed, and at least one property owner has constructed a new center-pivot irrigation system to use the treated groundwater. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons. [source]

    Treatment of Highly Contaminated Groundwater: A SITE Demonstration Project

    REMEDIATION, Issue 3 2001
    Daniel Sullivan
    From September through November 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a field demonstration of the remediation of highly contaminated groundwater at the Nascolite Superfund site located in Millville, New Jersey. Besides high concentrations of the major contaminant, methyl methacrylate (MMA), the groundwater also contained small amounts of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. ZenoGem® technology, an integrated bioreactor and ultrafiltration membrane system, was employed for this demonstration project. Approximately 30,000 gallons of groundwater containing MMA in concentrations of 567 to 9,500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values ranging from 1,490 to 19,600 mg/L was treated. The demonstration focused on the system's ability to remove MMA and reduce COD from the groundwater. Results of the three-month demonstration showed that average MMA and COD removal efficiencies were greater than 99.9 and 86.9, respectively. The total cost of treatment, depending on the duration of the project, is estimated to vary from $0.22 to $0.55 (in 1994 dollars) per gallon of groundwater treated. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons. [source]

    Use of Gold Nanoparticles in a Simple Colorimetric and Ultrasensitive Dynamic Light Scattering Assay: Selective Detection of Arsenic in Groundwater,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 51 2009
    Jhansi, Rani Kalluri
    Ganz wenig genügt: Der Gehalt von Arsen in Brunnenwasser in Bangladesh sowie in käuflichem Trinkwasser und in Leitungswasser im US-Staat Mississippi kann mithilfe eines Assays auf der Basis dynamischer Lichtstreuung (DLS) angezeigt werden. Die hochempfindliche und selektive colorimetrische Analyse (siehe Bild) weist Arsen in Konzentrationen von nur 3,ppt nach. [source]

    Limnological changes in a sub-tropical shallow hypertrophic lake during its restoration: two years of a whole-lake experiment

    F. Scasso
    Abstract 1.,Lake Rodó is a turbid system, a condition attributed to algal biomass. The proximal source of the eutrophication was stormwater discharges from an ill-defined urban area. This paper describes an attempt to restore the water quality of Lake Rodó, the first time this has been done in Uruguay. In spring 1996 it was drained, sediments were removed and stream inputs were diverted. Groundwater was used to re-fill the lake. Due to its high nutrient concentration a re-circulation system was designed, pumping water from associated pools covered with free-floating plants. 2.,After the lake was refilled, the system was characterized by oxygen saturation or over-saturation, neutral to basic pH, and high phosphorus, nitrogen and silicate concentrations. Ratios of total nitrogen (TN):total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (Chl a):TP indicated that phosphorus was the primary limiting nutrient during the period of groundwater supply. Once groundwater pumping had ceased, there was a decrease in TN:TP and Chl a:TP ratios, suggesting N-limiting conditions prevailed in some periods. 3.,Before restoration, the phytoplankton community was dominated year-round by Planktothrix agardhii; since restoration the community has been more diverse. This change has favoured grazing by mesozooplankton, and the onset of clear-water phases in spring. 4.,Abundant populations of small omnivorous fish maintained a high predation pressure on zooplankton, restricting the abundance of large-bodied herbivores, which, in turn, allowed an increase in phytoplanton biomass and a decrease in water transparency. Based on this observation, together with the phosphorus concentration and the low abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria compared with previous studies, we suggest that top-down control has played a key role in increasing transparency in Lake Rodó. 5.,A nutrient reduction programme, by the mechanical harvest of floating plants, and a removal of small omnivorous fishes and stocking strictly with piscivores, could be key factors in the achievement of a stable clear-water phase. However, if blooms of Microcystis or other similar genera occur in summer, additional measures (e.g. reduction of the hydraulic residence time) will be needed to improve water transparency. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Distribution of ,34S and ,18O in SO2,4 in Groundwater from the Ordos Cretaceous Groundwater Basin and Geological Implications

    Yuncheng YANG
    Abstract: The Ordos Cretaceous Groundwater Basin, located in an arid-semiarid area in northwestern China, is a large-style groundwater basin. SO2,4 is one of the major harmful components in groundwater. Dissolved SO2,4 concentrations, and ,34S-SO2,4 and ,18O-SO2,4 in groundwater from 14 boreholes and in gypsum from aquifer were analyzed. Results show that SO2,4 in shallow groundwaters originates from precipitation, sulfide oxidation, and dissolution of stratum sulphate, with a big range of ,34S values, from ,10.7, to 9.2,, and addition of SO2,4 in deep groundwater results from dissolution of stratum sulphate, with bigger ,34S values, from 7.8, to 18.5,, compared with those in shallow groundwater. This research also indicates that three types of sulphate are present in the strata, and characterized by high ,34S values and high ,18O values-style, high ,34S values and middle ,18O values-style, middle ,34S values and low ,18O values-style, respectively. The ,34S-SO2,4 and ,18O-SO2,4 in groundwater have a good perspective for application in distinguishing different groundwater systems and determining groundwater circulation and evolution in this area. [source]

    Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes of Waters in the Ordos Basin, China: Implications for Recharge of Groundwater in the North of Cretaceous Groundwater Basin

    Yuncheng YANG
    Abstract: Hundreds of precipitation samples collected from meteorological stations in the Ordos Basin from January 1988 to December 2005 were used to set up a local meteoric water line and to calculate weighted average isotopic compositions of modern precipitation. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes, with averages of ,7.8, and ,53.0, for ,18O and ,D, respectively, are depleted in winter and rich in spring, and gradually decrease in summer and fall, illustrating that the seasonal effect is considerable. They also show that the isotopic difference between south portion and north portion of the Ordos Basin are not obvious, and the isotope in the middle portion is normally depleted. The isotope compositions of 32 samples collected from shallow groundwater (less than a depth of 150 m) in desert plateau range from ,10.6, to ,6.0, with an average of ,8.4, for ,18O and from ,85, to ,46, with an average of ,63, for ,D. Most of them are identical with modern precipitation. The isotope compositions of 22 middle and deep groundwaters (greater than a depth of 275 m) fall in ranges from ,11.6, to ,8.8, with an average of ,10.2, for ,18O and from ,89, to ,63, with an average of ,76, for ,D. The average values are significantly less than those of modern precipitation, illustrating that the middle and deep groundwaters were recharged at comparatively lower air temperatures. Primary analysis of 14C shows that the recharge of the middle and deep groundwaters started at late Pleistocene. The isotopes of 13 lake water samples collected from eight lakes define a local evaporation trend, with a relatively flat slope of 3.77, and show that the lake waters were mainly fed by modern precipitation and shallow groundwater. [source]

    Meltwater discharge through the subglacial bed and its land-forming consequences from numerical experiments in the Polish lowland during the last glaciation

    Jan A. Piotrowski
    Abstract Numerical experiments suggest that the last glaciation severely affected the upper lithosphere groundwater system in NW Poland: primarily its flow pattern, velocities and fluxes. We have simulated subglacial groundwater flow in two and three spatial dimensions using finite difference codes for steady-state and transient conditions. The results show how profoundly the ice sheet modifies groundwater pressure heads beneath and some distance beyond the ice margin. All model runs show water discharge at the ice forefield driven by ice-sheet-thickness-modulated, down-ice-decreasing hydraulic heads. In relation to non-glacial times, the transient 3D model shows significant changes in the groundwater flow directions in a regionally extensive aquifer ca. 90 m below the ice,bed interface and up to 40 km in front of the glacier. Comparison with empirical data suggests that, depending on the model run, only between 5 and 24% of the meltwater formed at the ice sole drained through the bed as groundwater. This is consistent with field observations documenting abundant occurrence of tunnel valleys, indicating that the remaining portion of basal meltwater was evacuated through a channelized subglacial drainage system. Groundwater flow simulation suggests that in areas of very low hydraulic conductivity and adverse subglacial slopes water ponding at the ice sole was likely. In these areas the relief shows distinct palaeo-ice lobes, indicating fast ice flow, possibly triggered by the undrained water at the ice,bed interface. Owing to the abundance of low-permeability strata in the bed, the simulated groundwater flow depth is less than ca. 200 m. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Modelling the hysteresis in the velocity pattern of slow-moving earth flows: the role of excess pore pressure

    T. W. J. van Asch
    Abstract This paper describes the velocity pattern of a slow-moving earth flow containing a viscous shear band and a more or less rigid landslide body on top. In the case of small groundwater fluctuations, Bingham's law may describe the velocity of these slow-moving landslides, with velocity as a linear function of excess shear stress. Many authors have stated that in most cases a non-linear version of Bingham's law best describes the moving pattern of these earth flows. However, such an exponential relationship fails to describe the hysteresis loop of the velocity, which was found by some authors. These authors showed that the velocity of the investigated earth flows proved to be higher during the rising limb of the groundwater than during the falling limb. To explain the hysteris loop in the velocity pattern, this paper considers the role of excess pore pressure in the rheological behaviour of earth flows by means of a mechanistic model. It describes changes in lateral internal stresses due to a change in the velocity of the earth flow, which generates excess pore pressure followed by pore pressure dissipation. Model results are compared with a hysteresis in the velocity pattern, which was measured on the Valette landslide complex (French Alps). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]